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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 19 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Biological Motion Perception: The Roles of Global Configuration and Local Motion
    . 2011, 19 (3): 301-311.  
    Abstract   PDF (242KB) ( 973 )
    Humans are remarkably adept at recognizing the motion of biological entities in complex visual scenes, even when it is depicted with a handful of point-lights attached to the head and major joints. Though much simplified, such point-light biological motion consists of both global configuration and local motion trajectories. Whereas most previous studies have emphasized the contribution of global form to biological motion perception, it has recently been shown that local biological motion can be processed independent of global configuration, revealing that local biological motion alone carries unique biological properties. Taken together, the evidence so far suggests that biological motion perception is a multilevel process in which each level makes distinct contributions.
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    Neural Correlates of Prototype Activation in Insight During Creative Thinking
    QIU Jiang;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    . 2011, 19 (3): 312-317.  
    Abstract   PDF (318KB) ( 1815 )
    Insight indicates a restructuring of the problem that leads to a sudden gain of solution with an “Aha” experience. However, the neural correlates of “insights” remain unknown because insights are sporadic, unpredictable and short-lived. Here, we hypothesized that “prototype activation and elicitation” might be one of the central ways to attain insight during creative thinking, and used a learning-testing paradigm to examine brain activation of “Aha” effects with event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional MRI (fMRI) during solving Chinese logogriphs. Results indicated that the precuneus might be involved in successful prototype events retrieval and the left inferior frontal/middle frontal gyrus might be involved in forming novel association and breaking mental sets. In addition, results also indicated that the neural network comprising specific brain areas in the medial frontal, temporal and cerebellum brain regions might be the potential neural basis of “successful mental preparation” for solving insight problem.
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    The Effect of Work Stress and Social Support on Safety Performance
    LI Yong-Juan;JIANG Li;XU Yao-Shan;WANG Lu-Lu
    . 2011, 19 (3): 318-327.  
    Abstract   PDF (219KB) ( 2237 )
    Despite continued recognition of the important effect of work stress on safety performance, the topic remains a neglected area of empirical investigation. The purpose of the current study is to explore the combined influence of work stress and social support on safety performance based on the Job Demands-Control-Social support Model. Specifically, it is to investigate the effect of challenge stressors, hindrance stressors, safety control, supervisor support, coworker support, and group descriptive norms and their potential interaction effect on safety performance. Methods such as interviews, questionnaires and experiment simulations will be used to explore the correlation or cause and effect relations among these variables. The results can contribute to the safety performance theories on one hand, and have significant implications for practical safety management, helping to improve individual and organizational safety performance in workplace on the other hand.
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    Parental Psychological Aggression: Intergenerational Transmission and the Moderating Effect of Spouse’s Psychological Aggression
    LIU Li;WANG Mei-Fang;XING Xiao-Pei
    . 2011, 19 (3): 328-335.  
    Abstract   PDF (292KB) ( 5243 )
    As a type of parental harsh displine, psychological aggression involves a psychological or emotional rejection of the child by verbal or symbolic forms of aggressive behavior or both. A large amount of research has provided the support for the intergenerational transmission of parental harsh discipline. In order to investigate the intergenerational transmission of parental psychological aggression in Chinese culture and the moderating effect of spouse’s psychological aggression on the intergenerational transmission, 793 elementary school students’ parents completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC). The results indicated: (1) Mothers used more psychological aggression with boys than with girls; (2) Both fathers’ and mothers’ psychological aggressions were transmitted across generations; (3) Father’s psychological aggression toward children moderated the intergenerational transmission of mother’s psychological aggression, with high level of father’s psychological aggression buffering the intergenerational transmission of mother’s psychological aggression.
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    Embodiment in Social Cognition
    WU Qiu-Ping;FENG Cong;CHEN Bin-Bin
    . 2011, 19 (3): 336-345.  
    Abstract   PDF (211KB) ( 1935 )
    Embodiment theory, a new approach to explore how human-being acquires and represents world knowledge, has been attached much attention and gradually flourished in the fields of cognitive psychology, social cognition and social psychology. The present article reviewed the origin and development of embodiment theory, and mainly focused on applying embodiment paradigms on social cognition, including attitude, social perception and emotion. And we pointed out the possible practical problems in the implementation of embodiment researches in social cognition. We further proposed the possibility of integrating other disciplines (e.g., neuroscience and cross-culture psychology) to shed light on the future directions of embodiment studies in social cognition.
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    Processing of Temporal and Spatial Distance Information Under Non-Verbal Context
    Bi Cui-Hua;HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2011, 19 (3): 346-354.  
