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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 19 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    主编特邀
    Advances in Cognitive Mechanisms of Word Segmentation During Chinese Reading
    LI Xing-Shan;LIU Ping-Ping;MA Guo-Jie
    . 2011, 19 (4): 459-470.  
    Abstract   PDF (256KB) ( 1164 )
    A number of cognitive studies have indicated that words play a critical role in reading. Hence, word segmentation is an important procedure in reading. Unlike alphabetic writing systems such as English, there are no spaces between words. Without spaces, how do Chinese readers segment words? In this article, recent progresses in the following topics on Chinese word segmentation are reviewed: 1) Evidences that Chinese characters belonging to a word are processed as a unit; 2) Some recent psychological studies on Chinese word segmentation and some of the models; 3) Word segmentation studies in computer sciences; 4) Future directions on this topic.
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    博士论坛
    Research on the Coordinating Integration in Text Reading
    WANG Rui-Ming;MO Lei
    . 2011, 19 (4): 471-479.  
    Abstract   PDF (209KB) ( 941 )
    The coordinating integration was proposed in current study according to the dual-processing theories in text reading. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the essence, course and condition of the coordinating integration. The results provided plenty of empirical evidence for dual- processing theory and further revealed the essence of reading activities, and deepened the researches on information integration in the field of text reading.
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    研究构想
    Monitoring and Resolution of Cognitive and Emotional Conflict: Evidence from Mild Cognitive Impairment
    LI Hui-Jie;LIU Han-Hui
    . 2011, 19 (4): 480-486.  
    Abstract   PDF (195KB) ( 1226 )
    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, executive control deficits were considered as one of the core characteristics of MCI. At the present, we have little knowledge about the characteristics of conflict monitoring and resolution and the corresponding neural mechanisms of MCI. In the present proposal, we aim to explore whether persons with amnestic MCI (aMCI) would show impairments in the behavioral and neural mechanisms with cognitive and emotional conflict tasks. Meanwhile, through the comparison of neural circuit during processing cognitive and emotional conflict tasks between persons with aMCI and healthy controls, we intend to explore whether aMCI have deficits in neural circuit. Totally, we try to explore whether persons with aMCI have general deficits in conflict monitor and resolution of executive control, and we also try to find the cognitive and neurobiological markers of executive controls in aMCI. The present study will be helpful to understand the progression of AD, and also has important theoretical and practical implications for early identification and early intervention of MCI and AD.
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    研究方法
    Neural Origin of ERPs: Evoked Model or Phase Reset Model?
    ZHANG Dan-Dan;LUO Yue-Jia
    . 2011, 19 (4): 487-498.  
    Abstract   PDF (284KB) ( 1185 )
    The neural origin of ERPs is still an open question. The evoked model considers ERP as a deterministic evoked activity embedded in background EEG while the phase reset model considers ERP as a partial phase resetting of the ongoing oscillations of EEG. The present review 1) summarized the experimental evidences that supported the two models; 2) discussed controversial arguments raised by related studies; 3) suggested the future research direction in ERP origin, such as developing signal recording and data processing techniques. It is believed that the review helps to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the generation of ERPs.
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    研究前沿
    Mind-wandering: Phenomenon, Mechanism and Significance
    SONG Xiao-Lan;WANG Xiao;TANG Xiao-Wei
    . 2011, 19 (4): 499-509.  
    Abstract   PDF (242KB) ( 1624 )
    Mind-wandering is involuntary conscious experience arising internally, and it’s a significant part of “stream of consciousness”. The phenomenon of mind-wandering suggests the significance of non-perceptual consciousness in human consciousness system, and the significance of ongoing unconscious processing for individual survival. The research about mind-wandering is becoming the live topic in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. After reviewing the studies about the content of mind-wandering, its relation with emotion and its neural correlates, we discussed the possible mechanism of mind-wandering and its adaptive function. At the end of the paper, we summarised the deficiency of the existing studies, such as the ambiguity in the definition of mind-wandering and the methodological limitations, and the future study trends was developed.
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    A Cognitive View on the Study of Individual Classifier in Chinese
    ZHANG Qi-Rui;SHU Hua;LIU You-Yi
    . 2011, 19 (4): 510-520.  
