ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Neuro-cognitive mechanism of food craving and restrained eating in Chinese
    CHEN Hong, LIU Xinyuan
    2021, 29 (6):  951-958.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00951
    Abstract ( 1387 )   HTML ( 200 )  
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    In modern affluent societies, where palatable foods are readily available, resisting the food craving brought by tempting food clues and keeping restrained eating to maintain a healthy body weight has become one of the challenging propositions. In recent years, in order to identify the reasons for the success of dieting, domestic scholars have created a Chinese Food Image Database to investigate the neuro-cognitive mechanism of restrained eating, and examine the differences of brain mechanism between successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters. In particular, based on the neural correlates of food craving, researches on general food craving and spicy food craving with Chinese characteristics has been carried out. Exploring the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of restrained eating and food craving can not only promote the theoretical developments of eating behavior research, but also provide important support for health interventions such as obesity and eating disorders.

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    Conceptual Framework
    The hypothesis of anticipatory emotions as information for social risks: Examining emotional and cultural mechanisms of risky decisions in public
    WANG X.T. (XiaoTian), WANG Na, HE Jinbo
    2021, 29 (6):  959-966.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00959
    Abstract ( 666 )   HTML ( 83 )  
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    This research project explores the emotional mechanisms underlying prosocial and antisocial behaviors in public arenas. By synthesizing several influential theories concerning the roles of emotions in decision-making, we developed a hypothesis of anticipatory emotions as an information source for social risks. We define anticipatory emotions as any discrete emotions that are induced from anticipating expected choice outcomes and felt at the time of decision-making, and in turn, regulate the decision behavior. Risky events in social and public contexts are characterized by their destructive, emergent, transient, and unpredictable nature. Thus, the reactions to these risky events need to be quick and unambiguous. However, the probabilities of possible consequences associated with these reactions are usually hard to reckon with. Under such conditions, anticipatory emotions provide a prompt and overall risk assessment as a substitute for expected utility, reflecting both the likelihood and severity of expected choice outcomes. We view anticipatory emotions as mental representations of social risks. We predict that different profiles of anticipatory emotions collectively distinguish different types of social risks. Moreover, the combinations of anticipatory emotions are culturally specific. The more recent categorization of the face, dignity, and honor cultures allows us to make predictions about the emotional characteristics of each culture. Overall, the proposed four studies with multiple experiments will examine how anticipatory emotions influence reactions to public risks. We explore how dispositional, social, and cultural factors regulate prosocial and antisocial behaviors. The results of these studies will benefit the research in risk management, public policymaking, and provide scientific support to public education, counseling, and civil service training.

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    The bottom-up effect of followers' proactive work behavior: An implicit followership perspective
    PENG Jian, CAO Bingbing
    2021, 29 (6):  967-977.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00967
    Abstract ( 451 )   HTML ( 48 )  
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    Proactive work behaviors, which are crucial for the long-term development of organizations, have become a hot topic in the organizational behavior research field. However, prior studies have indicated that followers' proactive work behaviors may exert a mixed-blessing effect on their leaders, such that these behaviors sometimes trigger leaders' positive evaluation but sometimes evoke leaders' negative treatment. To reconcile these conflicting findings, this theoretical paper draws upon implicit followership theory to develop a model of the bottom-up effect of followers' proactive work behavior. This model proposes that whether proactive followers evoke their leaders' positive or negative reaction depends on leaders' implicit followership. This paper first discussed the definition and dimension of leaders' proactive implicit followership and then illustrated how the congruence level between followers' proactive work behavior and leaders' proactive implicit followership shapes leaders' reactions and identified the mediating role of core emotions (e.g., happiness, tension, disappointment, and satisfaction). This paper provides a theoretical framework for future research to conduct empirical investigations on proactive work behavior.

