This project aims to investigate psychological mechanisms of behavioral poverty trap in China, and hence put forward corresponding risk management strategies. For this purpose, we intend to draw on the new research paradigm in poverty study, which is initiated by behavioral economists, and recruit residents who live in extreme poor areas as participants. First, a framework concerning both the cognitive and motivational base of behavioral poverty trap is proposed as empirical and theoretical route of this project. Second, we analyze how cognitive outcomes of poverty psychologically and neurally affect subsequent decision behavior, as well as how both cognitive and motivational outcomes of poverty jointly influence subsequent decision behavior. In addition, the casual effect of psychological outcomes caused by poverty on subsequent decision behavior is empirically examined. Third, we further conduct randomized controlled experiments to understand the influence of cognitive changes caused by poverty on subsequent decision behavior, as well as field intervention studies to test the effect of self-identity changes caused by poverty on subsequent decision behavior. Based on these empirical researches, management strategies for poverty alleviation are discussed.
Based on the "both/and" cognitive thinking, ambidextrous leadership reconciles the conflicting leadership behaviors and provides novel insights into solving the paradox of innovation-efficiency in organizational development. However, extant research has most focused on the effect of ambidextrous leadership on ambidextrous performance (i.e., balance between innovation and efficiency) as well as its underlying mechanism. To address this issue, we propose the concept of ambidextrous performance and examine the effect of ambidextrous leadership on the ambidextrous performance from a multi-level perspective. We draw on the theory of human capital and build amoderated mediation model with flexibility-oriented HRM practices and accumulation of human resource flexibility as serial mediators. In doing so, the implications of ambidextrous leadership are extended, i.e., the relationship between ambidextrous leadership and ambidextrous performance is integrated with HRM practices to reveal a new mechanism through which ambidextrous leadership leads to desirable outcomes. Implications for how organizations can achieve ambidextrous performance are also provided.
Multilevel proactive followership has been an important determinant during the growth of startup enterprises. Existing literatures have emphasized how different explicit leaderships influence followership, yet the conclusions are controversial. In response to this, based on the implicit leadership theory, we built a multi-level interactive model of “implicit entrepreneurial leadership-proactive following”. In this model, implicit entrepreneurial leadership could promote proactive followership of individuals and teams through relationship identification and leadership representation, while in turn team proactive followership may shape implicit entrepreneurial leadership through positive psychological capital. Besides, it has been found that team’s Chaxu atmosphere, employee traditionalism and leader’s regulatory focus are important boundary conditions of interactive relationship.
Short video customer inspiration (SVCI) is the embodiment of customer inspiration in the context of short video. It is the temporary motivational state that facilitates the transition from the reception of a marketing-induced idea to the intrinsic pursuit of a consumption-related goal. The antecedents of SVCI includes video factor, anchor factor and audience characteristic factor; the intersection of inspired-by and inspired-to states in SVCI forms a SVCI state matrix, in which the four inspiration states could convert into each other under certain conditions; SVCI have positive impact on customer engagement through direct (customer purchase) and indirect (customer recommendation, customer influence and customer knowledge) ways; product type and the TSBBN (Tie strength between buyer and network-anchor) play the role of moderator in the effect of SVCI on customer engagement; study on SVCI helps to reveal how customer inspiration is triggered by short video and its impact on customer engagement; this research can help network-anchor and short video platform to produce more efficient marketing strategies, and can help consumers to improve the consumption experience.
The present study (N = 58) investigated the influence of reputation and face trustworthiness on women’s trust judgment as well as the moderating effect of intuitive thinking by setting up the scene of car-hailing. The results showed that reputation and face trustworthiness could influence women’s trust judgment of car-hailing choices. In other words, they were more likely to trust drivers with good reputation and trustworthy face. Reputation had less influence on women’s trust judgment in high intuitive thinking group as compared to low intuitive thinking group, while face trustworthiness had more influence on trust judgment of women with high intuitive thinking.
The human voice is the most familiar and important sound in the human auditory environment, conveying large amounts of socially relevant information. Similar to face processing, there is also a functional specialization in brain for voice processing. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have demonstrated that the temporal voice areas (TVAs) showed specific response to human voices. In addition, researchers have also observed the homologues of TVAs in non-human brain. Human voices can convey speech, affective and identity information, which are extracted and further processed in three interacting but partially dissociated neural pathways. To explicate these three functional pathways, researchers have proposed three corresponding models including the dual-stream model of speech processing, multi-stage model of vocal emotional processing and integrative model of voice-identity processing. In the future, researchers should further investigate whether voice-selective activity can be explained by the selective processing of specific acoustic features of voice and focus on neural mechanisms of voice processing in special populations (e.g. schizophrenia and autism).
Interval timing refers to the time perception of hundreds of milliseconds to hours. It involves many activities in daily life and is influenced by many factors, such as arousal, attention and motivation. Pain is a multi-dimensional physiological and psychological phenomenon, including sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative components. Studies about interval timing in pain context come from three aspects: (1) Time estimation of pain faces in healthy subjects; (2) Time perception of neutral stimuli in healthy subjects under experimental pain or pain expectation; (3) The change of interval timing in patients with clinical pain. Exploring the change of time perception in pain context may provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of pain occurrence and development.
Language lateralization is one of the most obvious characteristics of brain functional lateralization. Previous neuroimaging studies identified numerous brain regions associated with language lateralization, such as the frontal and temporal lobes, the cingulate and fusiform gyrus, the supplementary motor area, and so on.This review synthesizes current published literature relevant to language lateralization, with an emphasis on handedness and functional connectivity. Our findings show that language lateralization is positively correlated with handedness and intra-hemisphere connectivity but is negatively correlated with inter-hemispheric connectivity. Moreover, the left- and right-handers exhibit different correlation profiles between language lateralization and functional connectivity. We discuss the relationship between language lateralization, handedness, and functional connectivity, and we propose areas for further research.
