心理学报, 2018, 50(8): 907-919 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00907

研究报告

自强还是自嘲?名人代言如何提升社会化媒体广告的营销效果

黄敏学1, 姚舜禹,1, 刘茂红2

1 武汉大学 经济与管理学院 市场营销与旅游管理系, 武汉 430072

2 武汉科技大学 管理学院, 武汉 430081

Self-enhancing or self-deprecating: How can celebrity endorsement enhance the marketing effectiveness of advertisements in social media

HUANG Minxue1, YAO Shunyu,1, LIU Maohong2

1 Department of Marketing and Tourism Management, Economics and Management School, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China

2 Management School, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China

通讯作者: 姚舜禹, E-mail: 2239573885@qq.com

收稿日期: 2017-08-30   网络出版日期: 2018-08-07

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金.  71372127
国家自然科学基金(71672132)资助.  

Received: 2017-08-30   Online: 2018-08-07

摘要

企业为了促进产品推广, 不惜重金聘请名人为产品代言。已有的文献主要探究名人代言的自强型模式, 很少研究名人代言的自嘲型的表达方式。本文则基于社会影响理论和产品差异理论探究了两种类型名人代言在不同产品情境下对消费者口碑推荐的影响。通过二手数据分析和实验法研究发现:自强型的名人代言更有利于提升消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐; 自嘲型的名人代言更有利于提升消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐; 自强型的名人代言主要是通过强化其规范性影响, 进而增强消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐; 自嘲型的名人代言主要是通过强化其信息性影响, 进而增强消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐。

关键词: 名人代言 ; 产品类型 ; 规范性影响 ; 信息性影响 ; 口碑推荐

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed the increasing prevalence of celebrity endorsement as advertising in China. The reason for this increased prevalence is that celebrity endorsements can boost the credibility and attractiveness of advertisements and therefore lead to increased profits for companies in most cases. In the social media environment, the influence of celebrities is amplified remarkably by the following of their fans. Previous studies have demonstrated that the effect of celebrity endorsements is mostly positive or self-enhancing. However, this effect does not always apply in social media platforms. For example, several celebrity endorsements actually contain self-deprecating content. In this study, we explored the role of self-enhancement and self-deprecation in celebrity endorsement effectiveness and examined their impact on consumers’ intent to share. Furthermore, we introduce the moderating effect of product types, namely, whether a product is utilitarian or hedonic.

To obtain preliminary insights, we collected 86 micro-blog posts with celebrity endorsements and coded them as either self-enhancing or self-deprecating posts. Analysis of secondary data showed that consumers shared numerous self-enhancing celebrity endorsement posts with regard to hedonic products, and consumers shared many self-deprecating celebrity endorsement posts with regard to utilitarian products.

Subsequently, we conducted laboratory studies to validate our hypothesis further. First, we performed a robust test on the effect of different celebrity endorsements on consumers’ intent to share. The results of the two types of celebrity endorsements (self-enhancing and self-deprecating) indicated the effect of self-deprecating celebrity endorsement on consumers’ intent to share was stronger than that of self-enhancing celebrity endorsement. Second, we examined the interactive effect of celebrity endorsements and product types and the mediating role of social influence. As expected, the 2 (celebrity endorsements: self-enhancing vs. self-deprecating) × 2 (product types: utilitarian vs. hedonic) subject design experiment suggested that participants in the utilitarian product condition were willing to share self-deprecating content, and this effect was caused by informative influence. On the contrary, participants in the hedonic product condition were willing to share self-enhancing content, and this effect was driven by normative influence.

Our research contributes to literature on celebrity endorsement in social media by focusing on consumers’ sharing intention rather than purchase behavior. First, this research explores whether self-deprecating celebrity endorsement can strengthen consumers’ intent to share or not. Second, this study provides a new perspective on celebrity endorsement by differentiating its content into two types: self-enhancing and self-deprecating. Third, this research examines the impact of product difference in celebrity advertisement. It reveals that consumers in different product conditions might share different celebrity endorsement advertisements. Finally, we demonstrated the mediation mechanism of the interaction between celebrity endorsement and product type by examining consumers’ sharing intention. Aside from this empirical demonstration, our research also presents many useful implications for companies with regard to the design of celebrity endorsement.

Keywords: celebrity endorsement ; product types ; normative influence ; informative influence ; word of mouth

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本文引用格式

黄敏学, 姚舜禹, 刘茂红. 自强还是自嘲?名人代言如何提升社会化媒体广告的营销效果[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(8): 907-919 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00907

HUANG Minxue, YAO Shunyu, LIU Maohong. Self-enhancing or self-deprecating: How can celebrity endorsement enhance the marketing effectiveness of advertisements in social media[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(8): 907-919 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00907

1 问题提出

名人代言是企业最广泛采用的广告方式, 名人可以帮助企业的产品和服务在行业中脱颖而出(Newman, Diesendruck, & Bloom, 2011; Bergkvist, Hjalmarson, & Mägi, 2016)。企业为突出产品的差异化价值, 会为新产品设计不同的广告进行推广(Delre, Broekhuizen, & Bijmolt, 2016)。以往关于名人广告的研究大多以传统媒体作为载体, 传统媒体准入门槛高, 并且制作过程需要得到相关部门的许可, 因此传统的名人广告大多通过彰显自身的高 社会影响力和权威性(自强型代言)进行营销传播(Dwivedi, Johnson, & Mcdonald, 2016)。有些企业借此建立了良好的品牌形象(如香奈儿五号香水:瞬间的华彩, 永恒的余韵, 与我一起定义优雅!), 但也有企业未达到宣传预期(如德国博朗:不凡的男人, 既要懂得蛰伏, 更要懂得出手的好时机, 我为巅峰出手!)。为此, 很多名人反其道而行之, 利用社会化媒体低门槛、分散化、扁平化的特点, 通过自我嘲讽来拉近和消费者的心理距离(自嘲型代言), 利用自身的粉丝网络提升传播效果(Gong & Li, 2017)。有些企业受益于这种代言方式(如广汽本田:从微博招贴小广告我一路走来, 用浮夸的广告文案和做作的表演方式骗来了一叠又一叠的点击量。记得要去锋范快闪店, 体验我的亲自上阵!), 但有些企业采用此种代言方式却是弄巧成拙(如KFC现磨冰咖啡:经验, 没有; 外语, 一点点; 会软件吗?我超软的。我就是欠“K”啊!冷冷滴喝, 原滋原味!)。那么, 相对于自强型名人代言, (自嘲型名人代言)这种看似与正面口碑传播相矛盾的代言方式, 到底是“弄巧成拙”, 还是“妙笔生辉”?

