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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Conceptual Framework
    Neural mechanism underlying the perception of crowd facial emotions
    HE Weiqi, LI Shuaixia, ZHAO Dongfang
    2021, 29 (5):  761-772.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00761
    Abstract ( 1156 )   HTML ( 163 )  
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    Human facial expressions convey a wealth of information about individual or group's emotion, motivation, intention or behavioral tendency, and interpreting these cues successfully and efficiently is a fundamental social cognitive process necessary for adaptive social behavior. Exploring how facial expression is processed and its potential cognitive neural mechanism has always been the popular topic for psychology and social neuroscience. The majority of recent studies mainly used single facial expression as stimuli to unravel the neural correlates of emotional processing, which make a great contribution to understandings of face perception and emotion recognition on dyadic interactions. However, much less is known about the emotion perception and recognition when crowds of faces are encountered. Thus, using crowd facial expressions as experimental stimuli, the present project plans to systematically explore the neural correlates of processing crowd emotions from the perspectives of behavioral performance, temporal dynamics and brain activation patterns, through the combined applications of behavioral, ERP, fMRI, and TMS techniques. Firstly, considering that emotional information conveyed by facial expressions differs in valence and intensity, the study 1 intends to investigate the recognition advantage, cerebral temporal and spatial characteristics (i.e. brain regions engaged in the processing of crowd facial expressions) through an emotion discrimination task, in which the valence (positive, neutral, and negative) and intensity (high, medium, and low) of crowd facial expressions will be manipulated well, respectively. Secondly, given that configural and featural information of face can exert an influence on the perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions, the effects of configural and featural cues of crowd faces on emotion perception will be taken into consideration in the study two and three. Specifically, in order to confirm the influence of orientation information on the processing of crowd facial expressions, the study 2 will focus on the orientations (frontal, half profile and profile) and inversions (upright and inverted) of crowd faces of different valences. Additionally, the study 3 will focus on the spatially structural integrity of crowd faces, and two issues below can be to some extent addressed through a masking and exploratory date-driven technology, namely: (1) How does different parts of face influence the processing of crowd facial expressions? (2) What is the diagnostic neural correlates which the perception and recognition of crowd facial expression depends on? Furthermore, it has been well-documented that spatial frequency content has a robust effect on the processing of facial stimuli, and different spatial frequencies transmit different information regarding faces. In general, low spatial frequency (LSF) content conveys information about orientation and contour of a face, which is associated with configural face processing. High spatial frequency (HSF) content conveys information about local details of a face, which is associated with featural face processing. Therefore, in the study 4, the spatial frequencies (broad band, HSF, LSF) and emotional valences (positive and negative) of crowd faces will be manipulated to investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics underlying the influence of spatial frequency on the processing of crowd facial expressions. The implementation of this project, on the one hand, helps to clarify the specific and general brain mechanisms related to individual and crowd facial expressions processing and to extend our understanding of the general rules and characteristics of emotion perception and face processing, which will improve building a universal theoretical model of face recognition. On the other hand, it can provide theoretical guidance for group emotion regulation and intervention, improve group belonging and group cohesion to a large extent, promote prosocial behavior and make a contribution to the construction of a harmonious society.

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    Crafting for the changing workplace: A dual pathway model of job crafting and leisure crafting based on self-identity theory
    LIN Lin
    2021, 29 (5):  773-786.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00773
    Abstract ( 707 )   HTML ( 83 )  
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    Job crafting is defined as the self-initiated behaviors that employees take to shape, mold, and change their jobs. The motivation for job crafting arises from three individual needs which are needs for control, positive image, and connection at work. Surprisingly, although there are nearly 150 studies focusing on job crafting, few of them have investigated the critical role of self-identity. Drawing from the self-identity theory, the current proposal aims to explore what challenges individuals will confront when the ways work gets done have changed fundamentally. A research agenda is articulated to reveal the mediating roles of self- enhancement and self-protection through which individuals adopt to effectively manage those challenges so as to survive or thrive in this changing workplace. Based on the job crafting model, a research framework is developed to demonstrate how job crafting and leisure crafting serve as the dual process in turning those challenges into surviving and thriving. Furthermore, it’s supposed that individual dispositions (e.g., regulatory focus, goal orientation, and work motivation) and the situational characteristic (e.g., situational strength and job autonomy) function as the boundary conditions for such effects. Furthermore, an intervention design is proposed to cross-validate whether self-identity-based training is effective in fostering self crafting and bringing in positive outcomes.

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    Regular Articles
    The influence of linguistic experience on statistical word segmentation
    YU Wenbo, WANG Lu, CHENG Xingyue, WANG Tianlin, ZHANG Jingjing, LIANG Dandan
    2021, 29 (5):  787-795.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00787
    Abstract ( 474 )   HTML ( 76 )  
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    Ample statistical learning (SL) studies have shown that individuals can perform word segmentation by tracking the likelihood of syllable co-occurrences in continuous speech. The classic “exposure-test” paradigm was widely used in this field, in which participants were first exposed to an artificial language and then tested in a forced choice task to assess learning effects. Recently, research has shown that participants' linguistic background, including their phonological and lexical experience, may result in experience-dependent SL. After a systematic review, we also discuss the direction for future SL studies. Specifically, we suggest that for studies involving Mandarin native speakers, researchers should carefully examine the separate and combined effects of various linguistic experience in order to better understand statistical word segmentation.