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    Formation mechanism of the doctor contribution behavior in virtual health communities
    PENG Jiamin, XIE Lishan, GUAN Xinhua
    2021, 29 (6):  978-989.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00978
    Abstract ( 323 )   HTML ( 26 )  
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    The key to future theoretical research in service management is to focus on the transformative service that is dedicated to improving human well-being. Integrating into the transformative service with the objective of co-creating value to enhance social well-being has become a hot spot in this field. The service ecosystem stresses that all actors involved in service should invest their own resources, skills, and other available assets in their interactions with the help of systems, technologies, behaviors, and languages, thus making the static resources dynamic to benefit other entities or the entity itself. “Contribution,” in this course of interaction, acts as a vital dimension for measuring the value of co-creation; for it reflects the actors’ faith in achieving the expected results by investing their own resources (including tangible and intangible resources, operational and object resources). Therefore, topics such as paying attention to the contribution of actors in different service contexts and exploring how to improve stakeholders’ well-being via the actors’ contributions stand out as the research areas that need to be further probed in the theoretical research on value co-creation.
    Doctor contribution behavior in virtual health communities is critical to improving social well-being. Most academic studies on user participation in virtual health communities focus on patient behavior, while there is a lack of research on medical service providers' behavior patterns and their effects on health and well-being. From the perspective of value co-creation theory, the group engagement model, and positive psychology research, this paper proposes a conceptual framework comprised of the antecedents and consequences of doctors’ contribution behaviors in online service interactions. The paper discusses the concept and dimensions of doctor contribution behavior in virtual health communities from the resource input perspective. It then analyzes the behavior engagement process associated with doctor contribution behavior under the dual motivation of social exchange and social identity as well as the resource supplement factors in the service ecosystem. Finally, the influence of doctor contribution behavior on doctor–patient well-being and the moderating effect of resource matching are discussed.
    The paper proposes an innovative conceptual framework, which combines marketing research and organizational behavior research, and takes the resource view in service interaction as the theoretical basis for studying the mechanism by which doctor contribution behavior forms from the perspective of value co-creation. The conceptual framework further takes into account the resources investment and integrated factors of all actors involved in the service ecosystem. The conceptual framework, for the first time, introduces into doctor contribution behavior research important variables, including community fairness, community identity, and resource matching. Moreover, the online characteristics and the interplay of offline social relationship factors are studied comprehensively. According to the conceptual framework, a more systematic and thorough interpretation of the formation of doctor contribution behavior in virtual health communities and its role is expected to be achieved. Thus, the paper has a critical practical significance for guiding virtual health community managers on how to build a good service ecosystem under the service-dominant logic, to realize the co-creation of well-being, and to promote the rapid development of the health service industry.

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    Regular Articles
    Perspective taking and its cognitive mechanism in language processing
    SUI Xue, SHI Hanwen, LI Yutong
    2021, 29 (6):  990-999.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00990
    Abstract ( 725 )   HTML ( 85 )  
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    Perspective taking refers to the mental process in which an individual image or speculates the views and attitudes of others from the perspective of others or their situation. Verbal communication is a cooperative behavior. When people get together to communicate, everyone has their own unique life experience, beliefs and background knowledge. The communicator needs to consider the partner's point of view to understand the meaning of the expression, and adjust his own language expression to achieve effective communication. Perspective taking affects the language content that the communicator chooses to express: from the syntactic structure, specific vocabulary, to the expression form of lexical rhythm. An influential experimental paradigm for studying perspective taking called the referential communication task. In order to measure perspective taking, the research mainly focused on the speaker’s referential expression and the listener’s real-time interpretation of the referential expression. The number of researches on perspective taking is gradually increasing, and the research results have proved that perspective taking can contribute to language understanding and expression among communicators. But whether individuals can completely consider the problem from the perspective of others in communication, whether the perspective taking behavior is affected by egocentrism, whether the egocentrism will increase the cost of communication, and whether the egocentrism bias of perspective taking is affected by the presence of others. The above issues are still unclear. The research on the role of perspective taking in language processing mainly includes the role of perspective taking in language understanding and the role of perspective taking in language production. The study found that individuals can consider the communicator’s knowledge level, and can also distinguish between privileged ground and common ground in the process of language production and understanding. The mutual recognition of knowledge among individuals is called common ground, and the information that only one of them can obtain is called privileged ground. However, some studies have found that individuals often show egocentrism, and fail to completely process other people’s language expression from the perspective of others. Different theories are trying to explain these contradictory results. There are two mainstream theoretical explanations for perspective taking. One of these theories suggested that perspective taking is a by-product of the individual’s general processing, and the other theory holds that perspective taking is a result of prediction, which is generated by the individual's calculation of various information. Both theories are supported by corresponding evidence, but there is a situation in which both theories cannot explain certain perspective taking phenomena. This article first sorts out the current research on perspective taking, then reviews the related theories of the cognitive mechanism of perspective taking, and finally looks forward to future research based on the unresolved problems of existing research. A review of relevant studies found that: (1) Whether there is egocentrism bias in perspective taking is still controversial; (2) The egocentrism bias of perspective taking does not always exist, which may be due to the time pressure and the requirement of specific types of tasks; (3) The presence of others affects the egocentrism of perspective taking, and the effect is automatic and independent of task type; (4) The cognitive mechanism of perspective taking mainly includes interactive alignment, memory extraction and probability calculation. Future research needs: (1) Integration of the existing computational models; (2) To further explore the relationship between perspective taking ability and Theory of Mind; (3) Explore the role of private information in the perspective taking; (4) To improve the ecological validity of opinion selection research; (5) Using different technical means for convergence verification.