人际沟通的表达风格分为自嘲型和自强型(Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, & Weir, 2003), 社会化媒体中名人代言的表达风格也具有相似的特性(Kozinets, Valck, Wojnicki, & Wilner., 2010)。早期研究大多关注正面的名人形象能否带来积极的品牌传播, 即自强型名人代言, 却少有研究将名人代言和自嘲型的表达风格结合在一起讨论。自强型代言主要是通过夸大自身的吸引力、专业水平和被信任感, 来提升自身的权威性和社会影响力(Roobina, 1990), 利用名人的晕轮效应来提升营销效果(Newman et al., 2011); 而自嘲型代言是通过自我贬低的方式来拉近和被影响者之间的心理距离(Gong & Li, 2017), 创造一种亲近、平等的表达形式, 让被影响者的注意力转移到产品上, 进而促进品牌推广。为什么这两种截然相反的表达方式都能产生良好的社会影响效果呢?已有文献提及过这两种人际沟通模式, 但是对这两种名人代言方式对不同产品的影响机制缺乏系统而深入的研究。根据社会影响理论, 社会影响分为规范性影响和信息性影响, 名人的社会影响也是如此(Christophe & Stefan, 2007; Iyengar, Bulte, & Lee, 2015)。我们认为, 对于自强型名人代言, 它启动的是规范性社会影响, 即通过强调自身的社会身份, 来发挥其权威性和影响力; 而自嘲型名人代言, 启动的是信息性社会影响, 即通过降低名人的身份感、淡化其晕轮效应, 增强消费者对名人传播的信息的关注。另一方面, 考虑到不同的产品也存在不同的社会影响机制(Iyengar et al., 2015), 享乐型产品主要受到规范性影响的内在促进机制, 实用型产品主要受到信息性影响的内在促进机制, 因此我们认为产品类型与名人代言风格存在交互作用。

综上, 本研究以社会化媒体中的名人代言为切入点, 引入产品类型作为调节变量, 验证名人代言和产品类型匹配对消费者口碑推荐的影响, 并深度挖掘自嘲型和自强型名人代言对消费者口碑推荐的内在作用机制, 试图探究名人代言风格的社会影响机制及其作用边界条件。图1为研究模型图。

图1

图1   研究模型图


1.1 名人代言

名人代言指名人在履行和企业的商业契约过程中, 借助广告向公众传播产品或服务的价值(Eisend & Langner, 2010)。名人代言能为企业带来差异化竞争优势, 源于消费者认为名人代言的产品具有更高的功能价值和社会价值(Newman et al., 2011)。同时, 当名人属性和品牌属性的匹配程度较高时, 更能显著提升名人广告的传播效果(Mittelstaedt, Riesz, & Burns, 2000)。

根据自我展示和表达风格, 名人代言可分为自强型和自嘲型(Martin et al., 2003; Kozinets et al., 2010)。自强型表达风格是通过夸张自身的吸引力、专业水准等方式, 提升自身的被信任感和社会影响力(Angelis, Bonezzi, Peluso, Rucker, & Costabile, 2012), 自嘲型表达风格是通过对自己开玩笑的方式, 创造一种平等的人际关系(Gong & Li, 2017; 朱华伟, 张艳艳, 龚璇, 2017)。有研究表明自强型名人代言能为企业创造巨大的经济价值和社会价值(Chung, Derdenger, & Srinivasan, 2013; Mishra, Roy, & Bailey, 2015)。也有学者认为名人采用自我嘲讽的表达方式, 能带来有利的口碑传播价值(Chen, Chang, Besherat, & Baack, 2013; Chung & Cho, 2017)。社会影响理论指出, 意见领袖对消费者的影响, 根据权威属性和亲社会关系的差异, 会呈现出规范性影响和信息性影响(Iyengar et al., 2015)。受传统媒体的限制, 以往的研究仅论证了自强型名人代言能带来更高的商业价值(Carrillat, D'Astous, & Christianis, 2014; Sääksjärvi, Hellén, & Balabanis, 2016), 却很少关注自嘲型的亲社会表达行为产生的社会影响。对这两种表达风格的传播效果, 缺乏一致性的研究结论。有研究指出, 名人广告能有效影响消费者对不同产品的品牌态度(Luo, Chen, Han, & Park, 2010)。因此本文试图探究名人代言风格与产品类型的匹配对消费者口碑推荐的影响。

1.2 实用型与享乐型产品

实用型产品指能满足消费者特定任务或生活必需的产品, 如硬盘、洗发水等(Simona & Mcgill, 2011)。实用主义的购买动机表明, 消费者获得的利益取决于产品能否为他完成计划内的任务, 消费者会对符合或超出自身功利性诉求的产品感到满意(Chitturi, Raghunathan, & Mahajan, 2008; Baltas, Kokkinaki, & Loukopoulou, 2017)。因此消费者在选择实用型产品时, 会更加注重产品功能、价值等维度(Ran & Zheng, 2017)。

享乐型产品指能满足消费者内在情感需求的产品, 如电影、巧克力等(Anthony, Juliano, & Chris, 2014)。享乐主义的购买动机表明, 消费者获得的利益源于购物体验过程产生的愉悦感, 消费者会乐于寻求幸福、幻想和享受的体验(Moore, 2015; Yang, Gu, & Galak, 2016)。因此享乐型决策行为会更感性, 决策时间更短, 并更注重产品的外观、愉悦性等特点(Yim, Yoo, Sauer, & Seo, 2014)。

消费者对不同消费行为的可辩解性和属性认定存在差异, 可辩解性指消费者会为自己的行为进行辩护, 寻找合适的消费理由(Chen, Lee, & Yap, 2017)。消费理由的建立过程是基于对产品的属性认定, 实用型消费由产品的信息属性驱动, 享乐型消费由产品的体验属性和自身的一致性需要驱动(Crowley, Spangenberg, & Kevin, 1992)。社会影响理论指出, 规范性影响能驱动消费者的一致性需要, 信息性影响能驱动消费者的准确性需要(Christophe & Stefan, 2007), 因此我们认为, 实用型产品更多通过信息性影响传播价值, 享乐型产品更多通过规范性影响传播价值。同时, 自强型名人代言能够激发一致性的影响模式, 驱动消费者的情感判别思维(Newman et al., 2011), 自嘲型名人代言更够激发信息性的影响模式, 驱动消费者的信息判别思维(Gong & Li, 2017)。基于以上讨论, 我们认为名人代言和产品的匹配存在交互效应。并提出如下假设:

H1a:相对于实用型产品, 名人采取自强型的广告代言, 能让消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐意愿更高。

H1b:相对于享乐型产品, 名人采取自嘲型的广告代言, 能让消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐意愿更高。

1.3 社会影响

社会影响指被影响者因触到影响者的采用信息后而产生态度或行为的改变, 它主要从两个方面影响被影响者:规范性影响和信息性影响(Christophe & Stefan, 2007)。规范性影是指已采用者产生的规范性压力, 被影响者会通过采用和其他个体或群体一致的行为, 来减弱这种规范性压力(Zsolt, Peter, & Miklos, 2011)。社会规范强调被影响者和影响者间的一致性, 主要是为了保持一种更近的社会关系, 而表现出的一种价值认同和行为顺从(Iyengar et al., 2015)。而且高权威性的群体对被影响者产生的规范性影响会更强, 这种影响也会因产品的不同产生差异(Christophe & Stremersch, 2004)。信息性影响, 强调消费者把他人当作一种信息性的来源, 而不是对权威人士的一种顺从心理(Iyengar et al., 2015)。消费者可以通过和他人无意识的谈论或行为观察, 掌握更多产品相关的信息。信息性影响主要表现在两个方面:第一, 消费者对产品或服务的深层次认知; 第二, 即使消费者获取的不是最新或已知信息, 但是过程中产生的信息性影响能够让消费者确认已有信息的合理性, 减少消费决策的不确定性(Du & Kamakura, 2011)。