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    A new perspective on spatial interaction research: The effects of multiple social factors
    XIAO Chengli, SUI Yuqing, XIAO Suheng, ZHOU Renlai
    2021, 29 (5):  796-805.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00796
    Abstract ( 427 )   HTML ( 37 )  
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    Spatial interaction is critical for the survival and social interaction of human beings, including domains of spatial language communication and perspective-taking. In spatial language communication, people are usually located in different locations, so the spatial relationships observed from different perspectives are not the same. Therefore, perspective choices and switches are required in spatial language communication. What factors affect perspective choices and switches in spatial language communication is the critical scientific question in this area. Before the spatial language is produced and comprehended, people have recognized that the other’s perspective is different from their own just by visually observing. It involves an important spatial cognitive mechanism, which is called “perspective-taking”. The core issue in this area is: What factors affect the efficiency and spontaneousness of perspective-taking? 
    The three elements of spatial interaction are the subject, object, and spatial environment, so this process is not only related to spatial cognition but also closely related to social cognition. Traditionally, studies on strategy selection and efficacy of spatial interaction focus on the effects of spatial factors. However, recent studies investigated multiple social factors, including the individual’s social cognitive traits, the partners’ social attributes, and social cues in the spatial environments. An individual’s social cognitive traits mainly involve social skill, empathy, psychopathy. The partners’ social attributes mainly involve human/nonhuman attributes, spatial cognitive ability, and sight state. Social cues in the spatial environments mainly involve the affordance of objects and the alignment between spatial orientation and partners’ orientation. All these factors would affect the perspective choice of individuals. 
    The theoretical explanations of the influence of social factors on spatial interaction are limited or under debate. Currently, the main theoretical explanation in spatial language communication is the principle of least collaborative effort, and the main theoretical explanations in perspective-taking are implicit mentalizing and submentalizing. According to the principle of least collaborative effort, the conversation partners, instead of minimizing the speaker’s or the addressee’s effort individually, take account of both sides’ effort and adapt their perspective to share the cognitive burden and facilitate their coordination. Thus both the speaker and the listener are influenced by social factors in themselves, in partners, and in the environment. The theoretical hypothesis of implicit mentalizing assumes that perspective-taking is the processing of others’ mental states. In contrast, the hypothesis of submentalizing assumes that perspective-taking is caused by attentional shifting. Based on these two hypotheses, others’ mental states, sights, and spatial cues in the environment will affect the process of perspective-taking. 
    Currently, there are some limitations in this research area, such as unbalanced research focuses, attributing spatial interaction targets with single and limited criteria, exploring social factors unsystematically and not extensively, and providing empirical evidence without theoretical constructs. Future research should focus on these limitations and promote the cross-domain integration between social cognition and spatial cognition.

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    The effect of cell phone distraction on pedestrians’ information processing and behavior during road crossing
    WANG Yuhan, MA Guojie, ZHUANG Xiangling
    2021, 29 (5):  806-814.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00806
    Abstract ( 1331 )   HTML ( 209 )  
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    With the development of communication technology and popularization of smart phones, pedestrians using cell phones while crossing road have become more prevalent. It is estimated to account for nearly 20% of all pedestrians in both observations and self-report surveys. Consistently, the proportion of pedestrian casualties involving mobile phones during road crossing keeps increasing. This study reviewed 34 papers to evaluate how using a cell phone affected their safety and efficiency in road crossing. We also highlighted some mechanisms in terms of human information processing from scene perception, decision making to movement control.
    Overall, the evaluation shows detrimental effect of using cell phone on both safety and efficiency in crossing a road. Compared with non-distracted pedestrians, pedestrians using a cellphone are exposed to higher risk as indicated by more conflicts with vehicles, higher likelihood of violations such as going against red light and crossing outside of crosswalks, and less vigilance behaviors such as looking at vehicles. In virtual environments, they also had more collisions with vehicles or near misses where the safety margin is so small that the vehicle almost collides with the pedestrians. In terms of efficiency, pedestrians distracted by cell phones usually waited longer before starting to cross. What’s more, they are more likely to deviate from a straight route and have a lower walking speed. Consequently, their overall efficiency in road crossing declined.
    The above decline in safety and efficiency results from impairments in earlier processes of information processing. First, during the scene perception phase, distracted pedestrians tend to have a narrower scope of attention (esp. in the peripheral visual field), making it more difficult to perceive visual and auditory cues in traffic scenes. What’s worse, the distraction from a channel (visual or audial) can not only affect scene perception of the same channel, but also affect other channels by occupying central cognitive resources. Second, during the decision-making phase, distracted pedestrians are also more likely to miss street crossing opportunities when the gap between vehicles are large enough to cross or make risky decisions when the gap between the vehicle are too small to cross. Finally, using a cell phone also harms pedestrian movement control ability. Their gait patterns are more conservative with less frequent stepping and alternation between the two feet, shorter stride, and larger lateral deviation of feet movements. Besides, their action stability declined as a result of trying to reduce the relative movement of cellphones and head while browsing messages from cell phones.
    The above impairments of information processing are modulated by specific task types (e.g. conversing vs. browsing), pedestrian age and experience in cell phone usage. To integrate these findings within a framework, a conceptual model was proposed to describe the effect of mobile phone distraction on pedestrians’ information processing and behavior based on previous pedestrian cognitive models. Based on the model, we highlighted several gaps for future research. In the scene perception phase, future research needs to evaluate how mobile phone distraction affects pedestrian auditory scene perception, which is important to locate risky targets in traffic scenes. During the decision-making phase, efforts are still needed to evaluate how using a cell phone impacts the sub processes within the gap acceptance decision-making, such as estimation of vehicles’ time to arrival and pedestrians’ needed time to cross a road. The evaluation will help to develop targeted interventions to improve pedestrian safety while using cell phones.