    Abstract   PDF (194KB) ( 980 )
    Individual classifiers primarily exist in Sino-Tibetan languages. Similar to the closed word class (determiners, pronouns etc) functionally, classifiers can not be used as a component separately, and usually they have to combine numbers (or pronouns) and nouns together to make up phrases in sentence. In this review, several possibilities to the reason why a large number of individual classifiers developed in modern Chinese language were summarized firstly. Then the mechanism of bidirectional selection and constraint between classifiers and nouns, the possible impacts of classifiers in language on cognition, and the acquisition of classifiers by individual, were introduced. Finally, future direction was discussed.
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    Emotional Retrograde Memory Enhancement Effect
    WANG Xiao-Jia;FAN Chun-Lei;ZHANG Zi-Chun
    . 2011, 19 (4): 521-527.  
    Abstract   PDF (161KB) ( 1320 )
    The effect of emotional retrograde memory enhancement is a phenomenon that the emotional arousal at the stage of memory consolidation enhances the feeling of remembering. The different mechanisms of emotion on memory consolidation are outlined and digested. Stability of emotion on memory consolidation is analyzed from individual difference, modulator events and temporal window. A prediction of the application is also suggested.
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    Theoretical Models of Representation Momentum
    ZHAI Kun;ZHANG Zhi-Jie
    . 2011, 19 (4): 528-536.  
    Abstract   PDF (156KB) ( 1057 )
    Memory for the final position of a target is usually displaced in the direction of target motion. This displacement has been suggested to reflect the implied momentum of the target and has been referred to as representational momentum. Similarly, displacement reflects a wide range of influences and information based on physical gravity, friction, and centripetal force. A wide range of theories and models have been proposed to account for representational momentum, involving internalization theory, naïve impetus theory, anticipatory consciousness, network model, eye movement theory, the two-process theory and computational theory. Several considerations for future development were described including addressing a more unified theory of representational momentum, a more specific theory of representational momentum and the processing mechanism of representational momentum.
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    The New Development of Hypnosis from Cognitive Neuroscience Angle
    ZHOU Ai-Bao;WANG Zhi-Dan
    . 2011, 19 (4): 537-544.  
    Abstract   PDF (198KB) ( 3741 )
    Despite its widely use in clinical settings,the checkered reputation of hypnosis has dimmed its promise as a research instrument.With the availability of functional imaging techniques, such as fMRI, ERP and PET, we had a more thorough understanding of hypnotic induction and suggestion. It has been noted that the hypnotically suggested pain is similar to that seen with a comparable physically induced pain at least to the “high hypnotizable” person; In addition, the functional modulation of cognitive performance with hypnotic suggestion could be achieved,one compelling line of research exploring attention and attentional conflict has involved the suppression of the Stroop Effect using a hypnotic suggestion that disrupted lexical processing; Furthermore,a disassociation between implicit memory and explicit memory has been achieved by posthypnotic amnesia.In the future, researchers will continue to reveal the essence of the hypnosis form two strands,the first comprises studies exploring the cognitive and neuro nature of hypnosis itself. The second employs hypnosis to explore known psychological processes using specifically targeted suggestion.
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    Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression
    REN Zhi-Hong;LI Dong-Ping;JIANG Guang-Rong
    . 2011, 19 (4): 545-555.  
    Abstract   PDF (381KB) ( 1759 )
    In Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CCBT), those basic principles and methods commonly used in traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are embodied through computer interface, clear instructions to operation, and highly structured multi-media (e.g. webpage, cartoon, animation, video, audio etc.). The application of CCBT to depression emerged recently, and some CCBT programs (e.g. Beating The Blues、MoodGYM、E-Couch, and Good Days Ahead) have been popularly applied to the treatment of depression. Eligibility analysis found that CCBT was able to be accepted by patients, high-cost and easy for usage. The effectiveness of CCBT has been evidenced by existing studies, yet relies on a number of factors. The limitations of existing studies involve insufficient attention to the mechanism of effectiveness, significant difference in therapeutic effect among different studies, simplistic risk evaluation, and bias in subject selection. The issues should be emphasized in future studies are (1) mediation effect and mechanism; (2) human-centered individualized services, (3) risk evaluation and privacy protection; (4) focusing on social vulnerable groups. At last, the necessity and eligibility of the development of CCBT in China was discussed.
