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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 18 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    The Semantic P600 Effect During Sentence Processing
    WANG Rui-Le; LI Ni; CHEN Bao-Guo
    . 2010, 18 (04): 545-552.  
    Abstract   PDF (614KB) ( 1764 )
    Traditionally, semantic processing has been associated with the N400 effect, while syntactic processing was thought to engender the P600 effect. However, several studies recently found that the semantic violation of sentence also led to P600, which is called the semantic P600 effect. Three different accounts have been put forward in order to explain the occurrence of semantic P600s. The monitoring hypothesis regarded the semantic P600 effect as a general correlate of conflict monitoring during sentence processing; the non-syntactocentric dynamic model suggested that conflicts between two language processing streams lead to a continued combinational analysis that is reflected by the P600 effect; as for the third account, the semantic P600 effect was interpreted within the extended Argument Dependency Model, and in this sentence processing model, the loci of the semantic P600 and the syntactic P600 effect were different.
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    The Multiple Psychological Mechanisms of Idiomatic Phrases Processing
    MA Li–Jun; ZHANG Jing–Yu; ZHANG Ji-Jia
    . 2010, 18 (04): 553-559.  
    Abstract   PDF (609KB) ( 1357 )
    Idiom is one type of figurative language. Idioms’ literal meaning can be accessed when its syntax is processed as well as its figurative meaning can be accessed when its semantics is processed. The two processes are contradictory, however, which result in the promotion of viewpoints such as non-composition, composition and relevance theory. Those who hold the non-compositional opinion propose that figurative meaning is accessed immediately in processing idioms while morpheme plays an important role in processing idioms according to compositional viewpoint. Relevance theory assumes that the purpose of processing idioms is to try to find out the maximum semantic relevance between morpheme and lexicon and the maximum efficiency of exchanging information in pragmatics. A great number of researches show that neither of the viewpoints and theory mentioned above can be used individually to explain how idioms are processed, thus idiomatical phrases processing relies on the multiple psychological mechanisms.
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    The Psychological Representation of Spacial Quantification
    WANG Yi-Feng; ZHANG Li; LIU Chun-Lei; LI Hong
    . 2010, 18 (04): 560-568.  
    Abstract   PDF (682KB) ( 1219 )
    The quantification of space as the basis of spacial perception, is associated with particular spacial characteristics. Discrete magnitude and continuous quantity reflect the discrete and continuous characteristics of space, respectively. Similar behavioral effects and overlapped neural representations were found in the both processes. Evidences from behavioral and neural researches suggested that there may be a common characterization of the two types of magnitude, namely analog magnitude representation. Furthermore, number-space mappings provided a direct evidence for relationships of number and space. However, there are still many mysteries in the domain of spacial quantification now, such as the dynamic representation of spacial quantification, the pervasiveness of quantitative mechanism, the problem of anchor point, the quantification of complex and multi-dimentional space, and so on. Future studies should make a more profound answer to the mental representation of spacial characteristics, within the framework of embodied cognition.
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    The Neutral Generator and Functional Significance of Error Positivity
    JIANG Jun; CHEN An-Tao
    . 2010, 18 (04): 569-577.  
    Abstract   PDF (654KB) ( 1155 )
    Error positivity (Pe) refers to positive deflection of event-related potentials approximately 200~600 ms after an errant response. Researches in this aspect will help reveal the mechanisms of human error processing. Current evidence shows that Pe mainly arises from the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, but different studies fail to reach a consensus on its precise neutral generator. Hypotheses of functional significance of Pe include error awareness, behaviour adaptation, and emotional assessment. When interpreted in light with P3-related theories, Pe may reflect updating of the error context. However, each of these interpretations have been questioned and challenged by some researchers. In view of this, this paper summarizes and analyzes some problems of the existing studies, and offers some suggestions regarding the neutral generator and functional significance of Pe for further study.
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    The Autobiographical Memory Characteristics of Patients with Depressive Disorder and the Appliance of the Autobiographical Memory Test: A Meta-Analysis
    LIU Xian-Hua; YAO Shu-Qiao; XIAO Jin; YANG Juan
    . 2010, 18 (04): 578-589.  