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    The impact of threats on creativity based on cognitive and emotional processes
    YIN Junting, WANG Guan, LUO Junlong
    2021, 29 (5):  815-826.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00815
    Abstract ( 805 )   HTML ( 102 )  
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    Threats are stimuli that may cause disgust, harm, or loss to individuals. These stimuli have not yet occurred but are foreseeable. They can easily induce negative emotions, such as anxiety and fear, and affect an individual’s cognitive ability and creativity. Creativity is the ability that an individual can take initiative to create novel (i.e. original and unexpected) and useful products with social value for a certain purpose.  
    The impact of threats on creativity is one of the concerned and controversial topics in the field of psychology. Currently, there are three viewpoints: threats can hinder creativity generally; threats can promote creativity; in some certain conditions, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between threats and creativity to illustrate how different levels of threats affect creativity. There are plenty of theoretical and empirical studies supporting these three viewpoints respectively. However, why these three viewpoints exist and what their divergence and their underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Through scanning through a considerable amount of studies, it is found that a reasonable perspective for understanding the relationship between the two can be provided by studying the distinction and connection between cognition and emotion. The distinction and connection between cognition and emotion can provide a reasonable perspective for understanding the relationship between them. Therefore, based on comparing and summarizing previous studies, this review explored the reasons for the divergence and reviewed them from the perspectives of cognition and emotion. As a result, it is found that divergence comes from the differences in threat levels, creativity mechanisms, creativity task difficulties, and additional mediator/modulator variables between threat and creativity. Specifically, High-level and low-level threats can attract individual’s different levels of attention and take up different amounts of cognitive resources, thus have different impacts on other following tasks. The difference in creativity mechanisms reflects in the difference between divergent thinking and convergent thinking. Divergent thinking is that people produce as many solutions to the problems of vague definition as possible. Whereas convergent thinking is that people rely on quick identification of the clearly defined the problem to find the best solution. Divergent thinking depends on cognitive flexibility more, while convergent thinking prefers to depend on cognitive persistence. When Individuals are facing different tasks, the demands for working memory are different. Compared with simple tasks, complex tasks have higher requirements on the participation of the working memory system, and at the same time they take up more cognitive resources, Therefore, individuals faced with complex tasks may bring worse performance than those faced with simple tasks. In addition, the different mediating/moderating variables between threat and creativity may have different or even opposite effects on the creativity tasks.
    For future researches, they can focus on systematically verifying the reasons for the divergence from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional intervention. Specifically, future researchers can explore the impact of different levels of threats on individual’s divergent and convergent thinking. In addition, it is necessary to explore the possible mediating/modulating variables (such as emotion regulation, self-affirmation, etc.) and find out how these variables affect the relationship between threats and creativity. Furthermore, the research on the relationship between threat and creativity should pay attention to the inverted U-shaped model and they can start with studying the balance of motivation and emotion, and then explore the critical point in the inverted U-shaped curve. In addition, when exploring the above issues, the best way is to try to combine different brain imaging technologies to thoroughly investigate the role of many brain areas that are responsible for threat information processing and emotions, and the functional links between these brain areas to explore the impact of threats on creativity. Finally, the cognitive neuroscience can be combined with gene mechanisms to explore the relationship between threat and creativity and clarify the nature of the problem.

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    The relationship between the approximate number system and mathematical abilities: Evidence from developmental research
    LIANG Xiao, KANG Jingmei, WANG Lijuan
    2021, 29 (5):  827-837.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00827
    Abstract ( 283 )   HTML ( 27 )  
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    The approximate number system plays an important role in the development of individual mathematical abilities, and the relationship between the two factors is affected by age. Mainly, as age increases, the degree of correlation gradually weakens, and the mechanisms change from cardinal knowledge mediation to the joint effect of multiple intermediary variables. Future research should use a more rigorous experimental design and multiple research methods to investigate the development trend, causal direction, key turning points and the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between the approximate number system and different mathematical abilities of children of all ages to better understand the role of the approximate number system in the development of individual mathematical abilities.