以往的研究验证了社会影响在名人代言、网络社区等领域存在的真实性(Iyengar, Bulte, & Thomas, 2011)。Newman等学者(2011)指出名人代言主要是通过夸大自身的专业素质和吸引力, 利用本身的晕轮效应, 让消费者产生试图和名人保持高度一致性的心理特征, 结合享乐型消费的冲动购买、行为跟随的特点(Hazari, Bergiel, & Sethna, 2017)。我们认为自强型代言方式能够强化规范性影响, 增强消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐。另一方面, 权威人士采用自嘲的表达方式能够增强沟通中的亲近感和公平感(Hoption, Barling, & Turner, 2013), 消费者会把名人当作一种信息性的来源, 结合实用型消费的产品考量、价值需要的特点(Simona & Mcgill, 2011), 我们认为自嘲型代言方式能够强化信息性影响, 增强消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐。基于以上讨论, 我们提出如下假设:

H2a:名人采用自强型广告代言, 更能强化其规范性影响, 进而增强消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐。

H2b:名人采用自嘲型广告代言, 更能强化其信息性影响, 进而增强消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐。

2 研究1:名人代言对不同产品的影响作用探讨

研究1旨在探究不同类型名人代言(自嘲型/自强型)的有效性, 以及消费者在不同类型产品(实用型/享乐型)上口碑推荐的差异, 为本研究提供二手数据的支持。

2.1 数据收集

针对名人代言和口碑推荐, 本研究选择了拥有大量名人广告的社交媒体平台“新浪微博”作为数据源。为了保证二手数据的稳定性, 本研究选择2016年为参考时间点, 在新浪微博中抓取了2016年度微博风云排行榜前十位的名人发布的所有帖子, 包括每条帖子对应的标题、内容、发布时间、转发量、评论量和点赞量数据。我们随机选取某一位名人在2015~2017年度发布的所有与产品代言相关的帖子作为研究样本。选择新浪微博作为研究数据源, 不仅是出于对数据时效性的考虑; 而且也有研究表明微博等社交媒体的点赞、评论或者转发行为可以一定程度上反应出消费者的口碑推荐意愿(Hung, Chan, & Tse, 2011; Gong & Li, 2017)。

本研究根据文本分析与编码的方式将研究样本中自嘲型代言微博和自强型代言微博区分开来, 由于涉及到语义情感分析以及个人感知, 本研究分别找了另外4名不熟悉实验目的的研究者来帮助判别名人代言类型。接着, 我们借鉴以往在心理学、行为科学、经济科学等领域针对实用型产品和享乐型产品的研究(Vinerean, Opreana, Cetina, & Dumitrescu, 2015; Hazari et al., 2017), 将抓取的代言广告中的产品加以区分, 实用型产品例如海飞丝去屑洗发水、中兴手机、六神驱蚊花露水、膳魔师运动水杯等, 享乐型产品例如欧舒丹化妆品、死神手游、睿嫣润膏、奥利奥巧克力饼干等。

根据分类结果, 我们共计保留86条名人代言帖子。不同类型的帖子的名人代言广告内容和数量统计如表1表2所示。

表1   名人广告类型与产品类型交叉表

名人代言类型 产品类型 代言广告帖子数量
自强型 实用型 15
自强型 享乐型 14
自嘲型 实用型 31
自嘲型 享乐型 26

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表2   名人代言广告举例

品牌 产品类型 名人代言类型 名人代言广告内容
惠氏健康生活馆 实用型 自嘲型 其实我在微博的工种..就相当于一个在天桥底下贴小广告的..从2010年蹲点贴到2016..无论人流量大小年复一年坚持不懈的作风终于让我在今年迎来了大广告的青睐..感谢善存敢信任我这个神经病...在我婉约的表演里只是期望你能明白这个道理..其实..健康可以很简单..
佳能相机 实用型 自强型 我选择的这款相机是Canon M3, 我做摄影的用心程度, 和音乐不相上下, 希望大家, 能够喜欢这款相机
问道手游 享乐型 自嘲型 我那不和谐的古装造型..和硬炒的求婚话题有没有恶心到你..反正我是恶心到了..为何现在代言营销要这么拼?因为十年的坚持还不够他臭屁的啊~ 我的十年音乐梦 问道十年游戏梦...坚持信念.. 坚持梦..
梦幻西游 享乐型 自强型 这则广告让我绞尽脑汁..重操旧业..我画了整整8个小时手绘一张海报帮其做广告之用心程度也是史无前者后继无人了..这世界上..应该是没有再比我用心打广告的人了..期望大家..给点面子..踊跃参与..

注:此处仅列举部分名人代言广告内容

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2.2 数据分析

2.2.1 自强型和自嘲型名人代言对口碑推荐的影响

通过筛选, 我们区分了39种产品包含自强型代言和自嘲型代言的帖子, 首先比较两种帖子在点赞量、评论量和转发量上的差异, 方差分析结果如图2所示。

图2

图2   自嘲型/自强型名人代言对消费者口碑推荐的影响


结果发现, 无论是在点赞量(M自嘲型 = 430539.59, M自强型 = 355417.86, F(1, 86) = 1.18, p = 0.28)、评论量(M自嘲型 = 53163.16, M自强型 = 46067.55, F(1, 86) = 0.48, p = 0.49)还是转发量(M自嘲型 = 33264.95, M自强型 = 38982.83, F(1, 86) = 0.44, p = 0.51)上, 自嘲型和自强型名人代言的帖子均无显著性差异。可见, 自嘲型和自强型的名人代言均能引起消费者的互动和转发。因此, 我们继续引入产品类型作为调节变量, 探究在不同类型名人代言和不同类型产品的匹配关系下, 消费者对口碑推荐是否存在显著性差异。

2.2.2 名人代言类型和产品类型的交互作用

为了进一步探究自嘲型和自强型名人代言效果的差异, 我们以“点赞量”、“评论量”和“转发量”为因变量, 将“名人代言类型”和“产品类型”作为固定因子, 用单因素F检验的方法来检验调节效应。

多变量回归分析结果如表3所示, 可见名人广告类型和产品类型的匹配关系在点赞量(调整后R12 = 0.17, F(1,86) = 17.40, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.18)、评论量(调整后R22 = 0.106, F(1,86) = 12.156, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.13)和转发量(调整后R32 = 0.118, F(1,86) = 13.83, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.14)上交互作用均显著, 说明产品类型对名人广告和消费者口碑推荐之间存在显著调节作用。分组的均值效应分析显示(如图3所示), 自嘲型名人代言无论是在点赞量(M实用型 = 541844.74 > M享乐型 = 297829.61; F(1,57) = 9.195, p = 0.004)、评论量(M实用型 = 65969.38 > M享乐型 = 37894.19; F(1,57) = 5.196, p = 0.027)还是转发量(M实用型 = 41998.80 > M享乐型 = 22851.50; F(1,57) = 5.594, p = 0.022)上, 消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐均显著高于享乐型产品。同时, 自强型名人代言无论是在点赞量 (M实用型 = 218236 < M享乐型 = 502398.42; F(1,29) = 12.543, p = 0.001)、评论量(M实用型 = 27151.4 < M享乐型 = 66334.86; F(1,29) = 10.663, p = 0.003)还是转发量(M实用型 = 19326.07 < M享乐型 = 60043.64; F(1,29) = 6.383, p = 0.018)上, 消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐均显著高于实用型产品。二手数据结果支持假设H1a和H1b。