    Abstract   PDF (739KB) ( 1852 )
    To explore the autobiographical memory characteristics of patients with depressive disorder and the appliance of the autobiographical memory test (AMT) in this field.In the present study, 18 retrievaled literatures were used, including 566 patients with depressive disorder and 457 normal controls. The results of meta-ananlysis showed that, compared with the control group, the clinical group reported less special autobiographical memories and more overgeneral autobiographical memories, and recalled more slowly. The fuctional avoidance model, the reduced cognitive execution model and the rumination model were the dominant theories to explain such phenomenon in these literatures. The results of AMT were influenced by age, depression mood and the characteristics of AMT. The publication bias and sensitivity analysis showed that the present sdudy had good stability although it had publication bias. The AMT had some limitations in the researches on depressive disorder such as poor sensitivity, and some recommendations on AMT, program research design, and so on, were given for the future researches.
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    Negative Biases or Positivity Lacks? The Explanation of Positive Psychology on Depression
    ZHOU Ya; LIU Xiang-Ping; SU Yang; RAN Li-Wen
    . 2010, 18 (04): 590-597.  
    Abstract   PDF (620KB) ( 2634 )
    Both Beck’s cognitive theory and the theory of hopeless depression are primary theories in the field of depression. Negative cognitive biases, according to them, are assumed as the vulnerability to depression. However, researches into “depressive realism”, “positive illusion”, and related phenomena which reveal depressive individuals tend to be more objective and accurate in cognition than non-depressive ones refute the existence of negative cognitive biases. This discrepancy reflects the dominating influence of the disease model over contemporary psychology. Contrary to the negativity focus of previous theories, positive psychology attempts to construct a “positive” explanation on depression.
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    The Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy: A New Research Topic
    TANG Dong-Ling; DONG Yan; YU Guo-Liang; WEN Shu-Feng
    . 2010, 18 (04): 598-604.  
    Abstract   PDF (603KB) ( 5475 )
    Regulatory emotional self-efficacy, the degree of self-confidence about whether an individual can regulate his/her emotion effectively, affects various psychosocial functioning both directly and indirectly. Currently, some empirical researches have been conducted on the relationship between regulatory emotional self-efficacy and subjective well-being, depression and stress coping, the result of which indicates that regulatory emotional self-efficacy has close relation with mental health. In addition, the cross-cultural researches show that regulatory emotional self-efficacy in different cultures varies in structure but not in function. As a new research domain, regulatory emotional self-efficacy boasts a broad prospect.
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    Neural Mechanism of How Emotion Affects Behavioral Inhibition
    YANG Su-Yong; HUANG Yu-Xia; ZHANG Hui-Jun; LUO Yue-Jia
    . 2010, 18 (04): 605-615.  
    Abstract   PDF (642KB) ( 2443 )
    It is very important to withhold improper behaviors in emotional situations. Recently, brain imaging technologies have been applied to investigate the neural mechanisms of how emotion affects behavioral inhibition. According to these findings, behavioral inhibition in emotional contexts requires an interaction of inhibitory and emotional processes that recruits brain regions beyond those engaged by either process alone. At the neural substrate level, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex and amygdala were involved in the integration of emotional information and the behavioral inhibition process. However, the time course of the integration process is still unclear. Individual differences (age, gender and personality) and emotional factors (valence and arousal) also mediated the effects of emotion affecting inhibition in neural level. Future studies should focus on identifying to what extent and when the integration and dissociation between emotion and inhibition processes occur.
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    Integration Models of Peripheral and Central Nervous System in Research on Physiological Mechanisms of Emotions
    LIU Fei; CAI Hou-De
    . 2010, 18 (04): 616-622.  
    Abstract   PDF (706KB) ( 2239 )
    To clarify the physiological mechanism of human emotions is a great challenge for psychologists and neuroscientists. Previous studies trended to separately investigate the peripheral response patterns and brain mechanisms of emotions. With the development of emotional electrophysiology and cognitive neuroscience, many researchers have recently proposed several integration models of physiological mechanism of emotions from perspectives of interaction between peripheral and central nervous system. The typical examples are emotion circuit model and neurovisceral integration model. The former emphasized a processing way from peripheral to central (bottom-up) to try to explain the mechanism of the formation of emotion experience, and the latter a processing way from central to peripheral (top-down) trying to elucidate the mechanism of emotion regulation. Future research should build a more comprehensive physiological model of human emotions by drawing on these two models and combining with the recent new research results about the neural mechanisms of emotional information processing.