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    The linguistic patterns of depressed patients
    HUANG Guanlan, ZHOU Xiaolu
    2021, 29 (5):  838-848.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00838
    Abstract ( 1087 )   HTML ( 126 )  
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    The linguistic patterns, reflected in the words people use, reveal information about psychological state and psychopathological traits. Individuals with depression are distinguishable from healthy people in their patterns of language use. Identifying the linguistic patterns, as an innovative and convenient approach, would help predict and better diagnosis depression. 
    In studies with traditional psychological methods, researchers examined the depressed language using constructed-response data. Specifically, participants are required to write or give speech on a topic (for example, participants were asked to write about their "deepest thoughts and feelings about their personal relationship" or talk about their “future career”). Participants’ responses (texts or transcribed texts) were then quantified and analyzed with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software. Researchers found that the psychopathological traits of depressed patients were related to their linguistic patterns: the state of self-focused attention, social relationship quality and cognitive bias were respectively related to the frequency of first person singular pronouns, first person plural pronouns and emotional words in spoken and written language. It is worth to note that some variables (such as gender, communication environment and the person who are communicated with) were found moderated the relationship between language use and depression. Other factors affecting the results include the small and homogeneous sample, the limited time period researchers could track, and the weak correlations between certain words and depression. In sum, with the traditional psychological methods, researchers could hardly collect massive, longitudinal data from heterogenous participants to achieve stable results.
    Recently, studies using social media data have partly addressed these flaws. Social media provides rich and informative data. It is efficient and economical to detect depressed patients from social media users with machine learning method. What researchers do is to build a predictive model by setting the users’ social media data (for example, demographics and the linguistic content of posts) as inputs, users’ score on the standardized depression scales or their depression diagnosis as outputs. The linguistic patterns of depressed patients were generated during the feature engineering or the modeling. LIWC software is also used as the major linguistic analysis tool. These studies replicated previous findings: depressed patients used more first person singular pronouns and negative emotional words, and less first person plural pronouns and positive emotional words. Furthermore, with the social media data, researchers found more language indicators of depressed patients in daily life: they use more death words, anxiety words, swear words, anger words, religion words, health words, as well as causality words, and less second and third person pronouns. These findings are explainable by several theoretical models of depression (e.g. behavioral model, cognitive model and interpersonal model). In addition, social media based research found that the language indicators of depressed users changed in a positive way after they participated in on-line depression communities. The change was strengthened as the number of communication increased. 
    Taken together, studies using traditional psychological methods and research with machine learning complemented each other, and increased our understanding of the linguistic patterns of depressed patients. Future studies could explore other language indicators specific to depression, examine the factors that affecting word use patterns, test whether the language indicators found among Westerns fit Chinese, and strengthen related theoretical research.

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    Empathy interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: Giving full play to strengths or making up for weaknesses?
    HUO Chao, LI Zuoshan, MENG Jing
    2021, 29 (5):  849-863.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00849
    Abstract ( 553 )   HTML ( 49 )  
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    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD individuals usually show persistent social communication barriers, social interaction barriers, and repetitive stereotyped behavior patterns in many situations. Furthermore, the empathy deficits in ASD individuals may be the main reason for their social interaction barriers. The mind-blindness hypothesis and the empathizing-systemizing theory explain their empathy deficits from two perspectives respectively, as well as put forward two different empathy intervention programs.
    The mind-blindness hypothesis claimed that the empathy deficits in ASD individuals were mainly caused by the lack of theory of mind, indicating that they couldn’t understand others’ emotions and thoughts, which derived the empathy method of “making up for weaknesses” according to this characteristic. This category of intervention program advocated that the empathy deficits in ASD individuals should be directly intervened through corresponding empathic intervention programs to improve their empathic ability. The empathy method of “making up for weaknesses” mainly included the theory of mind (TOM) intervention, the perspective-taking intervention, the intervention of facial expression cognition, and so on. The empathy method of "making up for weaknesses" could improve the empathy ability of ASD individuals to some extent, but this category of intervention program required higher ability of ASD individuals. Additionally, it only could improve their skills related to the intervention contents instead of improving other aspects of their obstacles.
    The empathizing-systemizing theory emphasized that although the lack of empathy ability of ASD individuals resulted in their social interaction deficits, their systematic capability was excellent, and even surpassed the general individuals, which derived the empathy method of “giving full play to strengths”. Based on the systematic strengths and interests of ASD individuals, the empathy method of "giving full play to strengths" proposed to increase their sense of self-efficacy and empathy by strengthening and encouraging them to do what they were good at, and thus improved their empathy ability. The method of “giving full play to strengths” mainly included the LEGO therapy, the serious games intervention, and the island-based intervention based on systemizing theory, and so on. The empathy method of “giving full play to strengths” emphasized that the advantages of systematic ability of ASD individuals should be used to make up for the weaknesses of their empathy deficits, so that ASD individuals could systematically accept empathy tasks and thus improve their empathy ability. However, the generalization and migration of such intervention programs have been questioned. In summary, the empathy method of "giving full play to strengths" provided a new idea for the intervention of empathy ability of ASD individuals.
    The above two kinds of intervention programs had their own advantages and disadvantages. It is suggested that future interventions should not only take into full consideration to the diversity of each ASD individual, such as age, sex, severity of symptom and so on, but also pay more attention to the superior abilities of ASD individuals, carry out the multi-channel and multi-modality comprehensive interventions, as well as combine the island-based intervention based on systemizing theory with the “making up for weaknesses” and “giving full play to strengths” programs to formulate an individualized intervention plan for each ASD individual.

