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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 18 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Identity Integration: The Pathway to Internal Harmony
    CAO Hui;Fanny M. CHEUNG
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1839-1847.  
    Abstract   PDF (611KB) ( 2188 )
    Identity integration is a framework for investigating individual differences in multiple identity organization, focusing on individuals’ subjective perceptions of how much their dual cultural identities intersect or overlap. It is composed of two dimensions: conflict and distance. This concept has been used in cultural research, racial research, and gender-related research, and has shown that higher identity integration could positively predict adaptation, mental health and creativity. As a new concept, there are many research topics that could be explored in the future, including the mechanism of identity integration, and how to apply this concept to solve practical problems in China.
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    Reflection and Prospect on Core Self-Evaluations
    LI Jian-Bin;NIE Yan-Gang
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1848-1857.  
    Abstract   PDF (626KB) ( 3358 )
    Characterized as a latent and broad personality construct, Core self-evaluations (CSE) is the baseline appraisal on self-worth, competence and capabilities one makes about him- or herself. Over the past decade, the key research fields of CSE have shifted from confirmation and measurement of construct, discussing its functions on various occupational outcomes to explore how CSE affects mental health and academic area. In addition, the predicting and moderating effect of CSE can be explained in the frameworks of motive, schema, ability, coping and capitalizing, and self-verifying. At present, it should be paid attention to some issues of CSE as follows: where does CSE originate, whether extremely high CSE is good or bad, what factors should be included or excluded on CSE construct, whether stability is another nature of CSE and how “frame of reference” influence the predictive effect of CSE. Future study should keep broadening study fields of CSE, solve questions about natures of CSE and indigenize the concept and measurement of CSE.
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    Narrative Style, Self-perspective and Self-development
    WANG Xin-Jian;ZHU Yan-Li
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1858-1863.  
    Abstract   PDF (598KB) ( 2667 )
    Narrative approach research on self assumed that individual constructed and developed self through telling life-story and retrieving autobiographical memory. Recent study explored the factors that influence narrative and its meaning on self-development. Relative results showed that such factors as coherent positive narrative, narrative style, and personality traits were correlated with life-story and self-development. A series of experiments proved that different narrative person and self perspective on autobiographical memory have different effect on emotion, behavior, and body. On the basis of those studies, researchers conducted clinical intervention and carried out fundamental researches including neural mechanisms. It proposed that future research should expand research materials and explore influence factors, such as cross-culture study of narrative style and self perspective.
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    Egocentric Perspective Transformation: A Self-Based Mental Transformation
    ZHAO Yang-Ke;QIAN Xiu-Ying
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1864-1871.  
    Abstract   PDF (610KB) ( 1508 )
    Egocentric perspective transformation is associated with the process of spatial transformation which depends on egocentric reference system. Previous studies showed that egocentric perspective transformation has a viewer advantage over object-based transformation. Further evidence from neuropsychological studies indicate a dissociation between these two types of transformation on neural basis. These findings support the multiple-system models hypothesis suggesting mechanisms and properties of egocentric perspective transformation are independent. Researches on egocentric perspective transformation have both theoretical and practical significance.
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    The New Form of Self-Views: A Review of Self-Compassion Research
    ZHANG Yao-Hua;LIU Cong-Hui;DONG Yan
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1872-1881.  
    Abstract   PDF (641KB) ( 2657 )
    Because self-esteem does not represent individual mental health, lots of researchers try to refine self-esteem or propose new constructs. One construct among others is self-compassion—a new form of self-views, which derives from the Buddhism. The authors introduce its components (i.e., self-kindness, the sense of common humanity, and mindfulness) and research methods. Then the influencing factors in terms of early experience and social culture are discussed. From the perspective of mental functioning, the review demonstrates that self-compassion can help individuals cope with the negative life events, strengthen the positive mental qualities and have an effect on the interpersonal interactions. In the end, the future trends are suggested.