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    The Mechanism of Procedural Justice and Its Moderator
    GAO Ji; MA Hong-Yu
    . 2010, 18 (04): 623-629.  
    Abstract   PDF (610KB) ( 1007 )
    Procedural justice is the extent to which people perceived decision-making procedures as fair. We find four kinds of factors were the moderator of the procedural justice by reviewing the relative theories and the conclusion of the researches; they are as follow, situation factors, personal characteristic factors, distributive outcome factors, and leader factors. At last, the problems of procedural justice research and research orientation are provided, such as, validate the voice effect across culture, explore native procedure justice principle, and further develop the moderate role of the situational factor and so on.
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    Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Decision-making Confidence
    CHEN Jing; YUAN Wen-Ping; FENG Ting-Yong; LI Hong
    . 2010, 18 (04): 630-638.  
    Abstract   PDF (740KB) ( 1800 )
    Decision-making Confidence is the degree of confidence of the optimization or correctness its decision when one making judgments or decisions. The single-process theories of decision-making confidence suggest decision-making and assessment of confidence is the same parallel process; while the postdecisional theories consider that decision-making and assessment of confidence are two serial different process. The decision-making confidence has two kinds of typical bias effect: overconfidence and lack of confidence. Neural mechanisms of decision-making confidence revealed that the assessment of confidence may be the most basic and pervasive component of decision-making; functional brain areas involved in assessment of confidence include Cingulate gyrus, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and Superior parietal and so on. Studies in the future should increase researches of the psychological and neural mechanism on the interaction of confidence and decision-making.
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    Effects of Perceptual Fluency on Judgment and Decision
    ZHANG Xu-Jin
    . 2010, 18 (04): 639-645.  
    Abstract   PDF (607KB) ( 2267 )
    Fluency - the subjective experience of ease or difficulty associated with information processing – includes perceptual fluency, conceptual fluency, retrieval fluency, so on and so forth. Researchers manipulated perceptual fluency via controlling the figure-ground contrast, font, and clarity of stimuli and found that perceptual fluency has influences on a serial of judgment and decision, such as truth judgment, categorization, preference, familiarity and so on. It is assumed that perceptual fluency can both act as a direct cue and function in an indirect way by selecting various cues and cognitive strategies.
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    The Psychological Mechanism and Influential Factors of Endowment Effect
    LIU Teng-FEI; XU Fu-Ming; ZHANG Jun-Wei; JIANG Duo; CHEN Xue-Ling
    . 2010, 18 (04): 646-654.  
    Abstract   PDF (645KB) ( 4280 )
    Endowment effect refers to a phenomenon that people sometimes demand much more to give up an object of their own than they are, or would ever be, willing to pay to acquire the very same object. This phenomenon is universal in behavioral economics. This paper introduced the concepts and research paradigms of endowment effects, including the classical paradigm and barter trade paradigm, and elaborated two psychological mechanism of endowment effect, namely, loss aversion and query theory. Then the paper came to some influential factors of endowment effect, including motivation, emotions, object’s character, and study design characteristics. Finally, the issues deserved further research were also outlined, such as the origin and applied conditions of endowment effect.
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    The Job Demand-Control-Support Model: A Review of Empirical Research
    SHI Qian; SHU Xiao-Bing; LUO Yu-Yue
    . 2010, 18 (04): 655-663.  
    Abstract   PDF (638KB) ( 1803 )
    The job demand-control-support (JDCS) model has been an influential organizational stress model in the area of occupational stress research, which involves extensively empirical researches in various countries. We summarize and analyze related JDCD researches in the past 30 years in three aspects: the applicability of the JDCS model, the exploration of interrelated variables, and the development of the JDCS model. It is found that the current JDCS model presents a satisfactory level of applicability and comprehensiveness. However, there is still a need for future research on both the development of JDCS model itself and the JCQ which is based on JDCS model.
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    Trust in Organizations: Maintaining and Repair
    CHEN Yue; SHI Kan; LUO Dong-Xia
    . 2010, 18 (04): 664-670.  