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    School transition during adolescence: Turning crisis into opportunity
    CHAI Xiaoyun, LIN Danhua
    2021, 29 (5):  864-874.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00864
    Abstract ( 1085 )   HTML ( 81 )  
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    From the perspective of life course, school transition is considered a key turning point in adolescent development and may alter individual developmental trajectories. Based on the deficit view, previous studies have suggested that most adolescents are at risk, beset by many challenges, and may experience a variety of negative developmental outcomes during that transition. By synthesizing theoretical and methodological dimensions, we consider that school transition period may be an important opportunity for adolescents to achieve adaptive and healthy development. Theoretically, from the positive youth development (PYD) view, if adolescents’ internal and external assets are well integrated, they may have a positive school transition. Thus, we speculated that if adolescent has some high quality external ecological assets (e.g., new teacher’s support and care, parental encouragement), and use these assets to resolve the mismatch between environment and self-need, they may avoid or reduce some negative developmental outcomes. Moreover, based on the stress-related theory, school transition as a stressful event may also create an opportunity for positive development. That is, if adolescents are able to effectively regulate stress, make full use of supportive resources, and develop effective coping strategies, this “stress” will be beneficial to their cognitive, personality, and social development, as well as enhance their resilience. Methodologically, most of the previous studies related to school transition rely on the “variable-centered" approach to describe the developmental characteristics as a whole, but absence of the “individual-centered” approach to pay attention to the heterogeneity in youth at school transition. The “individual-centered” approach (e.g., mixed growth model, latent class and latent transition analysis) will be beneficial to reveal the subgroups of adolescent development trajectory, and thus help us to understand the underlying mechanisms or processes of positive development within adolescent groups. To sum up, drawing on A Relational-Developmental-Systems model of PYD, we propose a positive school transition process model. In this model, firstly, the interaction between external (e.g., teachers’ autonomy support, family warmth and after-school programs) and internal assets (e.g., resilience, growth mindsets and school transition efficacy) in the school transition process is emphasized. Secondly, in terms of developmental outcomes, the positive school transition suggests that adolescents may show high scores in positive indicators and low scores in fewer on negative indicators. Due to the differences in the development assets and self-regulate of individuals, it can be inferred that the development outcomes of adolescents may be diverse during the school transition period, and some adolescents may have a tendency of coexistence of positive and negative characteristics. Finally, understanding the relationship among the variables needs to be placed within the framework of “time”, which means that the “relationships” in multiple level systems are always in a dynamic process of change. Especially, when interpreting the developmental outcomes, it is important to note that the “diversity” at a given moment is only a short-lived “finality” at school transition. In addition, the short-lived “finality” also has a reverse effect on adolescents’ assets and influences acquisition of developmental assets and adaptive regulation and healthy development. Given that the culture-specific principle of human development, future research should explore the mechanism of the positive school transition under China’s education context (e.g., high competitiveness in exam, too much emphasis on academic grades).