图3

图3   名人广告类型与产品类型的交互对消费者口碑推荐的影响


表3   多变量回归

来源 因变量 III 类平方和 自由度 均方 F p
名人代言类型 点赞量 6.79E+10 1 6.79E+10 0.88 0.350
评论量 5.16E+08 1 5.16E+08 0.29 0.592
转发量 1.01E+09 1 1.01E+09 0.81 0.370
产品类型 点赞量 7.72E+09 1 7.72E+09 0.10 0.752
评论量 5.91E+08 1 5.91E+08 0.33 0.566
转发量 2.23E+09 1 2.23E+09 1.80 0.184
名人代言类型×
产品类型
点赞量 1.34E+12 1 1.34E+12 17.40 <0.001
评论量 2.17E+10 1 2.17E+10 12.16 0.001
转发量 1.72E+10 1 1.72E+10 13.83 <0.001

注:R12 = 0.196 (调整后R12 = 0.167); R22 = 0.137 (调整后R22 = 0.106); R32 = 0.149 (调整后R32 = 0.118)

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2.3 结果讨论

本研究通过二手数据分析发现:为提高消费者对广告口碑推荐, 企业会采取不同的名人代言的方式进行产品推广。相较于享乐型产品, 实用型产品采用自嘲型的名人代言可以引起更高的消费者口碑推荐。相反, 享乐型产品采用自强型的名人代言可以引起更高的消费者口碑推荐。也就是说, 自嘲型名人代言更有利实用型产品传播, 自强型名人代言更有利于享乐型产品传播, 研究1验证了名人代言类型和产品类型的交互效应。接下来, 本文将通过实验情境模拟进一步检验自嘲型(相较于自强型)名人代言的作用效果, 并深入挖掘不同名人代言形式的内在作用机制, 以增强结果的稳健性。

3 研究2:名人代言和产品类型匹配范式的中介机制研究

研究1通过二手数据证明了名人广告和产品类型的交互作用对消费者口碑推荐的影响, 本研究主要通过场景实验的方法, 在重复检验研究1结果的同时, 深度挖掘不同名人代言和产品类型交互作用的中介机制。

3.1 研究设计与数据收集

本研究采用2 (名人代言:自嘲型vs自强型)× 2 (产品类型:实用型vs享乐型)的因子矩阵设计。143名来自某大学的大学生参与了本轮实验, 其中男性占比47.6%, 女性占比52.4%, 所有被试者被随机分配到4组中。实验材料中的名人广告文案改编自二手数据材料, 实用型产品刺激物为洗发水, 享乐型产品刺激物为巧克力(Chen et al., 2017)。

首先, 研究者会让被试随机联想一个自己喜爱的大众化名人, 然后进入以下情景“您现在正计划购买您需要的洗发水(巧克力)产品, 您在浏览某知名购物网站时, 恰巧发现您在上文例举的明星正在为该产品做广告宣传”, 不同组的消费者看到的代言广告存在差异, 具体的广告文案如图4所示。四组文案都参照预研究中抓取的名人代言广告改编(本研究通过深度访谈选择被试者熟悉度较高, 容易走入的情景的代言广告作为改编材料)。自嘲型名人代言情景下, 名人会使用段子口吻, 通过对自我讽刺挖苦的方式, 让消费者把注意力更多的转移到产品的功能和参数等方面(见图4中的例1和例2)。自强型名人代言情景下, 名人会主要通过夸大自身形象的口吻, 通过强调个人的魅力和影响力, 让消费者把注意力更多的集中在名人自身的形象或地位等方面(见图4中的例3和例4)。

图4

图4   名人广告文案


随后, 被试者还回答了关于名人广告和刺激材料的感知自嘲水平、感知自强水平、感知实用性、感知享乐性、信息性影响、规范性影响、口碑推荐等方面的问题。对名人广告的感知自嘲水平的测量语句包括:该名人广告是一种幽默自嘲的展现形式; 该名人广告令人感到有趣; 该名人广告引人发笑(Chattopadhyay & Basu, 1990)。对名人广告感知自强水平的测量语句包括:该广告在强调名人自身的吸引力; 该名人广告在强调名人自身的专业优势; 该广告提升了我对名人的信任感(Roobina, 1990)。对产品刺激物的感知实用性测量题项包括:这款产品对我很有用; 这款产品能给我生活带来很多便利; 这款产品是值得购买的。对产品刺激物的感知享乐性测量题项包括:这款产品包装设计很好看; 这款产品能给我带来愉快的体验; 这款产品能提高我对生活的快乐感(Crowley et al., 1992)。随后, 我们测量了消费者对该则名人广告的口碑推荐意愿, 题项包括:我会转发这篇广告; 我愿意转发这篇广告; 我愿意跟大家分享和讨论这篇广告; 我会跟同学或朋友聊到这篇广告; 我会跟身边的人聊到这篇广告代言的产品(黄敏学, 雷蕾, 朱华伟, 2016; Brakus, Schmitt, & Zarantonello, 2009)。信息性影响和规范性影响的测量则依据以往学者研究改编(Bearden, Netemeyer, & Teel, 1989)。测量信息性影响的语句包括:转发该广告前, 我会先获得该产品最可靠的信息; 为保证正确决策, 我会先参考身边朋友的做法; 转发该广告前, 我会首先向朋友更多的了解该产品; 转发该广告前, 我会先了解家人和朋友对该产品或广告的看法。测量规范性影响的语句包括:我会更多因为对代言人的喜爱而转发该广告; 该产品是否受代言人喜爱, 对我转发意愿影响很大; 我愿意为了和代言人一致而转发该广告; 转发自己喜爱的名人广告, 让我更有被认同感(所有测量均为7级量表, 其中1表示完全不同意; 7表示完全同意)。

3.2 数据分析

操控检验:被试者对不同名人代言的感知自嘲水平和感知自强水平存在显著性差异。自嘲型名人代言分组中, 被试者感知到名人代言的自嘲型得分明显较高(M感知自嘲水平 = 5.22, SD = 0.84; M感知自强水平 = 3.14, SD = 0.88; F(1, 143) = 208.67, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 2.42); 自强型名人代言分组中, 被试者感知到名人代言的自强型得分明显较高(M感知自嘲水平 =3.55, SD = 0.77; M感知自强水平 = 5.09, SD = 0.71; F(1, 143) = 157.28, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 2.08)。因此, 我们对两种名人代言的操控是成功的。

同时, 被试者对不同产品的感知实用性和感知享乐性也存在显著性差异。选择洗发水(实用型产品)为刺激物的分组中, 被试者感知到洗发水的感知实用性得分显著高于感知享乐性得分(M感知实用性 = 5.12, SD = 0.66; M感知享乐性 = 3.24, SD = 0.73; F(1, 143) = 257.45, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 2.70); 选择巧克力(享乐型产品)为刺激物的分组中, 被试者感知到巧克力的感知享乐性得分显著高于感知实用性得分(M感知实用性 = 3.54, SD = 0.99; M感知享乐性 = 5.18, SD = 0.69; F(1, 143) = 135.12, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.92)。因此, 对产品类型的操控也是成功的。

