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## 自强还是自嘲?名人代言如何提升社会化媒体广告的营销效果

1, ,1, 2

1 武汉大学 经济与管理学院 市场营销与旅游管理系, 武汉 430072

2 武汉科技大学 管理学院, 武汉 430081

## Self-enhancing or self-deprecating: How can celebrity endorsement enhance the marketing effectiveness of advertisements in social media

1, ,1, 2

1 Department of Marketing and Tourism Management, Economics and Management School, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China

2 Management School, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China

 基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金.  71372127国家自然科学基金(71672132)资助.

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed the increasing prevalence of celebrity endorsement as advertising in China. The reason for this increased prevalence is that celebrity endorsements can boost the credibility and attractiveness of advertisements and therefore lead to increased profits for companies in most cases. In the social media environment, the influence of celebrities is amplified remarkably by the following of their fans. Previous studies have demonstrated that the effect of celebrity endorsements is mostly positive or self-enhancing. However, this effect does not always apply in social media platforms. For example, several celebrity endorsements actually contain self-deprecating content. In this study, we explored the role of self-enhancement and self-deprecation in celebrity endorsement effectiveness and examined their impact on consumers’ intent to share. Furthermore, we introduce the moderating effect of product types, namely, whether a product is utilitarian or hedonic.

To obtain preliminary insights, we collected 86 micro-blog posts with celebrity endorsements and coded them as either self-enhancing or self-deprecating posts. Analysis of secondary data showed that consumers shared numerous self-enhancing celebrity endorsement posts with regard to hedonic products, and consumers shared many self-deprecating celebrity endorsement posts with regard to utilitarian products.

Subsequently, we conducted laboratory studies to validate our hypothesis further. First, we performed a robust test on the effect of different celebrity endorsements on consumers’ intent to share. The results of the two types of celebrity endorsements (self-enhancing and self-deprecating) indicated the effect of self-deprecating celebrity endorsement on consumers’ intent to share was stronger than that of self-enhancing celebrity endorsement. Second, we examined the interactive effect of celebrity endorsements and product types and the mediating role of social influence. As expected, the 2 (celebrity endorsements: self-enhancing vs. self-deprecating) × 2 (product types: utilitarian vs. hedonic) subject design experiment suggested that participants in the utilitarian product condition were willing to share self-deprecating content, and this effect was caused by informative influence. On the contrary, participants in the hedonic product condition were willing to share self-enhancing content, and this effect was driven by normative influence.

Our research contributes to literature on celebrity endorsement in social media by focusing on consumers’ sharing intention rather than purchase behavior. First, this research explores whether self-deprecating celebrity endorsement can strengthen consumers’ intent to share or not. Second, this study provides a new perspective on celebrity endorsement by differentiating its content into two types: self-enhancing and self-deprecating. Third, this research examines the impact of product difference in celebrity advertisement. It reveals that consumers in different product conditions might share different celebrity endorsement advertisements. Finally, we demonstrated the mediation mechanism of the interaction between celebrity endorsement and product type by examining consumers’ sharing intention. Aside from this empirical demonstration, our research also presents many useful implications for companies with regard to the design of celebrity endorsement.

Keywords： celebrity endorsement ; product types ; normative influence ; informative influence ; word of mouth

HUANG Minxue, YAO Shunyu, LIU Maohong. (2018). Self-enhancing or self-deprecating: How can celebrity endorsement enhance the marketing effectiveness of advertisements in social media. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(8), 907-919

### 1.2 实用型与享乐型产品

H1a：相对于实用型产品, 名人采取自强型的广告代言, 能让消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐意愿更高。

H1b：相对于享乐型产品, 名人采取自嘲型的广告代言, 能让消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐意愿更高。

### 1.3 社会影响

H2a：名人采用自强型广告代言, 更能强化其规范性影响, 进而增强消费者对享乐型产品的口碑推荐。

H2b：名人采用自嘲型广告代言, 更能强化其信息性影响, 进而增强消费者对实用型产品的口碑推荐。

### 2.2 数据分析

2.2.1 自强型和自嘲型名人代言对口碑推荐的影响

### 图2

2.2.2 名人代言类型和产品类型的交互作用

### 3.2 数据分析

1. 自嘲型名人代言 4.14 1.35 1
2. 自强型名人代言 4.35 1.07 -0.51** 1
3. 规范性影响 5.10 0.90 -0.08 0.19* 1
4. 信息性影响 4.77 0.89 0.48** -0.10 -0.14 1
5. 口碑推荐 4.96 0.84 0.19* 0.38** 0.16* 0.43** 1