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    Effect of parental marital conflict on child development and its mechanism
    WANG Xuesi, LI Jingya, WANG Meifang
    2021, 29 (5):  875-884.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00875
    Abstract ( 1127 )   HTML ( 131 )  
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    Marital relationship is one of the core relationships in family. The conflict in marital relationship is recognized as a factor in accounting for adverse effect on child development. The primary objective of the current review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of parental marital conflict on child development and its mechanism. Furthermore, crucial future direction in this field was proposed based on the existing studies.
    Parental marital conflict had been established as a risk factor for child cognitive and socioemotional development in both theoretical and empirical studies. Specifically, parental marital conflict may lead to poor executive functioning and academic achievement. Moreover, children who experienced parental marital conflict were more likely to show more problem behavior (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problem behavior; the effect on internalizing problem behavior was larger than that on externalizing problem behavior) and social maladjustment (e.g., poor parent-child, sibling, peer, teacher-student, and even adulthood intimate relationship). It should be noted that parental marital conflict had a short-term and long-term effect on children’s cognitive and socioemotional development, and the increasing parental marital conflict may have a more significant effect.
    Guided by process-oriented approach, researchers began to focus on how parental marital conflict affected child development. Children’s cognitive and emotional process and family process were described to clarify the pathways by which parental marital conflict influenced child development. As for children’s cognitive and emotional process, cognitive-contextual framework emphasized the crucial role of children’s cognitive appraisal toward parental marital conflict. Children who viewed parental marital conflict as threatening to themselves or the well-being of family, felt that they were responsible for the conflict, and/or had inadequate skills for successfully coping with the conflict were likely to experience maladjustment. Emotional security theory posited that parental marital conflict undermined children’s emotional security and further development. As for family process, according to family systems theory, parental marital conflict was often accompanied by negative emotion and behavior, which may spillover into parent-child interactions, resulting in ineffective parenting, disagreement over child-rearing, and parent-child triangulation. These negative interactions may carry detrimental consequences for children.
    Moreover, child and environmental factors may moderate the association between parental marital conflict and child development. Specifically, child age and gender may play a moderating role in this association, but the evidence was somewhat mixed. Guided by the biopsychosocial model, the autonomic nervous system functioning in children also served as a moderator of the association between parental marital conflict and child development. Previous studies shed light on the joint action of the two branches of the autonomic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and revealed that opposing action of the PNS and SNS (i.e., coactivation and coinhibition) operated as a vulnerability factor for child development in the context of parental marital conflict, whereas reciprocal action of the PNS and SNS (i.e., reciprocal parasympathetic activation and reciprocal sympathetic activation) operated as a protective factor. As with child age and gender, the evidence for reciprocal parasympathetic activation was also mixed. In addition, the ecological systems theory emphasizes that environmental factors (e.g., family socioeconomic status, social support, and cultural values) may also moderate the effect of parental marital conflict on child development. A high level of family socioeconomic status and social support may buffer the negative effect of parental marital conflict on child development. However, culture value that emphasized family and social harmony may intensify the negative effect.
    Future studies should use individual-centered approaches to examine the effects of different types of parental marital conflict on child development in multiple aspects simultaneously and integrate the multi-mechanism of parental marital conflict on child development. Cross-cultural studies should be carried out to further examine the role of culture in the effect of marital conflict on child development. Additionally, future studies should further examine the cyclical bidirectional association between parental marital conflict and child development.
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    Wisdom in old age
    CHEN Haobin, WANG Fengyan
    2021, 29 (5):  885-893.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00885
    Abstract ( 2884 )   HTML ( 64 )  
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    In the past 40 years, researchers have explored and constructed diverse definitions and components of wisdom. They have gradually reached a consensus that wisdom is the application of meta-cognition to reason and solve problems based on the morality. Wisdom is also closely related to individual life experience, personal growth and even physical maturity. Therefore, wisdom can be defined as a psychological quality that integrates intelligence with morality.
    Among the measurements of wisdom applied in old age, the self-reported scales mainly include the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS), self-assessed wisdom scale (SAWS), and the adult self-transcendence inventory (ASTI), the performance-based methods mainly include the Berlin wisdom paradigm and the wisdom reasoning. According to the results, wisdom in old age is relatively well, but there may not be a linear relationship between the aging and the increasing of wisdom in the middle and late adulthood, the cognitive or knowledge components of wisdom reach a peak at a certain age (such as 50 to 55 years old), and after that they begin to decline, and the reflective and emotional components of wisdom will not decline, due to the growth of psychosocial development and perspective-taking ability, emotional regulation, and empathy or compassionate for others, they will even increase with age. Therefore, aging may not be a necessary or sufficient condition for wisdom.
    Studies have shown that micro-factors such as the challenges in life experience, critical life events, and social changes encountered in the life course of individual are external factors that may promote the development of wisdom in the old age; psychological resources such as sense of control, personal growth, emotional regulation, openness to experience and exploratory self-reflection that contribute to the development of individual meta-cognition are internal factors that may promote the development of wisdom in the old age; meanwhile, the orientation of pro-social moral value, the subjective motivation of pursuing the growth of wisdom or the meaning in life may be the important intermediary mechanism for learning wisdom from life experience.
    Wisdom can significantly and positively predict the quality of life in the old, and can help the old people obtain life goals and sense of control, which having more important impact on their well-being. Wisdom can also act as a mediating or moderating role to buffer or reduce the negative impact of negative factors on the life satisfaction and well-being of the old, thereby relieving the solitude and oppression, alleviating the feelings of loneliness, depression, and social alienation in the old age.
    There are still some limitations in the psychological research on the wisdom in old age: First, whether wisdom increases, declines or remains stable in the later stages of adulthood, the conclusions still rely on the definition, conceptualization and measurement of wisdom; secondly, the researches on the antecedents of the wisdom in the old age fail to reveal the internal mechanism of the relevant resources in the development of wisdom; thirdly, the researches on the consequences of the wisdom in the old age fail to reveal the interventional roles of wisdom or different components of wisdom; finally, there are still lack of specific and operable interventions and cultivation methods for promoting wisdom. In the future, it is necessary to develop the measurement tools that integrate various sources based on self-reporting and behavioral performance measurement, and balance the content of natural wisdom and humanistic wisdom; examine the development trajectory of individual wisdom and its psychological mechanism in the life course; conduct the longitudinal researches and experimental researches to in-depth research on the causal relationship between wisdom and well-being and the positive functions of wisdom; continue to explore the interventional conditions and promoting measures for the wisdom of the old in the practice of old care services in community, thus inspire the wisdom of the old people and promote their successful aging.

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    True self in east and west from Guanxi perspective
    LIANG Yanfang, XIE Tian
    2021, 29 (5):  894-905.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00894
    Abstract ( 1189 )   HTML ( 153 )  
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    The true self is regarded as a stable experience generated when it conforms to the autonomous motivation of the individual. To be more precise, the true self or authenticity refers to the consistency between individual behaviors and internal states (e.g., values, beliefs, and needs), including trait authenticity (that is, refers to a person's basic tendencies towards a set of emotions, cognition or behavior that reflect a stable individual difference.) and state authenticity (that is, refers to the true feeling that is consistent with one's own inner values and beliefs under the current environment or behavior). In this paper, cultural differences in the true self was proposed by comparing with relevant concepts (e.g., self-knowledge, self-concept clarity, self-congruence, integrity, and sincerity) and reviewing existent theories.