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    Effects of action video games on reading skills of individuals with developmental dyslexia and its internal mechanisms
    REN Xiaoyu, ZHAO Jing, BI Hongyan
    2021, 29 (6):  1000-1009.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01000
    Abstract ( 802 )   HTML ( 54 )  
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    Developmental dyslexia is a specific disorder in reading acquisition, which hinders the development of individuals. Many researchers focused on how to help the dyslexics to improve their reading skills. Traditional intervention methods are mainly based on phonological deficit of dyslexia, in which there are still some problems required to be solved such as consuming considerable time and labors in intervention implementation, and reading materials putting pressures on dyslexic readers. In recent years, most of the relevant studies have indicated that the intriguing action video game intervention could significantly improve the dyslexics' reading abilities, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Based on the visual magnocellular deficit theory, the possible internal mechanisms regarding the positive influence of playing action video games on reading efficiency could be explained from the aspects of visual spatial attention, cross-sensory attention shifting and visual motor processing. Based on this theory framework, future research could not only examine the internal mechanisms of the effect of action video game training on reading skills, but also develop relevant intervention programs which are more suitable for the dyslexic readers.

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    How can a selected and a rejected option turn out to be the same one?
    HUANG Yuan-Na, LI Yun-Xiao, LI Shu
    2021, 29 (6):  1010-1021.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01010
    Abstract ( 702 )   HTML ( 68 )  
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    Decisions can be remarkably influenced by how an option is framed and elicited. However, as a special variant of the elicited method, the potential value and application of selection and rejection have been traditionally underestimated by researchers. The discrepancies between selection and rejection can be represented in five aspects, including cognitive effort, attention, decision criteria, and so on. Over the past 30 years, the enrichment paradigm, phased narrowing technique, and direct inquiry methods have gradually developed as paradigms. These have helped explore some relatively mature theoretical hypotheses, such as compatibility principle, commitment hypothesis, and accentuation hypothesis, to illustrate the inherent mechanism of the difference between the selection and rejection response modes. Meanwhile, the selection and rejection response mode has played a driving role in consumer behavior, health care, and other areas. Future studies may consider the application value and promotion practice of the selection and rejection response mode as a tool of nudging. This work attempts to shed light on the knowledge of selection and rejection as well as showing new applications for future research.

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    Effects of expression on social perceptions of faces
    LI Yaning, TIAN Yangyang, WU Qi, LENG Haizhou, JIANG Zhongqing, YANG Yisheng
    2021, 29 (6):  1022-1029.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01022
    Abstract ( 765 )   HTML ( 66 )  
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    Social perceptions of faces refer to the process in which people perceive others' social characteristics (e.g., personality) based on their face information. Facial expression plays a key role in social perceptions of faces. The local features and structural information are the main factors affecting social perceptions of faces. Facial expression can also impact social perceptions of faces by eliciting the perceivers' emotion and their behavioral tendency. In daily life, facial expressions are very complicated. For example, there might be mixture of multiple expressions, as well as fake expressions; on the other hand, social perceptions of faces are of great subjectivity. Further studies should expand the types of facial expression, and take the perceivers' characteristics into account.

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    Mechanisms underlying the role of D2 receptors in regulating sensory gating
    OU Huaxing, CHEN Weihai
    2021, 29 (6):  1030-1041.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01030
    Abstract ( 239 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    Schizophrenia is a common psychotic disease whose etiology and mechanism are not well defined. It has been shown that the symptoms of cognitive disorder and abnormal thoughts of schizophrenics are associated with the deficit of sensory gating. Sensory gating refers to filter irrelevant sensory information from the external ones and then implement the cognitive process related to attention, so as to respond to prominent stimuli. The pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm is always used to study sensory gating. It has been found that dopamine D2 receptors play a critical role in regulating PPI, but the mechanisms underlying the role of dopamine D2 receptors in regulating PPI remain largely elusive. The review focuses on molecular mechanisms underlying the regulating effect of dopamine D2 receptors on sensory gating, so as to promote the in-depth study of sensory gating function in schizophrenia.