There is still much debate over whether older adults have enhanced or attenuated audiovisual integration. Research on the neural mechanism of audiovisual integration in older adults is needed to provide a scientific brain-health programme based on crossmodal integration. Here, we summarized two parts based on previous studies. First, audiovisual integration ability in older adults is influenced by the characteristics of the physical stimuli, the spatial and temporal relationships of the stimuli, and the attentional allocation. Second, audiovisual integration effects are observed in older adults. On the one hand, older adults showed higher functional connectivity, network efficiency and enhanced audiovisual integration effects, such as stronger activity in the posterior parietal lobe, medial prefrontal lobe, left prefrontal lobe, and the super-additive amplitude of P2 observed in the central prefrontal region. In addition, audiovisual integration in older adults occurred earlier and extended longer than that in younger adults. On the other hand, older adults have slower response times and smaller amplitudes to audiovisual stimuli in the superior temporal gyrus than younger adults, which shows a weaker integration facilitation effect in older adults. The study of audiovisual integration in older adults induced by simple stimuli provides a reliable basis for further revealing the integration mechanism, but the processing mechanism of audiovisual integration for complex situations remains to be explored.
Trust encompasses one’s willingness to take certain risks based on the expectation of the other's behavior in order to obtain positive results in the future. Previous studies focused on specific brain regions, rather than the overall activity of large-scale brain networks in trust behavior. Trust behavior is associated with the activation of multiple regions of the brain that involves the cognitive neural network. In the Cognitive Neural Network Model, trust behavior is a representation of the interaction between the motivation system, affective system and cognition system, corresponding to the activation of the reward network, salience network, central-executive network and default-mode network. The model clarifies the correspondence between psychological systems and neural networks, and explains the psychological and neural mechanisms of trust from the perspective of neuroscience. In addition, the model also emphasizes the feedback mechanism of trust behavior, yielding a complete Cognitive Neural Network Model.
Virtual avatar is a virtual self-presentation for player in video game. By manipulating avatars, players can play different roles and have new identities. As a projection and display of the real self, the avatar will affect individual’s self-identity and bring about changes in the real self. Recent studies have shown that manipulating avatars for behavioral and identity simulation in video games can affect players’ self-concepts. With respect to this issue, we first reviewed relevant theories which explain the reasons why avatar affect self-concept from different perspectives. Next, variables such as avatar clues, video game characteristics, and personal factors which moderate the relationship between avatar and self-concept were analyzed. Then, Its mechanism such as self presence and avatar identification were discussed. Future research will focus on the deep and long-term effects of avatar on self-concept, the interactive influence of avatar image and behavior, and the impact of self-concept change caused by avatar on real behavior.
Self‐compassion refers to the ability to express sympathy or compassion to oneself when faced with failures, inadequacies or suffering. Self-compassion has been found to have a profound impact on individuals' physical and psychological health. In view of its mechanisms, self-compassion can exert positive impacts on individuals by reducing one’s maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and promoting adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Additionally, self-compassion can also maintain ones’ homeostasis by regulating the biological markers of the stress response, which in turn, facilitates their adjustment. The major interventions related to self-compassion include Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program and Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT). More studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of self-compassion, expand its investigation by using various measurement and research methods, and use more rigorous interventional designs to evaluate the effects of self-compassion interventions under the Chinese cultural background.
Scarcity is a state due to dissatisfaction of individual desire and demand, which is resulted from real scarcity of resource or perceived scarcity of resource. As a universal phenomenon, scarcity plays an important role in individual emotion, perception and behavior. Tangible resource scarcity is represented by scarcity in food, product and capital, whereas intangible resource scarcity is represented by scarcity in time. Are there any similarities and differences in different kinds of scarcity? This question has not been addressed by past scarcity research. After combing theses, this paper found that tangible resource scarcity led to individual’s cherishing behavior, compensation behavior, and approaching behavior, whereas intangible resource scarcity only led to cherishing behavior and compensation behavior. Future research should focus on the boundary conditions under which scarcity would not affect individuals’ behavior, and the impact of time scarcity on individual psychology and behavior.
As the literature on abusive supervision has gained a great understanding of its detrimental effects and the underlying mechanisms, how subordinates cope with the experience of abusive supervision and the effectiveness of different coping strategies are promising new directions for future research. In this article, based on the multi-dynamic model of interpersonal rejection, we discussed how subordinates might cope with the experience of abusive supervision differently at low and high levels of LMX, and proposed a model in which certain coping strategies can lead to the subsequent experience of increased abusive supervision. We suggest future research strengthen our understanding of subordinates’ coping strategies for abusive supervision with a focus on exploring new coping strategies, including individual different variables, and examining situational factors as moderators. Further, future research can investigate the negative interactions between leaders and subordinates, and provide theoretical support for breaking the cycle of abusive supervision.
Kernel equating procedures include pre-smoothing, estimation of the score probabilities, continuization, equating, and evaluation of equating performance. By incorporating linear equating and equipercentile equating methods, kernel equating is more extensible and comprehensive. Pre-smoothing and continuization are distinctive features in kernel equating to reduce the standard error of equating. Standard error of the difference between equating functions are calculated as criterion for evaluating the performances of different kernel equatings. Continuization methods, bandwidth selection methods, etc., can affect the performance of kernel equating. New equating methods based on kernel equating provide an innovative perspective for researchers. Further researchers could focus on extending kernel equating framework by integrating other methods, updating smoothing procedures, and comparative studies.