    Based on a review of previous research, this paper pointed out that the essence of the true self may not differ in different cultures, that is, the feeling when one's words and actions are consistent with one's own values. Because everyone, no matter what culture they are, experiences what it feels like to live up to their own standards. On the other hand, however, there are cultural differences in the expression or realization of the true self, or in the way it appears. This paper proposed that the true self is driven by autonomous motivation in the Western culture, while it is driven by Guanxi requirements in the Eastern culture. Specifically, Western culture focuses on individuality, and individuals seek to satisfy their own independent needs such as their own values and beliefs. It is common for western individuals to pursue their own values, beliefs and other personal independent needs, and it is normal for them to prioritize themselves over others or relationship bodies. The individual also sees the self as a major independent entity, rather than as a role player in a relationship, even in a relationship situation. Therefore, the expression of the true self is driven by the autonomous motivation of the individual in typical scenes of Western culture. However, the eastern culture, especially Chinese society, is deeply influenced by the Confucian thoughts. And the individual is in the self-centered relationship environment, and the existence and maintenance of the relationship are also internalized into the cognition of the eastern individual. Thus, the Guan xi can also be seen as a part of the self, coexists with the individual itself. The true self experience at this time is influenced by the relational environment, rather than exists in the vacuum of the detached atomic individual. That is, the true self is driven by external relational requirements in the typical scene of Eastern culture. In general, this paper pointed out that the true self is driven by autonomous motivation in the Western culture, while it is driven by Guan xi requirements in the Eastern culture.

    In multiculturalism, the consequences of cultural collision are not simple exclusion or integration, and the influence of cultural differences on true self-expression is no longer the influence of absolutely independent individuals or relationships. Under the influence of globalization, the psychological theme of the true self based on individual autonomous motivation, which is very important to Westerners, may also begin to appear in Easterners. Based on this, how does the true self behave in the complex relationship with the superior and inferior, the distant and near relatives and distant relatives? Future studies are recommended to further explore the true self from the “guanxilization”, integrating the traditional Confucian thoughts into theoretical construction and understanding toward new social phenomena (e.g., emerging Social Networking Sites, social changes), as well as advancing research methodologies (e.g., cross-cultural comparison, methods highlighting situation variations).

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    Job embeddedness: Consequences and theoretical explanation
    WU Lunwen, YANG Fu, TIAN Yixin, PEI Yurong
    2021, 29 (5):  906-920.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00906
    Abstract ( 431 )   HTML ( 39 )  
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    In recent years, as a novel perspective to explain employee voluntary turnover and retention, job embeddedness has provided insights into the forces of why people stay on the job and has received considerable attention from scholars and practitioners. According to the PRISMA statement and content analysis, 176 papers from databases of domestic and foreign were reviewed. The PRISMA statement consists of four steps, identification, screening, eligibility and Inclusion in turn. Then a comprehensive review about the consequences of job embeddedness was conducted based on theoretical perspectives, content analysis, and future directions. Accordingly, six theoretical explanations were summarized, including conservation of resources theory, social capital theory, planned behavior theory, work - role attachment theory, future time perspective, and contagion process model. Using content analysis, the research tendency of job embeddedness and its consequences with multi-perspective were displayed. Totally speaking, first, compared with other theoretical perspectives, the conservation of resources theory may clarify the mechanism of individual job embeddedness more comprehensively in that it not only explains individuals’ resources utilization and allocation in dealing with job demands, but also predicts their behaviors of resource investment. Second, contagion process focuses on the interaction process between individuals and social context. Based on the turnover contagion perspective, under low job embeddedness situation, like the contagion of illness, employees' willingness to leave may induce coworkers’ intention to quit. On the contrary, guided by social information processing theory, perceived supervisor job embeddedness as pivotal signals and contagion cues would promote subordinates’ job embeddedness and their devotion of working time and energy, which in turn could form the positive “contagion of embeddedness”. Third, according to planned behavior theory, individuals’ turnover behavior depends on their intention to leave. Individuals with higher levels of job embeddedness means an good alignment with the organization. Such an individual - oraganization fit along with high turnover costs would hinder their intention to leave. Fourth, future time perspective and work - role attachment theory highlight employees’ expectation or attachment to the organization, which would attract them to stay and engage in greater amounts of behaviors beneficial to organizations. Fifth, draw upon social capital perspective, once high job embeddedness employees are to start a new venture, the social capital accumulate from prior working experience would contribute to entrepreneurial performance. However, those social capital to some extent may delay their entrepreneurial decision and progress. Future research should first make further efforts to propose a theoretic model on team job embeddedness, identify the parallel transmission path of “member - member” and the vertical transmission path of “leader - subordinate” of job embeddedness, so as to investigate the effectiveness of team job embeddedness more comprehensively. Second, focus on the spillover effect under cross - culture comparison. Strengthen the research on the spillover effects of job embeddedness to the family domain, and further explore the similarities and differences of job embeddedness spillover effects in different cultural backgrounds under cross-culture comparison. Third, highlight the double - edged sword effect of job embeddedness. Focusing on the perspective of “too much of a good thing” effect can provide a more profound and dialectical understanding of the job embeddedness theory, and also reveal the potential cost of its negative effects. Finally, it is advisable to emphasize the differentiation effects of the sub - dimensions of job embeddedness. Distinguish the advantage of each sub - dimension and find out the strongest predicting effects corresponding to different sub-dimensions. At the same time, clarify the boundary conditions of the cross effects of sub-dimensions, and analyze the underlying mechanisms of the strengthening or weakening effects of different dimensions.