    Abstract   PDF (613KB) ( 1751 )
    Trust in organizations can enhance inter-member communications, strengthen cohesion and increase work efficiency. However, trust violation and distrust cause the economic, emotional and social costs increased. Therefore, trust repair has become such an important issue that it is urgent need to solve. Trust repair is becoming a hot topic of research. Researches indicate that trust in organizations is a multi-level structure and a variety of variables from individual, interpersonal, and organizational level influent its establishment and maintenance. A large number of trust repair strategies have been developed and their effectivenesses vary with situations. It is indicate that to get a clear definition of trust in organization, perfection of tools and to further study of factors related with trust repair are the trends of research in this field.
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    Concept, Measurement and Related Variables of Moral Disengagement
    YANG Ji-Ping; WANG Xing-Chao; GAO Ling
    . 2010, 18 (04): 671-678.  
    Abstract   PDF (614KB) ( 2755 )
    Moral disengagement is an individual predisposition to evoke cognitions that allow individuals to restructure their actions toappear less harmful, minimize their role in the outcomes of their actions, or attenuate the distress that they cause to others. The concept and measurement were introduced by exploring the past research. Moreover, a great deal of empirical work of antecedents and consequences of moral disengagement had been systematically reviewed. Among all, this paper also proposed the outline of the further research, such as developing more scientific measuring tools for moral disengagement, antecedents, longitudinal research, and intervention research.
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    The Amusement Park Theoretical Model of Creativity and Its Connotation of Creativity Fostering
    LIU Gui-Rong; ZHANG Jing-Huan; WANG Xiao-Ling
    . 2010, 18 (04): 679-684.  
    Abstract   PDF (610KB) ( 2132 )
    One of the most controversial questions in creativity research is the domain generality or specificity. Basing on empirical research, Baer and Kaufman developed the Amusement Park Theoretical (APT) model of creativity. The APT model uses the metaphor of an amusement park to explore creativity. There are four stages: Initial requirements, general thematic areas, domains, and micro-domains. The model successfully bridges together domain-general and domain-specific components of creativity in a way that demonstrates how those factors overlap to varying degrees in a kind of nested hierarchy. Although the APT model was developed by Western psychologists, Chinese researchers have also constructed similar mode in creativity fostering area. They are verified each other, which suggests the scientificity and practicability of the APT model.
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    The Effects of Need For Cognition on the Dispositional Differences of Individuals’ Information Processing
    XU Jie; ZHOU Ning
    . 2010, 18 (04): 685-690.  
    Abstract   PDF (615KB) ( 2230 )
    Need for Cognition (NFC) refers to“the tendency for an individual to engage in and enjoy thinking” (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982). As one of cognitive motivations, the researchers consider that NFC influences the disposition of individuals’ information processing. According to the nearest 30 years relevant research abroad, NFC has an impact on individuals’ information processing mainly on the aspects of the endeavoring effort, self-determination and results applying. In the end, the paper looks forward to the study trends of the future researches and discusses the existing shortcomings of the present researches from the aspects of the measuring of NFC, the controlling of irrelevant variables, the duration and stability of influence, and the loading of emotional factors.
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    Identity Style: A New Perspective on Adolescents’ Ego Identity Study
    LIU Nan; ZHANG Ya-Ming
    . 2010, 18 (04): 691-698.  
    Abstract   PDF (629KB) ( 1962 )
    In recent years, the focus of empirical research on ego identity has been turned from identity status to identity style. Identity style refers to reported preferences in the social-cognitive strategies used to engage or to avoid the tasks of constructing and maintaining a sense of identity, including the information style, the normative style, and the diffuse/avoidant style. Numerous investigations have examined the linkages between identity style and social-cognitive processing strategies, personality, parenting, well-being, academic performance, etc. More diverse samples and measures are needed in future research. Cross-cultural comparisons and interventions also need further development.
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    The Introduction and the Development of ‘Trier Social Stress Test’
    YANG Juan; ZHANG Qing-Lin
    . 2010, 18 (04): 699-704.  
    Abstract   PDF (604KB) ( 2057 )
    ‘Trier Social Stress Test’ (TSST) is a widely used protocol in a laboratory setting for its physiological response during a moderate psychological stress. The ‘Montreal Imaging Stress Task’ (MIST), derived from the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), is a protocol for inducing moderate psychological stress in a functional imaging setting. There were many relevant researches based on Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). Authors suggested that the TSST should be developed if researchers are interested in psychosocial stress study in laboratory setting in Chinese culture.
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