    Abstract   PDF (160KB) ( 982 )
    Two theoretical proposals concerning the relationship between temporal and spatial distance processing are evaluated. On the one hand, under blank distance-blank duration condition and among animal reseaches, variations in spatial distance influence processing of time to the same degree that variations in time influence judgments of spatial distance.The symmetric interference between time and space is affected by attention and memory. On the other hand, under full distance-full duration context, although spatial distance processing interfers time estimation, the latter has no effect on the former. Thereby the interference is asymmetrical. The cross dimensional asymmetry is based on theories of metaphorical mental representation, sensorimotor experience, and the salience of time or space information. Findings from brain mechanism indicate that processing of temporal and spatial distance are related to right parietal cortex, lateral intraparietal area, left parietal cortex, cerebellum as well as prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for these two processes are not exactlly the same. Future trends will benefit from the following topics, including segmentation of temporal processing, the mental mechanism and neural substrate of temporal and spatial distance processing in different conditions.
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    A Review on the ERP Study of Anaphoric Processing
    ZHAO Ming;LIU Tao
    . 2011, 19 (3): 355-363.  
    Abstract   PDF (160KB) ( 968 )
    Anaphora refers to a phenomenon in which a linguistic element obtains its meaning via a previously existing unit or meaning. The study of anaphoric processing has always been one of the foci in cognitive science. The relevant ERP studies demonstrate that the understanding of anaphoric expression complies more with the parallel model of language processing, whose different stages are all affected and restricted by such factors as semantics, pragmatics, the frequency of antecedent, and the different forms of anaphora. Therefore, the future research should go deep into some issues like the Nref Effect, the null anaphor, the interaction of various factors in anaphoric processing, and the anaphora in Chinese.
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    Adolescents’ Identity Experiments: The Perspective of Internet Environment
    CHAI Xiao-Yun;GONG Shao-Ying
    . 2011, 19 (3): 364-371.  
    Abstract   PDF (170KB) ( 1965 )
    In the context of the Internet environment, “adolescents’ identity experiments” refers to a series of actions conducted via the internet whereby adolescents construct identity through self-representation and self-exploration. Many factors induce adolescents to carry out their identity experiments on the internet, such as the perceived advantages of online communication, adolescents’ personality, identity status, motivation and so on. Adolescents experiment with their identity in synchronous chatting, on social networking sites and through online games, all of which make significant contributions to their identity development. Future study should focus on adolescents’ identity experiments influenced by different internet environments as well as social comparison. Besides, it will be necessary to explore the deeper mechanisms of identity experiments via longitudinal and cross-cultural research.
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    Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Research Orientation, Methods, and Influencing Factors
    YANG Lin-Pei;SHI Wei
    . 2011, 19 (3): 372-381.  
    Abstract   PDF (153KB) ( 2652 )
    Adolescent romantic relationships refer to mutually acknowledged ongoing voluntary interactions, commonly marked by intense expressions of affection and perhaps current or anticipated sexual behavior. The research orientation mostly include biosocial orientation, cognitive representations orientation, and development-contextual orientation. Currently, there are three validated research methods: self-report, observation method, and video recall method. Some of researches have focused on dealing with influencing factors of adolescent romantic relationships, such as individual factors, interpersonal factors and social factors. Adolescent romantic relationships research arena is still in its infancy, thus, further studies integrating research theoretically are essential, with the stability of relationships quality, mechanisms of microsystem and representative sampling.
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    Review On Current Déjà vu Research
    LI Jing;YU Lin
    . 2011, 19 (3): 382-389.  
    Abstract   PDF (128KB) ( 1134 )
    Déjà vu is a type of illusion where one experiences some subjectively inappropriate impression of familiarity of a present experience with an undefined past. Most people have experienced déjà vu, and its frequency decreases with age. Also Déjà vu is influenced by dreams, physiological state and drug use, and it shows a positive relationship with education levels. Empirical findings closely associate déjà vu with entorhinal cortices and perirhinal cortices. This article also summarizes several paradigms that are used to study déjà vu, namely, split perception paradigm, scenes reappearance paradigm, single-element interaction paradigm, recognition without identification paradigm, and hypnosis paradigm. Finally, some important but unresolved issues in the déjà vu research are discussed.
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    The Origin, Effects And Mechanisms of Attentional Bias Training
    WANG Man;TAO Rong;HU Shu-Jing;ZHU Xu
    . 2011, 19 (3): 390-397.  
    Abstract   PDF (121KB) ( 1498 )
    It has been proven that attentional bias plays a causal role in the etiology, maintenance, and recurrence of some psychological disorders. And attentional bias training (ABT) becomes a prospective intervention and is beneficial for treating low self-esteem, anxiety disorders, and substance addiction. ABT influences attention at later time points and may mediate top-down attentional control. Future researches should pay more attention to the conditions, mechanisms and the neural mechanisms of the therapeutic effects.
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    A Review of Researches on Cognitive and Social Mechanism of Alexithymia
    ZHANG Chun-Yu;ZHANG Jin-Fu;ZHANG Jing-Qiu;ZHANG Ping-Ping
    . 2011, 19 (3): 398-409.  
    Abstract   PDF (232KB) ( 1419 )
    There are two kinds of theories to illustrate the essence and cause of alexithymia, including cognitive mechanism and social mechanism. Cognitive mechanism suggests that alexithymia incarnates the defect of the cognitive processing of emotion, involving the emotion schemas, theory of mind and executive function. While social mechanism believes that the emergence of alexithymia is associated with the early experience in the childhood and the development of alexithymia is continuously reinforced by the social culture and social relations, mainly including the social culture, social-economic status, family function and environment. Future researches should be mainly focused on the extension of research contents, such as the hot executive function, integrated researches and the proposing of systematic theory of social mechanism and so on. Researching methods should also be improved in the aspects of the measurement and research technology.