各变量的平均数、标准差及相关矩阵:表4列出了各变量的描述统计和相关分析结果。不难看出, 自嘲型名人代言、自强型名人代言和口碑推荐之间显著正相关, 自嘲型名人代言和信息性影响显著正相关, 自强型名人代言和规范性影响显著正相关(r为0.16 ~ 0.48, p < 0.05)。

表4   各变量的描述统计、相关分析结果

研究变量 M SD 1 2 3 4 5
1. 自嘲型名人代言 4.14 1.35 1
2. 自强型名人代言 4.35 1.07 -0.51** 1
3. 规范性影响 5.10 0.90 -0.08 0.19* 1
4. 信息性影响 4.77 0.89 0.48** -0.10 -0.14 1
5. 口碑推荐 4.96 0.84 0.19* 0.38** 0.16* 0.43** 1

注:* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

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主效应分析:首先, 我们检验了自嘲型名人代言和自强型名人代言对消费者口碑推荐的差异, 均值分析结果如图5所示。结果发现:自嘲型名代言和自强型名人代言对消费者口碑推荐的影响无显著性差异(M自嘲型 = 4.93, SD = 0.78; M自强型 = 5.00, SD = 0.89; F(1,143) = 0.23, p = 0.63, Cohen's d = 0.08)。结果和研究1一致, 说明两种代言效果无明显差异。

调节效应分析:接下来, 为了验证名人代言类型与产品类型的匹配对消费者口碑推荐的影响。本研究以“口碑推荐”为因变量, 将“名人代言类型”和“产品类型”作为固定因子, 用单因素F检验的方法来检验调节效应。分析结果如表5所示, 其中交互效应显著(调整后R2 = 0.501; F(1, 143) = 142.20, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.51)。分组的均值效应分析显示(见图5), 在实用型产品分组中, 自嘲型名人代言对被试者口碑推荐的影响效果显著高于自强型名人代言(M自嘲型 = 5.46, SD = 0.39; M自强型 = 4.32, SD = 0.57; F(1,70) = 94.06, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 2.33)。同时, 在享乐型产品分组中, 自强型名人代言对被试者口碑推荐的影响效果显著高于自嘲型名人代言(M自嘲型 = 4.41, SD = 0.72; M自强型 = 5.63, SD = 0.62; F(1,73) = 60.00, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.82)。实验结果和研究1一致, 假设H1a和H1b均得到验证。

表5   名人广告类型与产品类型的交互对口碑推荐的影响

来源 III类平方和 自由度 均方 F p
修正的模型 50.829 3 16.943 48.530 <0.001
截距 3507.139 1 3507.139 10045.587 <0.001
名人广告类型 0.586 1 0.586 1.678 0.197
产品类型 0.065 1 0.065 0.186 0.667
名人广告类型 × 产品类型 49.643 1 49.643 142.192 <0.001
错误 48.528 139 0.349
总计 3621.222 143
校正后系数 99.357 142

注:R2 = 0.512 (调整后的R2 = 0.501)

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图5

图5   名人广告类型与产品类型的交互对消费者口碑推荐的影响


中介效应分析方法:本研究提出, 信息性影响是自嘲型名人代言与实用型产品交互影响消费者口碑推荐的中介变量, 规范性影响是自强型名人代言与享乐型产品交互影响消费者口碑推荐的中介变量。本研究首先采用Baron和Kenny (1986)的中介分析方法进行回归分析。接着, 我们按照Bootstrap程序再次进行中介效应检验(Zhao, Lynch, Jr, & Chen, 2010; Hayes, 2013)。信息性影响中介效应分析:首先, 对信息性影响的中介效应检验中, 主要包括四个模型(见表6)。研究者先用自嘲型名人代言、产品类型、自嘲型名人代言×产品类型进行回归(模型1), 得出产品类型(β = -2.53, p < 0.001)和自嘲型名人代言×产品类型(β = 1.84, p < 0.01)均显著; 其次用自嘲型名人代言、产品类型和自嘲型名人代言×产品类型分别对于信息性影响和规范性影响回归(模型2和模型3)。发现在信息性影响回归中, 产品类型(β = -2.51, p < 0.001)和自嘲型名人代言×产品类型(β = 1.88, p < 0.01)均显著, 在规范性影响回归中, 各项系数均不显著。这表明对于自嘲型名人代言, 被试者产生了信息性感知, 却并没有产生规范性感知。最后, 研究者用自嘲型名人代言、产品类型、自嘲型名人代言×产品类型、信息性影响和规范性影响进行回归(模型4), 得出信息性影响对口碑推荐的影响是显著的(β = 0.36, p < 0.05), 规范性影响并没有显著性影响。加入信息性影响和规范性影响之后, 自嘲型名人代言×产品类型对口碑推荐的影响不再显著(β = 1.08, p > 0.05), 由此可见, 信息性影响在自嘲型代言与产品类型交互影响口碑推荐的过程中起到完全中介作用。图6为路径分析图。

表6   信息性影响的中介作用

变量 模型1口碑推荐 模型2信息性影响 模型3规范性影响 模型4口碑推荐
β t β t β t β t
自嘲型代言 -0.16 -1.10 -0.08 -0.55 0.19 0.90 -0.11 -0.85
产品类型 -2.53*** -4.30 -2.51*** -4.34 1.29 1.48 -1.53* -2.45
自嘲型代言×产品类型 1.84** 3.35 1.88** 3.47 -1.28 -1.32 1.08 1.94
信息性影响 0.36* 2.96
规范性影响 -0.08 -0.99
调整后R2 0.55 0.56 0.01 0.61

注:* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

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图6

图6   信息性影响中介作用路径分析图


接着, 我们使用Bootstrap方法进行中介效应检验, 选择模型8, 样本量选择5000。在95%的置信水平下, 对信息性影响中介效应检验中, 有调节的中介效应的区间没有包括0 (LLCL = 0.07, ULCL = 0.37), 表明有调节的中介效应存在, 并且当中介存在时, 自嘲型代言和产品类型的交互效应的区间包含0 (LLCL = -0.06, ULCL = 0.29), 所以信息性影响的完全中介效应存在。

规范性影响中介效应分析:首先, 对规范性影响的中介效应检验中, 主要包括四个模型(见表7)。研究者先用自强型名人代言、产品类型、自强型名人代言×产品类型进行回归(模型1), 得出产品类型(β = 1.18, p < 0.05)和自强型名人代言×产品类型 (β = 1.18, p < 0.05)均显著; 其次用自强型名人代言、产品类型和自强型名人代言×产品类型分别对于信息性影响和规范性影响回归(模型2和模型3)。发现仅在规范性影响回归中, 自强型名人代言×产品类型(β = 2.37, p < 0.05)显著。这表明对于自强型名人代言, 被试者仅产生了规范性感知。最后, 研究者用自强型名人代言、产品类型、自强型名人代言×产品类型、信息性影响和规范性影响进行回归(模型4), 得出规范性影响对口碑推荐的影响是显著的(β = 0.31, p < 0.01), 规范性影响并没有显著性影响。加入信息性影响和规范性影响之后, 自强型名人代言×产品类型对口碑推荐的影响不再显著 (β = 1.15, p > 0.05), 由此可见, 规范性影响在自强型代言与产品类型交互影响口碑推荐的过程中起到完全中介作用。图7为路径分析图。