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    Self Impairment and Schizophrenia
    WANG Yu-Na;CHAN Raymond
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1882-1891.  
    Abstract   PDF (640KB) ( 1751 )
    It is commonly agreed that schizophrenia is associated with changes of self indicating that self disorders may be one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia, or at least accounting for clinical manifestation of schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanism of self impairment in schizophrenia is still unclear. In this review, we would like to review the concept of self from perspectives of psychology, psychiatry and cognitive neuroscience. In particular, we would like to examine sense of agency, self-face recognition, and self-reference and how these constructs may related to schizophrenia. We hope that this review can provide insight on the evaluation of self impairment in schizophrenia.
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    Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Category-based Feature Inference
    LIU Feng-Ying;YAO Zhi-Gang;LI Hong
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1892-1898.  
    Abstract   PDF (622KB) ( 1023 )
    Categorization and category-based feature inference are two important functions of category knowledge. Results from previous studies suggest that there are essential difference between categorization and category-based feature inference. Therefore, it was highly important to explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms of category-based feature inference for widening the theories relative to category. Previous studies have shown that category label, typicality level and causal relations between category features affect category-based feature inference tasks. Moreover, it has been found that the neural basis of category-based feature inference and categorization are different. Feature behavioral researches should focus on the interactions between category label and typical level as well as causal relations and typical level. In addition, feature researches on neural mechanisms should design the experiment paradigms in accordance with the tasks in natural situations.
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    Gender Differences in Emotional Processing and Its Neural Mechanisms
    YUAN Jia-Jin;WANG Yu;JU En-Xia;LI Hong
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1899-1908.  
    Abstract   PDF (630KB) ( 12968 )
    Considerable studies reported gender differences in emotional processing, which was mainly manifested by the female advantage in emotion recognition and emotional memory, and by the increased susceptibility of women to negative emotions. Moreover, gender differences in emotional processing are also embodied by differences in emotion regulation. Despite better performance in response inhibition, females are worse than males in regulating unpleasant emotions using cognitive strategies. In addition, emotion regulation in women is characterized by emotional focused strategies, while that in men is characterized by cognitive-focused strategies. Gender differences in emotional processing have important biological bases, such as differences in emotion-related brain structures and in hormonal level variations across genders. The gender differences in emotional processing are associated with the gender-related prevalence of affective disturbances. Enhanced susceptibility to negative emotions and reduced competence in unpleasant emotion regulation may be important mechanisms underlying the females’ prevalence in affective disorders. Thus, investigating gender- related prevalence of affective disorders from the perspective of the gender impact on emotion processing, is of particular significance to the precaution and treatment of affective disturbances
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    The Neural Mechanisms of Stereotype
    JIA Lei;LUO Jun-Long;XIAO Xiao;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1909-1918.  
    Abstract   PDF (666KB) ( 2196 )
    The stereotype refers to an automatic categorization processing to social information. Recently, the neural mechanisms of stereotype are becoming more and more interesting to social cognitive neuroscientists with Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and other neuroimaging techniques. Basing on the electroencephalogram technology, its processes in attention, representation and inhibition could receive an instantaneous assessment of underlying neural activity by specific ERP components. Furthermore, fMRI studies together with source localization of ERP studies have indicated some brain areas, like amygdala, anterior cingulate (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), temporo-parietal Junction (TPJ), might be involved in the processes of stereotype. Based on previous studies, the possible cognitive modality of stereotype was proposed. Then the limitations in current research and prospects in the future were discussed briefly.
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    The Pattern and Cognitive Mechanism of Visual Multiple Object Tracking
    WEI Liu-Qing;ZHANG Xue-Min;LIU Bing;LU Xue-Ming;LI Ying-Di
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1919-1925.  