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    The influence of maturity on adolescents' antisocial behavior
    LIN Shuang, LIU Wen, WANG Weiwei, ZHANG Xue
    2021, 29 (6):  1042-1055.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01042
    Abstract ( 685 )   HTML ( 64 )  
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    Moffitt's developmental taxonomy theory categorized antisocial behaviors (AB) into two types, namely the life-course persistent and adolescence limited (AL). Adolescent antisocial behaviors, usually develop in the early puberty and end in late adolescence or early adulthood, occur more in youth group than LCP-AB. Maturity, in aspects of physical or psychological maturity, impacts the emergence, development and cessation of adolescent antisocial behavior. Physical maturity develops and strengthens AL-AB. Psychological maturity slows down and weakens AL-AB. The interaction between physical maturity and psychological maturity might strengthen or weaken AL-AB. The maturity gap between physical maturity and psychological maturity inhibits AL-AB. Further efforts are needed to expand different types of maturity research, improve the calculation methods of maturity, and investigate the intervention based on adolescent maturity characteristics.

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    Tall trees catch much wind: Fear of positive evaluation in social anxiety
    YE Youcai, LIN Ronmao, YAN Youwei
    2021, 29 (6):  1056-1066.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01056
    Abstract ( 1117 )   HTML ( 104 )  
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    Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) is a key trait to effectively distinguish social anxiety from depressive symptom. It is defined as an emotional response involving fear of and distress about positive evaluation from others. Its role of social anxiety manifests in that it leads individuals with social anxiety to deny the positive evaluation, avoid attention from others, and be in negative mood by themselves. Furthermore, it aggravates individual's cognitive bias, and suppress positive emotions through Disqualification of Positive Social Outcomes (DPSO) and the Interpretation Bias (IB), thereby maintaining and exacerbating the symptoms relating to social anxiety. Future research not only should more consider the application of FPE in education and consultation, but also should pay more attention to its special characters in Chinese modest culture background.

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    Psychological and behavioral effects of personal names in real world: Evidence and theories
    BAO Han-Wu-Shuang, CAI Hua-Jian
    2021, 29 (6):  1067-1085.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01067
    Abstract ( 1919 )   HTML ( 126 )  
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    Personal names not only can influence others' impression and evaluation, but also may affect individuals' own psychology and behavior in real world. Over the past century, psychologists have conducted numerous empirical studies in the domains of decision making, achievement, health, and personality to examine the actual impacts of surnames or given names on individuals. Various dimensions of names (e.g., name uniqueness, name gender, name valence, and name warmth-competence) could, more or less, predict human psychology and behavior (e.g., career/life/economic decisions, career/academic achievements, physical/mental health, criminal behavior, personality traits, psychological needs, and facial characteristics). However, existing evidence is mixed, and current theories are far from adequate. Future studies should examine multiple dimensions of names, deal with methodological problems (e.g., replicability, causality, mechanisms, and cross-cultural generalizability), and try best to develop more systematic and inclusive theories to explain the psychological and behavioral effects of names.

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    How people imagine the future: The effect of episodic future thinking on individual's psychology and behavior
    LU Leian, WANG Chunsheng, REN Jun
    2021, 29 (6):  1086-1096.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01086
    Abstract ( 805 )   HTML ( 94 )  
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    Episodic Future Thinking (EFT), a mental simulation of likely future experience, is critical to human adaptation. Accordingly, EFT has been explored with different rigorous scientific approaches-cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging. Benefits of these research outputs are understandably enormous. However, these findings need to be properly organized to be accessible in a digestible manner. Therefore, based on the results of behavioral and neuroimaging studies, this paper systematically discusses the concept. Specifically, the study summarizes research findings on brain and behavior as they relate to individual's past life experiences, the corresponding memories, and life goals. Further, the study highlights that EFT is not solely positive; and demarcates conditions where EFT is potentially detrimental to the individual as reported in the literature. Strong argument is put forward for deepening the depth and widening the breadth of research on EFT. Particularly, the paper recommends further work on EFT typology, EFT and maladaptive behaviors, and the mechanisms for corrective measures or interventions. These areas when examined may contribute to theoretical understanding of EFT whilst expanding its practical utility for human adaptation.