表7   规范性影响的中介作用

变量 模型1口碑推荐 模型2规范性影响 模型3信息性影响 模型4口碑推荐
β t β t β t β t
自强型代言 0.16 1.46 0.18 1.31 0.44* 2.33 0.08 0.78
产品类型 -1.21* -2.02 -1.90* -2.54 -0.01 -0.01 -0.62 -1.07
自强型代言×产品类型 1.88* 2.91 2.37* 2.94 -0.24 -0.22 1.15 1.81
规范性影响 0.31** 3.47
信息性影响 0.05 0.76
调整后R2 0.69 0.49 0.08 0.72

注:* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

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图7

图7   规范性影响中介作用路径分析图


接着, 我们使用Bootstrap 方法进行中介效应检验, 选择模型8, 样本量选择5000。在95%的置信水平下, 对规范性影响中介效应检验中, 有调节的中介效应的区间没有包括0 (LLCL = 0.12, ULCL = 0.30), 表明有调节的中介效应存在, 并且当中介存在时, 自强型代言和产品类型的交互效应的区间包含0 (LLCL = -0.01, ULCL = 0.43), 所以规范性影响存在完全中介效应。

3.3 结果讨论

通过研究2我们发现, 名人代言采用自嘲型或者自强型的代言方式时, 对消费者的口碑推荐影响无显著性差异。并且在这两种代言方式下, 消费者对口碑推荐的均值均大于4 (M自嘲型 = 4.93; M自强型 = 5.00), 说明名人广告对消费者口碑推荐的影响具有普适性(Newman et al., 2011)。然后我们进一步对比了两种不同的名人代言方式在不同类型产品的情境下, 对消费者口碑推荐的影响。结果发现, 名人代言类型和产品类型的匹配对口碑推荐产生不同影响:自强型的名人代言对增强消费者关于享乐型产品的口碑推荐更有效, 自嘲型的名人代言对增强消费者关于实用型产品的口碑推荐更有效。产品类型对主效应的调节作用显著, 因此研究结果支持假设H1a和H1b。

另外, 研究2还对本研究的中介机制做出了检验, 结果表明:规范性影响是自强型名人代言对转发意愿的中介变量; 信息性影响是自嘲型名人代言对转发意愿的中介变量。研究结果支持H2a和H2b。综合研究1和研究2的结果, 本研究提出的假设均成立。

4 研究贡献与未来研究方向

4.1 理论贡献

社会化媒体的发展强化了名人自身的社会影响力和传播范围, 基于社会化媒体的名人代言广告成为企业社会化营销成功的关键。为此, 现有研究将用户在社交媒体中的点赞、回复和转发行为看作网络口碑的最重要的形式之一, 并结合心理学实验的研究方法, 重点探究了口碑推荐和购买行为之间的关系。由于传统媒体的限制, 早期研究主要提及名人代言的自强模式, 并且一致认为高权威和社会影响力的名人能够为企业带来更高的经济价值和社会价值, 但是却少有研究探究自嘲型名人代言表达方式的营销效果。本研究以社会化媒体为切入点, 首先通过二手数据展开研究1下, 验证了名人代言类型和产品类型之间的交互效应, 然后通过设计对照实验的方法, 在重复验证名人代言和产品类型交互效应的基础上, 结合社会影响理论, 验证了不同类型名人代言对消费者口碑推荐影响内在机制的差异性。总的来说, 具有如下理论贡献:

(1)丰富了对社会化媒体中用户创造内容的认识。社会媒体的一个重要特征是, 媒体内容是由用户自己创造的, 以往探究用户创造内容对消费者的影响时, 往往分析的是用户基于个人的使用体验对产品或者服务的评价而形成的口碑内容, 即关注的是用户对他人/他物的相对客观的评价, 却很少探究涉及到自我评价的相对主观的内容会带来什么样的社会影响。本文探究了社会化媒体中, 有些用户通过联系自己的社会形象来进行评价和展示时, 会产生什么样的差异化社会影响, 指出有社会影响力的名人采取夸大自我形象的社会化传播方式, (相对于实用型产品)会给享乐型产品带来更积极的社会影响效果。另外, 有社会影响力的名人采取自我形象贬低式的社会化传播, (相对于享乐型产品)会给实用型产品会带来更积极的社会影响效果;

(2)拓展了对名人代言的社会影响模式的理解。受到传统媒体高准入门槛和监管严格的影响, 以往研究的一个假设是, 名人代言就是要利用其正面的社会形象进行营销传播, 来提升所代言产品的社会形象和扩大其社会影响性, 即自强式传播。而社会化媒体具有低门槛、分散化、扁平化的特点, 名人可以根据自己的兴趣, 利用社会化媒体自主创造内容和发布内容, 有的名人反其道行之, 采取自我形象贬低的模式来与粉丝交流沟通, 即自嘲式传播, 可以拉近与粉丝之间的距离, 增加亲近感, 反而有利于扩大其代言产品的社会影响效果;

(3)深化了对社会影响理论的认识。以往研究指出, 消费者的各种决策行为都会受到身边其他相关群体的影响, 并把这种社会影响分为信息影响和规范影响, 却很少探究两种不同类型的社会影响是如何产生具体作用的。本文将名人代言风格(自强型/自嘲型)与产品类型(实用型/享乐型)结合起来, 指出两者交互作用下会启动不同类型的社会影响。结果发现对于享乐型产品, 消费者更倾向受到名人的规范性社会影响, 而对于实用型产品, 消费者更倾向于受到名人的信息性社会影响。这也很好解释了, 名人利用自己形象进行用户内容创造和传播时, 为什么可以反其道而行之, 即通过自嘲型的自贬式的形象展示来拉近与粉丝的关系, 进而增强对实用型产品的信息传播的接受度。

4.2 管理意义

在企业管理实践上, 本研究为企业和名人之间的广告合作提供了参考依据。首先, 在新产品推广过程中, 企业可以根据产品属性(实用型/享乐型)的差异, 精准识别消费决策的参考依据, 提升用户对新产品的满意度。其次, 为企业在社会化媒体中的名人代言广告提供了参考依据。企业为实用型产品设计名人广告的时, 推荐选择自嘲型的名人广告文案, 能让消费者对名人产生一种亲近感, 增强消费者对实用型功能属性的关注, 促进实用型产品的口碑传播。企业在为享乐型产品设计名人广告的时候, 推荐选择自强型的名人广告文案, 能让消费者对 名人产生一种跟随效应, 促进享乐型产品的口碑 传播。

4.3 未来研究方向

针对名人代言的研究, 未来还有很多的工作要开展。首先, 本文在研究社会化媒体中名人代言的营销效果时, 将名人属性、媒体平台等因素作为控制变量, 探讨名人代言风格(自嘲型/自强型)对不同产品(实用型/享乐性)口碑推荐的影响。诚然名人属性、媒体平台等因素可能会对名人代言效果产生影响, 因此未来我们会进一步探究媒体平台差异、名人属性等因素对名人代言传播效果的差异化影响机制。第二, 本文探讨了社会化媒体中的名人代言对消费者口碑推荐的影响, 未来的研究可以继续丰富其它结果性指标, 探讨名人代言风格对消费者购买意愿或品牌态度等方面的差异。第三, 本文主要探究不同名人代言对企业的启示意义, 后期的研究可以拓展到不同的名人表达方式对名人本身的启示意义, 例如名人采用何种类型的代言方式更能圈粉?以及消费者对不同名人代言建立认可的中介机制研究。

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(2016). Hedonic and utilitarian use of user-generated content on online shopping websites. Journal of Marketing Communications. Ahead of Print. doi: 10.1080/13527266.2016.1143383

Hoption C., Barling J., & Turner N . ( 2013).