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    How do individuals cope self-threats with consuming behaviors? Analysis based on the orientation-path integration model
    SUN Hongjie, LIU Feifei, FENG Wenting, CUI Bingqun
    2021, 29 (5):  921-935.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00921
    Abstract ( 544 )   HTML ( 39 )  
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    Consumption is an important avenue for consumers to cope with self-threats, which are ubiquitous in daily life, and consumption in response to self-threat is an important way for individuals to adopt. Although research on consumption in response to self-threat is emerging, current studies reveal multiple intersections between threat sources and coping behaviors, presenting fragmented, incoherent, and even contradictory findings. This is mainly due to the multidimensional nature of the self-concept and the involvement of multiple factors such as cognitive, affective, and emotional factors in the process of coping with self-threats.
    This research constructs an integrated orientation-path model from the self (personal self Vs social self) and motivation (approach Vs avoidance) dimensions, and classifies individuals' consumption coping behaviors under self-threat into social approach strategies, social avoidance strategies, intrinsic approach strategies, and intrinsic avoidance strategies. The model simplifies the relationship between threat sources and coping styles, and enables clear clustering of self-threat coping strategies. It helps to understand the individual's consumption coping strategies in the face of self-threat as a whole, and reveals the intrinsic correlation of different strategies. The model also reveals that the apparently contradictory behaviors of consumers are internally consistent in their motivation, i.e., to maintain a stable and good self-concept and reduce the perception of distress.
    Based on the integrated orientation-path model, this research compares studies on consumption in response to self-threat, and further validates the integrity of the orientation-path integration model through a literature review. By reviewing the existing literature, this study provides a more detailed classification of threat coping strategies to present the richness of the specific performance of different strategies in the integrated model, and to clarify the differences and connections between the findings of different studies and to present the lineage of the research.
    This study reveals that there are multiple levels of cross-compensation among different coping strategies, among which symbolism is the key to cross-compensation, and the carriers of symbols are diverse. There are multiple ways of association between self-threatening and consumption behaviors, not only through symbolic associations, but also through contextual memory associations and sensory-psychological associations. Individuals respond to self-threat through the full value system of products and behaviors (functional, emotional, and symbolic values) and their full perception system (physiological, information processing, and psycho-cognitive systems). Based on the integrated orientation-path model, it can help to develop a coherent understanding of self-threat coping in the field of consumer behavior, reveal its inner patterns, and help to understand individual consumer behavior in the current environment (e.g., Coronavirus).

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    The formation mechanism, inducing factors and mitigation strategies of consumer satiation
    ZHANG Yi, GONG Zheng, DING Run, FAN Xiucheng
    2021, 29 (5):  936-950.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00936
    Abstract ( 757 )   HTML ( 50 )  
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    Satiation refers to the cognitive disorder and corresponding negative emotional perception in the process of repeated consumption of the same brand (store) or product (service). In the process of repeated consumption, the hedonic adaptation and diminishing marginal effect will lead to the decrease of enjoyment, utility, stimulation or satisfaction, which will eventually lead to satiation. In order to alleviate or prevent satiation, consumers will take such behaviors as brand switching, variety seeking and control of consumption cycle. Therefore, satiation has become the main obstacle for enterprises to cultivate consumer loyalty. According to the generation process of satiation, it can be divided into implicit satiation, explicit satiation and dull satiation. According to the functional responses, satiation can be divided into physiological satiation and psychological satiation. According to the perceptual state, satiation can be divided into actual satiation and future satiation. According to different attributes, satiation can be divided into sensory-specific satiation and non-sensory-specific satiation. The generation of consumers' satiation can be explained by the hedonic adaptation theory, the marginal utility theory, the cognitive dissonance theory and the optimal stimulation level theory. The existing literature has made contributions in the following two aspects: First, in the basic theory of satiation, the existing literature has deeply explored the influence of consumption quantity, consumption frequency and consumption continuity on physiological satiation, as well as, the influence of attention, memory, metacognition and classification on psychological satiation. At the same time, it has discussed the effect of consumption cycle control and memory recurrence on relieving or recovering satiation. Secondly, in the aspect of the influence of satiation on consumption behavior, the existing literature has demonstrated the correlation between satiation of different attributes and brand switching, variety seeking. The moderating effects of external factors (such as products, services, consumption environment) and internal factors (such as OSL, self-control, adventurous spirit, loyalty, self-construal, time perceived distance, perception of variety, age and gender) on the correlation between consumers' satiation and brand switching or variety seeking have also been examined. The limitations of the existing literature are as follows: First, there is no in-depth research on the relationship between satiation and variety seeking. Second, it ignores the relationship between consumption cycle control and brand switching or variety seeking. There is a lack of longitudinal research at long intervals. Third, there is a lack of dynamic research on the optimal stimulation level of individuals and its influence on satiation. For future studies, it is necessary to introduce attention and satiation rate as mediating variables, and discuss the influence of situational factors (such as catastrophe, network choice environment, food crisis, etc.), individual factors (such as financial constraint, awe, etc.) and resource endowment factors (such as selection set size, selection set classification, conversion cost, substitute attractiveness, etc.) on consumers’ direction and concentration of attention and satiation rate to deepen the understanding of the relationship between antecedents and variety seeking. Besides those factors mentioned above, consumption cycle control behaviors, the dynamic change of consumer’s optimal stimulation level, the satiation of online consumption are also need to be further studied in this field. From a long-term perspective, the mechanism of satiation alleviation in long-term consumption should also be explored by long-term longitudinal tracking methods.

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