    Abstract   PDF (667KB) ( 1488 )
    Most of the attention researches investigate the single-focus attention and are based on static visual information. Pylyshyn’s (1988) Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) is a widely used paradigm in the study of limited capacity mechanism in multiple tracking, which, in comparison, is based on a dynamic situation. Multiple Identity Tracking (MIT), derived from MOT, that each object carrying an unique identity, is used to study more complicated cognitive process, such as attention, visual working memory. The study of the cognitive mechanisms in MOT and MIT will help us understanding the cognitive process of dynamic information in real and virtual world.
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    The Asymmetric Relationship Between Encoding and Retrieval
    MENG Ying-Fang
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1926-1933.  
    Abstract   PDF (627KB) ( 1391 )
    Encoding and retrieval are two important phases of memory. Though transfer-appropriate- processing accounts of memory emphasize the similarity of encoding and retrieval processes, exceptions to this claim are debatable, single dissociations between encoding and retrieval. We evaluate the asymmetry between encoding and retrieval that were produced by studies using behavior or neuroimage methods, and the accounts of a dual-process model and a two-phase neuropsychological model of memory. Finally, we conclude that the relationship between encoding and retrieval may be complicated.
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    Decoding the Representation of Cognition: the Principles and Applications of MVPA
    LEI Wei;YANG Zhi;ZHAN Min-Ye;LI Hong;WENG Xu-Chu
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1934-1941.  
    Abstract   PDF (721KB) ( 1677 )
    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), which is based on machine learning theories, has gained great popularity over the past years as a new approach for fMRI data analysis. By training a classifier, MVPA categorizes multi-voxel patterns tuned by different cognitive states. Compared to conventional voxel-wise methods, this new approach provide higher sensitivity for detecting cognitive representations in the brain. It opens up the possibility for “reading out” mental states of human beings from the non-invasive recordings of brain activities.This paper introduce the fundamental principles of MVPA and the basic realization procedures. Scientific questions that may be properly addressed with this new approach and potential problems in its applications are also discussed.
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    A Review of the N170 Component in Face Recognition
    LI Ming-Fang;ZHANG Ye;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1942-1948.  
    Abstract   PDF (662KB) ( 1947 )
    The N170 component is a negative brain potential, occurring at 130-200ms time windows, peaking around 160-170ms after stimulus (e.g. faces, object) onset, with a posterior lateral distribution. Recently, studies of N170 focus mainly on three questions: what cognitive mechanism N170 reflects, face structural or feature encoding; whether or not it is face-specific; or whether the component is affected by conscious awareness. In terms of the above questions, future research could investigate the effect of structural and feature encoding on N170 response, compare familiarities of different stimulus on N170, differentiate the N170 from recognition potential, and combine multiple methods to real the cognitive mechanism of N170.
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    Two Types of Paradigms for Studying the Cognition Process of Verbs Learning in Infants
    ZHENG Xin-Yi;LIAN Rong;HE Shao-Yin
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1949-1957.  
    Abstract   PDF (613KB) ( 1408 )
    A bodies of studies introduce two major paradigms of verbs learning in preverbal infants, showing the cognition process of conceptual system learning. One is habituation paradigm, IPLP the other. The studies reveal that as compared to nouns learning time, verbs conceptual learning is appeared after nouns learning; infants have shown different timing in learning the components of verb (path or manner); the full meaning of verb is highly related to mother-tongue input. All in one, these two paradigms of studying preverbal infants are more effective and economic.
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    A New Paradigm to Study the Development of Theory of Mind: Matrix Game
    LI Jing;LIU Xi-Ping
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1958-1965.  
    Abstract   PDF (623KB) ( 2197 )
    Theory of Mind (ToM) is an ability, which develops throughout one’s life, to make inferences about the mental states of others. Studies about ToM have quite a few limits on the participants and its research topics. This review introduces a new paradigm, matrix game, and analyzes the feasibility of adopting it to the study of ToM. Furthermore, the theoretical basis and empirical evidences of combining ToM study and matrix game are proposed in this review. It is believed that the matrix game paradigm can be applied in a wide spectrum of ages to study the developmental trajectory of ToM in future studies. Besides, the neuro-imaging techniques such as fMRI can be introduced to explore the neural mechanism of ToM involved in matrix game.