β t β t β t β t

β t β t β t β t

### 4.1 理论贡献

(1)丰富了对社会化媒体中用户创造内容的认识。社会媒体的一个重要特征是, 媒体内容是由用户自己创造的, 以往探究用户创造内容对消费者的影响时, 往往分析的是用户基于个人的使用体验对产品或者服务的评价而形成的口碑内容, 即关注的是用户对他人/他物的相对客观的评价, 却很少探究涉及到自我评价的相对主观的内容会带来什么样的社会影响。本文探究了社会化媒体中, 有些用户通过联系自己的社会形象来进行评价和展示时, 会产生什么样的差异化社会影响, 指出有社会影响力的名人采取夸大自我形象的社会化传播方式, (相对于实用型产品)会给享乐型产品带来更积极的社会影响效果。另外, 有社会影响力的名人采取自我形象贬低式的社会化传播, (相对于享乐型产品)会给实用型产品会带来更积极的社会影响效果;

(2)拓展了对名人代言的社会影响模式的理解。受到传统媒体高准入门槛和监管严格的影响, 以往研究的一个假设是, 名人代言就是要利用其正面的社会形象进行营销传播, 来提升所代言产品的社会形象和扩大其社会影响性, 即自强式传播。而社会化媒体具有低门槛、分散化、扁平化的特点, 名人可以根据自己的兴趣, 利用社会化媒体自主创造内容和发布内容, 有的名人反其道行之, 采取自我形象贬低的模式来与粉丝交流沟通, 即自嘲式传播, 可以拉近与粉丝之间的距离, 增加亲近感, 反而有利于扩大其代言产品的社会影响效果;

(3)深化了对社会影响理论的认识。以往研究指出, 消费者的各种决策行为都会受到身边其他相关群体的影响, 并把这种社会影响分为信息影响和规范影响, 却很少探究两种不同类型的社会影响是如何产生具体作用的。本文将名人代言风格(自强型/自嘲型)与产品类型(实用型/享乐型)结合起来, 指出两者交互作用下会启动不同类型的社会影响。结果发现对于享乐型产品, 消费者更倾向受到名人的规范性社会影响, 而对于实用型产品, 消费者更倾向于受到名人的信息性社会影响。这也很好解释了, 名人利用自己形象进行用户内容创造和传播时, 为什么可以反其道而行之, 即通过自嘲型的自贬式的形象展示来拉近与粉丝的关系, 进而增强对实用型产品的信息传播的接受度。

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Sometimes a celebrity holding a negative public image is the best product endorser

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Abstract Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine women reactions to celebrity endorsers holding positive and negative public images and the consequences for purchase intentions of the endorsed product. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on the social comparison literature and applies the theory of upward and downward comparisons to the celebrity endorsement context. Findings Study 1 shows that exposure to celebrities holding a positive public image decrease consumers temporal self-esteem, while celebrities holding a negative public image increase temporal self-esteem. Study 2 suggests that this change in self-esteem transfers to the product depending upon the type of social comparison focus (similarity vs dissimilarity) which people have. Study 3 shows that for consumers low in true self-esteem, i.e. self-esteem based upon a stable foundation, celebrities holding a positive public image decrease purchase intentions. For consumers high in true self-esteem, there was no difference between exposure to celebrities holding a positive and a negative public image for purchase intentions. Study 4 focused on replicating the results found in Studies 1-3 in the context of an achievement celebrity (as opposed to a regular celebrity). The findings in Study 4 provide further support for the results of Studies 1 and 3, and identify expert celebrities as a boundary condition for the effects found in Study 2. Practical implications The results provide evidence suggesting that celebrities holding a negative public image can be used as celebrity endorsers in product categories in which it can be considered helpful to protect women self-esteem, such as beauty products or self-expressive products. Originality/value This research contributes to the literature on celebrity endorsement by adding a boundary condition for the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement. According to the results, choosing a positive celebrity can, for some groups, have negative effects on purchase intensions and that a negative celebrity might be the safer choice.

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