“it's not you, it's me”: Transformational leadership and self-deprecating humor

Leadership & Organization Development Journal,34( 1), 4-19.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to investigate leaders' use of humor as an expression of how they value themselves relative to others. The paper suggests that humor can minimize or exacerbate the status differences between leaders and followers. The paper hypothesizes that leaders' use of self- or in-group-deprecating humor would be positively associated with ratings of transformational leadership as they minimize those distinctions, whereas leaders' use of aggressive humor would be negatively associated with ratings of transformational leadership because it exacerbates status distinctions. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A total of 155 undergraduates (58 males, 97 females; M age=20 years, SD=1.31) were assigned randomly to one of four conditions, each depicting a different type of humor in a leader's speech. Findings ‐ Leaders using self-deprecating humor were rated higher on individualized consideration (a factor of transformational leadership) than those that used aggressive humor. Research limitations/implications ‐ The authors encourage future field research on the role of humor as an expression of leaders' self- versus other-orientation. Originality/value ‐ Humor and work might seem inconsistent, but this study demonstrates how leadership can use humor to improve leader-follower relationships. Furthermore, it contributes to our understanding of self-deprecating humor which has received scant attention relative to other forms of humor.

Huang M. X., Lei L., & Zhu H. W . ( 2016).

Money or romance: How should companies lead consumers in we-media sharing?

Acta Psychologica Sinica,48( 2), 211-220.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

社交网络的发展弱化了传统媒体的影响力,强化了消费者的影响力;在这种情况下,企业需要思考如何借助消费者传播营销信息,以影响其他消费者。本文从企业如何设计营销信息入手,探究消费者与企业所处的关系范式对消费者信息转发行为的影响。通过二手数据分析与实验法,本文得出如下结论:经济类刺激对触发交易关系范式下消费者的转发行为更有效;情感类刺激对触发共有关系范式下消费者的转发行为更有效;交易关系范式下消费者出于回报企业的动机分享,共有关系范式下消费者出于利己动机而分享。

[ 黄敏学, 雷蕾, 朱华伟 . ( 2016).

谈钱还是谈情:企业如何引导消费者分享自媒体营销

心理学报,48( 2), 211- 220.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

社交网络的发展弱化了传统媒体的影响力,强化了消费者的影响力;在这种情况下,企业需要思考如何借助消费者传播营销信息,以影响其他消费者。本文从企业如何设计营销信息入手,探究消费者与企业所处的关系范式对消费者信息转发行为的影响。通过二手数据分析与实验法,本文得出如下结论:经济类刺激对触发交易关系范式下消费者的转发行为更有效;情感类刺激对触发共有关系范式下消费者的转发行为更有效;交易关系范式下消费者出于回报企业的动机分享,共有关系范式下消费者出于利己动机而分享。

Hung K., Chan K. W., & Tse C. H . ( 2011).

Assessing celebrity endorsement effects in china: A consumer- celebrity relational approach

Journal of Advertising Research,51( 4), 608-623.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Iyengar R., Bulte C. V. D., & Valente T. W . ( 2011).

Opinion leadership and social contagion in new product diffusion

Marketing Science,30( 2), 195-212.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Iyengar R., Bulte C. V. D., & Lee J. Y . ( 2015).

Social contagion in new product trial and repeat

Marketing Science,34( 3), 408-429

URL     [本文引用: 5]

The notion of peer influence in new product adoption or trial is well accepted. We propose that peer influence may affect repeat behavior as well, though the process and source of influence are likely to differ between trial and repeat. Our analysis of the acceptance of a risky prescription drug by physicians provides three novel findings. First, there is evidence of contagion not only in trial but also in repeat. Second, who is most influential varies across stages. Physicians with high centrality in the discussion and referral network and with high prescription volume are influential in trial but not repeat. In contrast, immediate colleagues, few of whom are nominated as a discussion or referral partner, are influential in both trial and repeat. Third, who is most influenceable also varies across stages. For trial, it is physicians who do not consider themselves to be opinion leaders, whereas for repeat, it is those located towards the middle of the status distribution as measured by network centrality. The pattern of results is consistent with informational social influence reducing risk in trial and normative social influence increasing conformity in repeat.

Kozinets R. V., Valck K. D., Wojnicki A. C., & Wilner S. J. S. . ( 2010).

Networked narratives: Understanding word-of- mouth marketing in online communities

Journal of Marketing,74( 2), 71-89.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Luo L., Chen X., Han J., & Park C. W . ( 2010).

Dilution and enhancement of celebrity brands through sequential movie releases

Journal of Marketing Research,47( 6), 1114-1128.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This paper examines the effects of sequential movie releases on the dilution and the enhancement of celebrity brands. The authors use favorability ratings colle

Martin R. A., Puhlik-Doris P., Larsen G., Gray J., & Weir K . ( 2003).

Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the humor styles questionnaire

Journal of Research in Personality,37( 1), 48-75.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Mittelstaedt J. D., Riesz P. C., & Burns W. J . ( 2000).

Why are endorsements effective? Sorting among theories of product and endorser effects

Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising,22( 1), 55-65.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This paper reports on research contrasting three different explanations of the relationship between endorsers and products in producing effective product endorsements. A full-factorial model, varying endorsers and products, was used to compare the effects of endorsers and products on perceptions of endorsement effectiveness. Additionally, explanations of endorsement effectiveness ratings were classified and analyzed. Results indicate that the matches between endorsers and products, rather than the nature of products or endorsers themselves, affect the perceived effectiveness of endorsements.

Mishra A. S., Roy S., & Bailey A. A . ( 2015).

Exploring brand personality-celebrity endorser personality congruence in celebrity endorsements in the Indian context

Psychology & Marketing,32( 12), 1158-1174.

[本文引用: 1]

Moore, S. G . ( 2015).

Attitude predictability and helpfulness in online reviews: The role of explained actions and reactions

Journal of Consumer Research,42( 1), 30-44.

[本文引用: 1]

Newman G. E., Diesendruck G., & Bloom P . ( 2011).

Celebrity contagion and the value of objects

Journal of Consumer Research,38( 2), 215-228.

URL     [本文引用: 5]

Why do people purchase objects that were once owned by celebrities, such as film stars or politicians, and also by despised individuals, such as serial killers and notorious dictators? The present studies examine three potential explanations: mere associations, market demands, and contagion (the belief that these objects contain some remnants of their previous owners). Results indicate that while market demands do play a role, contagion appears to be the critical factor affecting the valuation of celebrity possessions. Manipulating the degree of physical contact that a celebrity has with an object dramatically influences consumers’ willingness to purchase it, and individual differences in sensitivity to contagion moderate this effect. Additionally, the valuation of celebrity possessions is principally explained by measures of contagion, and subliminally activating the concept of contagion changes consumers’ willingness to purchase celebrity objects. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Ran K.., & Zheng , Y. ( 2017).