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    Review of Eye Movement Research Paradigms in Reading
    YAN Guo-Li;WU Jin-Gen;HU Yan-Wen;BAI Xue-Jun
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1966-1976.  
    Abstract   PDF (681KB) ( 3170 )
    Nowadays, the frequently used eye movement research paradigm in reading included moving window paradigm, moving mask paradigm, boundary paradigm, fast priming paradigm, disappearing text paradigm and visual - world paradigm, etc. The present paper introduced the experiment procedures, experimental rationales and the related studies of the six paradigms. And meanwhile, we made some suggestions concerning the usage of these paradigms. Moreover, the paper prospected the application of eye movement research paradigms in the future: (1) The important role of these paradigms for the study of eye movement control model; (2) The effective combinations between different kinds of paradigms and the application for the study of scene perception; (3) The combination between the eye movement paradigm and the electrophysiological techniques or neuroimaging techniques; (4) Eye movement research paradigms for the study of Chinese reading.
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    The Assessment of Perceptual and Attitudinal Components of Body Image
    XU Xia;ZHANG Jiang-Xin
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1977-1985.  
    Abstract   PDF (628KB) ( 2335 )
    Assessments of body image are available to measure various facets of body image functioning in specific contexts. There has been a general consensus that the construct of body image has two main components, a ‘perceptual’ component and an ‘attitudinal’ component. And the assessment of body image is accordingly classified by the conceptualization of body image. Body size estimation is one of the most useful perceptual methods. The attitudinal methods include explicit and implicit measurements. Additionally, the development of personalized Implicit Associative Test is introduced. Figural stimuli scales and digital and computerized techniques of assessing body image perception and body dissatisfaction are reviewed. Some methodological concern should not be ignored in this field such as avoidance of misusing measurements and utilization of appropriate measures in specific groups.
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    Item Response Process and Unfolding Model in Personality Tests
    DENG Wen-Gen;DAI Hai-Qi;DAI Hui-Qun
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1986-1990.  
    Abstract   PDF (604KB) ( 1180 )
    Personality assessment was reborn in industrial and organizational psychology, which promoted researchers to concern on quality and fairness in personality tests. Some researchers put forward the ideal point process hypothesis of item response in personality tests, by which they developed generalized grade unfolding model (GGUM) to analyze participants’ response data on personality tests, and to construct some personality scales, and found that GGUM fit the data better than dominant models. However, some current researches on item response process were not based on experimental evidence from laboratory, but on investigations from large samples. In addition, current popular GGUM can not fit the categorical data in personality tests. In the future, GGUM must be extended and some models which fit the data on forced-choice personality test must be developed.
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    Application of Latent Class Analysis in Psychological Research
    ZHANG Jie-Ting;JIAO Can;ZHANG Min-Qiang
    . 2010, 18 (12): 1991-1998.  
    Abstract   PDF (638KB) ( 5336 )
    Latent class analysis is a statistical technique used to identify subtypes of related cases. In the method, statistic model is built according to relationship between categorical observed and latent variables, and then manifest performances of each latent classes are respectively described based on the related parameters in the model. The analytical approach is mainly used in (1) classification of psychological or behavioral traits; (2) controlling the systematical error of cognitive experiments caused by individual differences; (3) assessing accuracy of clinical psychology diagnostics; (4) analyzing difficulty, discrimination, reliability and structure of psychology measurement. Both strong and weak points are considered, which indicates that, in respect of future development in the psychometric application, the method will be combined with other theoretical frameworks of measurement and also applied to longitudinal and multilevel data. Moreover, the application still sees room for improvement in its methodological technique.
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