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    The formation mechanisms of leader empowering behavior
    YIN Kui, ZHAO Jing, LI Can, WANG Honglei, WANG Chongfeng
    2021, 29 (6):  1097-1110.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01097
    Abstract ( 378 )   HTML ( 44 )  
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    Empowering leadership is generally regarded as a positive leadership style. Managers play an important role in the process of implementing empowerment in organizations. However, for purposes of maintaining authorities and other reasons, it is common that managers are unwilling to authorize autonomy and provide relevant resources to their subordinates. There has been increasing scholarly interest in exploring the antecedents of leader empowering behaviors. However, extant studies remain sporadic and fragmented. The development of this line of research will be benefited from an integrated review. We find that: (1) most researchers agree that leader empowering behavior is not a steady leadership style, rather is the differentiated empowering behavior to different subordinates; (2) the antecedents of leader empowering behavior could be divided into three categories including context factors, leader factors and employee factors; (3) leader-member exchange theory, trust theory, social cognition theory and empowering risk perspective are the main theories to explain the formation mechanism of leader empowering behavior. We clarify the formation mechanism of empowering leader behavior. Finally, building on contextual leadership theory, charismatic, ideological and pragmatic (CIP) model of leadership, and followership theory, future implications are provided.

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    The difference between experiential and material consumption: Research methods and effects
    CHEN Kunyu, WANG Qi, WANG Xia, XING Cai
    2021, 29 (6):  1111-1121.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01111
    Abstract ( 716 )   HTML ( 40 )  
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    Experiential consumption refers to the consumption behavior with the purpose of obtaining an experience, while material consumption refers to the consumption behavior with the purpose of obtaining a kind of material goods. Previous studies found that these two different types of consumption have many different effects across different fields. Our study summarizes major research paradigms, assessment tools and research approaches used in past studies. Besides, differences in psychological and behavioral effects of these two types of consumption across different domains were summarized. Future research may pay more attention to the antecedents and internal dimensions of different consumption types, emphasize model construction, consider using search engine query data, and examine the possible “dark side” of experiential consumption.

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    Theory evolution of the relationship between competitive pressure, attentional control and sports performance
    SUN Guoxiao, ZHANG Liwei
    2021, 29 (6):  1122-1130.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01122
    Abstract ( 376 )   HTML ( 36 )  
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    Competitive pressure and anxiety have a significant impact on athletes' performance. Attentional control theory explains how anxiety affects performance from the perspective of top-down attentional control. The evolution and development of attentional control theory was unfolded in this paper. First, its historical evolution from the cognitive interference theory and processing efficiency theory was reviewed. Second, the empirical research examining the basic assumptions of attentional control theory in sports field, and the extended research based on these hypotheses were introduced. Third, the developmental theory - attentional control theory: sport was introduced. Finally, the interlinkage of this new theory with the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat and the strength model of self-control was analyzed, and a “pressure-resource-attentional control integration model” was proposed. The integration model will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between competitive pressure, attentional control and sports performance.

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    History of Psychology
    Fu Ssu-nien: The exploration and contribution in psychology
    CHEN Yanlei, HU Zhijian
    2021, 29 (6):  1131-1140.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01131
    Abstract ( 595 )   HTML ( 39 )  
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    As a pioneer in learning, spreading, and utilizing modern scientific psychology in modern China, Mr. Fu Ssu-nien has been neglected by psychological researchers for many years. In 12 years of studying on psychology, Mr. Fu wrote and translated several philosophical monographs to illustrate his psychological views, such as Introduction to psychoanalysis, Group Psychology, and Hsing Ming Ku-Hsǔn Pien-Cheng. Based on these efforts, Mr. Fu made a profound analysis of the Chinese traditional view of human nature, the trend of scientism in modern psychology, the psychoanalytic thought of psychoanalytic school, and then judged that the modern Chinese psychological research would eventually become scientific. Moreover, Mr. Fu summarized barriers of development of mass mind from three aspects including society, family and individual, and then generated and advocated a basic view of humanity containing effort, sense of discipline, the concept of rational and health. Furthermore, working together with Cai Yuan-Pei, Wang Jing-Xi, Tang Yue, and Su Xiang-Yu, Mr. Fu devoted to the early construction of the discipline of psychology and promoted the development of scientific psychology in modern China.

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