The effects of promotions on hedonic versus utilitarian purchases

Journal of Consumer Psychology,27( 1), 59-68.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Because it is harder to justify hedonic purchases than utilitarian purchases, it is proposed that promotions will have a stronger positive effect on the purchase likelihood of hedonic than utilitarian products. This and related propositions are tested in multiple studies using a variety of product categories and promotions. The results demonstrate that promotions are more effective in driving purchase decisions when: (a) the product is hedonic rather than utilitarian; (b) the product is framed as more hedonic; and (c) the consumer has a hedonic rather than utilitarian consumption goal. Consistent with our conceptualization, the enhanced impact of promotions on hedonic purchases is attenuated when: (a) the hedonic product is intended as a gift for others; (b) consumers can construct justifications for their purchase ahead of time; (c) consumers are not accountable for their decisions; and (d) the promotion is contingent on purchasing additional product units (i.e., a quantity discount like “Buy 10, get 50% off”). Importantly, the present research reconciles and explains the seemingly inconsistent prior findings regarding the effects of price versus quantity promotions.

Roobina O. ( 1990).

Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers' perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness

Journal of Advertising,19( 3), 39-52.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Sääksjärvi M., Hellén K., & Balabanis G . ( 2016).

Sometimes a celebrity holding a negative public image is the best product endorser

European Journal of Marketing,50( 3-4), 421-441.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine women reactions to celebrity endorsers holding positive and negative public images and the consequences for purchase intentions of the endorsed product. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on the social comparison literature and applies the theory of upward and downward comparisons to the celebrity endorsement context. Findings Study 1 shows that exposure to celebrities holding a positive public image decrease consumers temporal self-esteem, while celebrities holding a negative public image increase temporal self-esteem. Study 2 suggests that this change in self-esteem transfers to the product depending upon the type of social comparison focus (similarity vs dissimilarity) which people have. Study 3 shows that for consumers low in true self-esteem, i.e. self-esteem based upon a stable foundation, celebrities holding a positive public image decrease purchase intentions. For consumers high in true self-esteem, there was no difference between exposure to celebrities holding a positive and a negative public image for purchase intentions. Study 4 focused on replicating the results found in Studies 1-3 in the context of an achievement celebrity (as opposed to a regular celebrity). The findings in Study 4 provide further support for the results of Studies 1 and 3, and identify expert celebrities as a boundary condition for the effects found in Study 2. Practical implications The results provide evidence suggesting that celebrities holding a negative public image can be used as celebrity endorsers in product categories in which it can be considered helpful to protect women self-esteem, such as beauty products or self-expressive products. Originality/value This research contributes to the literature on celebrity endorsement by adding a boundary condition for the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement. According to the results, choosing a positive celebrity can, for some groups, have negative effects on purchase intensions and that a negative celebrity might be the safer choice.

Simona B., & Mcgill, A. L . ( 2011).

The locus of choice: Personal causality and satisfaction with hedonic and utilitarian decisions

Journal of Consumer Research,37( 6), 1065-1078.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Vinerean S., Opreana A., Cetina I., & Dumitrescu L . ( 2015).

Relationships among hedonic and utilitarian factors and exogenous and endogenous influences of consumer behavior in tourism

Expert Journal of Marketing,3( 1), 17-28.

[本文引用: 1]

Yang Y., Gu Y J., & Galak J . ( 2016).

When it could have been worse, it gets better: How favorable uncertainty resolution slows hedonic adaptation

Journal of Consumer Research,43( 5), 747-768.

[本文引用: 1]

Yim M. Y. C., Yoo S. C., Sauer P. L., & Seo J. H . ( 2014).

Hedonic shopping motivation and co-shopper influence on utilitarian grocery shopping in superstores

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,42( 5), 528-544.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Zhao X. S., Lynch J. G Jr.., & Chen Q. M . ( 2010).

Reconsidering baron and kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis

Journal of Consumer Research,37( 2), 197-206.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Baron and Kenny’s (1986) procedures for determining if an independent variable affects a dependent variable through some mediator are so well known that they ar

Zhu H. W., Zhang Y. Y., & Gong X . ( 2017).

Does company’s humor resolve consumer complaining: The match of humor types and relationship norms

Acta Psychologica Sinica,49( 4), 526-538.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

幽默可以促进沟通效果,实践中许多企业运用幽默来回应消费者抱怨。然而既有文献对于幽默能否以及如何有效化解抱怨缺乏系统深入的研究。本文则基于良性冲突理论与关系范式理论探究了企业幽默式抱怨回应策略对不同关系范式下消费者的影响。通过二手数据分析和实验法,本文发现:对于唤醒度较低的负面情感导致的消费者抱怨,企业幽默(相较于非幽默)的抱怨回应策略更有助于改善消费者品牌态度;而且,不同类型的幽默化回应作用不同,自强型幽默的抱怨回应对改善共有关系范式下消费者品牌态度更有效,自嘲型幽默的抱怨回应则有助于改善共有和交易关系范式下消费者的品牌态度;幽默回应策略与关系范式通过影响消费者的良性评价而作用于品牌态度。

[ 朱华伟, 张艳艳, 龚璇 . ( 2017).

企业幽默能否化解消费者抱怨:幽默类型与关系范式的匹配

49, 49( 4), 526- 538.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

幽默可以促进沟通效果,实践中许多企业运用幽默来回应消费者抱怨。然而既有文献对于幽默能否以及如何有效化解抱怨缺乏系统深入的研究。本文则基于良性冲突理论与关系范式理论探究了企业幽默式抱怨回应策略对不同关系范式下消费者的影响。通过二手数据分析和实验法,本文发现:对于唤醒度较低的负面情感导致的消费者抱怨,企业幽默(相较于非幽默)的抱怨回应策略更有助于改善消费者品牌态度;而且,不同类型的幽默化回应作用不同,自强型幽默的抱怨回应对改善共有关系范式下消费者品牌态度更有效,自嘲型幽默的抱怨回应则有助于改善共有和交易关系范式下消费者的品牌态度;幽默回应策略与关系范式通过影响消费者的良性评价而作用于品牌态度。

Zsolt K., Peter P. Z., & Miklos S . ( 2011).

Network effects and personal influences: The diffusion of an online social network

Journal of Marketing Research,48( 3), 425-443.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This article discusses the diffusion process in an online social network given the individual connections between members. The authors model the adoption decision of individuals as a binary choice affected by three factors: (1) the local network structure formed by already adopted neighbors, (2) the average characteristics of adopted neighbors (influencers), and (3) the characteristics of the potential adopters. Focusing on the first factor, the authors find two marked effects. First, an individual who is connected to many adopters has a greater adoption probability (degree effect). Second, the density of connections in a group of already adopted consumers has a strong positive effect on the adoption of individuals connected to this group (clustering effect). The article also records significant effects for influencer and adopter characteristics. For adopters, specifically, the authors find that position in the entire network and some demographic variables are good predictors of adoption. Similarly, in the case of already adopted individuals, average demographics and global network position can predict their influential power on their neighbors. An interesting counterintuitive finding is that the average influential power of individuals decreases with the total number of their contacts. These results have practical implications for viral marketing, a context in which a variety of technology platforms are increasingly considering leveraging their consumers' revealed connection patterns. The model performs particularly well in predicting the next set of adopters.

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