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    Psychological Defense against Disease: How Humans Cope with Pathogen Threat
    WU Bao-Pei;CHANG Lei
    . 2011, 19 (3): 410-419.  
    Abstract   PDF (216KB) ( 1040 )
    Pathogens and infectious diseases present strong selection pressures under which animals have over time evolved different extent of physical and behavioral immune adaptations. Owing to our unique brain evolution, humans have developed the most elaborate behavioral immune systems. From very early on, we seem to have relied on our various behavioral immune mechanisms to ward off diseases before they enter our body. When these disease defense mechanisms co-evolve with complex human group living, our social behaviors and attitudes serve the additional function of disease control. These include prejudice and discrimination against out-group members who are likely carriers of disease against which in-group members lack the physical immunity. These also include such in-group behavior as conformity and compliance which facilitate social learning and within-group cohesion partly to curb spread of disease in a group. These social behaviors and attitudes contribute to larger ideological and cultural differences including the individualism-collectivism distinction that in part defines different extent to which different human groups have historically had to deal with disease control issues due to their different geographically-based pathogenic conditions. As discussed in this review, these and other pathogen-related issues form much of our social psychology and the social behaviors and attitudes it studies.
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    Modulation Mechanism of Working Memory to Drug Dependence Based on Personality Vulnerability

    ZENG Hong;GUO Si-Ping

    . 2011, 19 (3): 420-426.  
    Abstract   PDF (199KB) ( 960 )
    Drug dependence is a kind of psychological and mental disease whereby individuals use medicine, develop tolerance and withdrawal symptoms and whose social function is seriously and negatively affected by drug use. Working memory plays a central role in the process of modulation in the behavior of drug dependence: Based on personality vulnerability and neural sensitization, low working memory capacity can influence decision-making and inhibition, and has an affect on drug seeking behavior and tendency for relapse. However, up to this point the subjects of research in this area were individuals who were already addicted. As a consequence, the results cannot distinguish whether neural sensitization, personality vulnerability or working memory deficiency is the reason or the result of the drug dependence. In addition, previous research was conducted only from a cognition perspective and ignored the fact that drug use behaviors do not result from one single and isolated deficit and is actually influenced by many different factors, such as affective deficit and stress. Future research should focus on an integrated approach which considers emotion, cognition and personality et al.
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    Self-Construal: Review and Prospect
    LIU Yan
    . 2011, 19 (3): 427-439.  
    Abstract   PDF (211KB) ( 2799 )
    Based on the review of the development of self-construal theories, the methods for measuring chronic self-construal and activating situational self-construal are introduced. Cultural differences and gender differences in self-construal, the relationships between self-construal and relevant variables, such as cognitive styles, social comparison, interpersonal interaction, personal autonomous and self-regulatory are also reviewed. Further researches in this field depend on the perfection in basic ideas of self-construal theory, the improvement of self-construal measurement, and researchers applying a dialectical perspective on the relationships among variables. In addition, further effort is needed to study the mechanisms of how chronic self-construal affect one’s stable personality characters and social adjustment, and the influencing factors of chronic self-construal’s individual differences.
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    Conscientiousness and Its Applications
    WANG Meng-Cheng;CHU Yan-Min;DAI Xiao-Yang
    . 2011, 19 (3): 440-448.  
    Abstract   PDF (206KB) ( 1116 )
    Conscientiousness describes individual differences on impulse control, task- and goal-oriented implementation, consideration before act, delay of gratification, and compliance of norms and rules. Conscientiousness has played a significant role in the field of applied psychology (e.g., I/O psychology), thus, a growing body of researches were conducted to explore the sturcture of Conscientiousness and its applications in many field such as education, health psychology and organization behavior. This present article comprehensively reviewed the lower-order structure of conscientiousness and its applications in management, education and health in personality psychology, meanwhile, we have pointed out that future research should focus on issues relevant to the lower-order structure and measurement of conscientiousness, the hypothetical relationships between conscientiousness and job performance, and more clear relationships between Conscientiousness and health and longevity and several other prospects and trends.
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    Application of Scents in Marketing
    QING Ying-Di;GAO Jin-Jin;CHEN Yi-Wen
    . 2011, 19 (3): 449-458.  
    Abstract   PDF (227KB) ( 1901 )
    Scent marketing is a type of experiential marketing based on the relationship of scent, emotion, memory and behavioral decision. In recent years, psychologists and marketing researchers have been paying more attention to scent marketing, mainly focusing on its rationale, marketing effects and its interaction with other factors. The research proves the effective value of pleasant scents to extend customer in-store shopping time, improve product evaluation and enhance brand recognition. Future scent-marketing research should place more emphasis on the different olfactory psychological reactions.
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