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    Several Misunderstandings of Forgiveness Intervention and the Prospect of Its Application
    ZHANG Tian;SUN Hui;FU An-Qiu
    . 2011, 19 (4): 556-564.  
    Abstract   PDF (195KB) ( 1011 )
    Forgiveness is defined as the transformation toward prosocial motivation for a victim. It helps to reduce anger and increase the positive emotion. The focus of forgiveness intervention is on helping the victim of an unjust act to put aside negative behaviors such as revenge and evasion, and to pick up positive ones to deal with the trauma. However, there are some misunderstandings persisting in clinical application of forgiveness intervention, three major ones are: (1) forgiveness of the perpetrator equals to reconciliation; (2) forgiveness intervention leads to moralization and religionlization; (3) forgiveness is the tool rather than the goal of counseling and psychotherapy. In addition to clarification of the misunderstandings in forgiveness intervention, in light of the implication, prospective applications in theory and practice will be discussed.
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    Mechanism of Alcohol Effect on Individual Social Behavior
    XU Yao-Shan;LI Yong-Juan
    . 2011, 19 (4): 565-572.  
    Abstract   PDF (142KB) ( 1166 )
    Alcohol consumption might lead to more extreme and destructive individual social behaviors, such as increasing risky sex, aggression, risk driving, self-disclosure, and so on. The mechanism of effects of alcohol consumption on social behavior has drawn more and more attention. Alcohol Myopia Theory and Alcohol Expectancy Theory are two influential explanations of alcohol-behavior link, thereinto, Alcohol Myopia Theory posits that alcohol impairs the information processing capability of individuals and Alcohol Expectancy Theory posits that alcohol outcome expectancy change social behaviors. Dual-processing model incorporates these two models into a dual-process framework, including both propositional process and associative process. The related research in the future could be studied based on dual-processing model. It is also important to explore effect of higher doses of alcohol and combine the neuroimaging technique to provide more comprehensive explanation of alcohol-behaviour link.
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    Moral Decision-Making in the Context of Moral Intuition: Exploring the Influcence Factors
    WANG-Peng;FANG-Ping;JIANG-Yuan
    . 2011, 19 (4): 573-579.  
    Abstract   PDF (163KB) ( 1987 )
    The researches of moral intuition had demonstrated emotion’s effect on moral decision-making, researchers had proposed two undivided processes--conscious cognition and unconscious emotion in moral decision-making. By considering the reasons of moral actor and judgment maker, or the factors in moral situations, researchers had paid attention to the questions such as the cognition-emotion explanation and the differences of people’s moral judgments between trolley problem and footbridge problem in recent years. They tried to explore the rationality of the cognition-emotion explanation and the other reasons of the differences of people’s moral decision-making from different views, the researches had formed many new concerns to the domain in the context of moral intuition. Researches in future should probe into questions such as methodology, expansion of situation and the interaction in the cognition and emotion system and so on.
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    Teachers’ Motivating Style: Perspective of Self-determination Theory
    LAI Dan-Feng;WU Xin-Chun
    . 2011, 19 (4): 580-588.  
    Abstract   PDF (252KB) ( 1598 )
    The Self-Determination Theory (SDT) states that teachers’ motivating style is one of the most important factors that influence students’ motivation to study. The theory defines motivating style as teachers’ interpersonal style during motivating and maintaining students’ learning initiatives. According to SDT, there are two types of motivating styles, namely, autonomy-supportive style and controlling style. Research has shown that students’ learning motivation and behaviors are dramatically influenced by teachers’ motivating styles. Although the structure and mechanism of teachers’ motivating style is not entirely clear, most research has confirmed the benefit of autonomy-supportive motivating style and proved that teachers’ motivating styles can be transformed through training. Future research should focus on the composition of motivating style, the assessment of dependent variables, the integration of different research perspectives and the examination of culture-related constructs.
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    An Overview of Current Self-leadership Research Abroad
    ZHAO Guo-Xiang;LIANG Han-Zhong
    . 2011, 19 (4): 589-598.  
    Abstract   PDF (276KB) ( 1580 )
    Self-leadership, which is based on experiences gained from work and living, is a self-influence process through which people are self-motivated to achieve work requirements driven by intrinsic needs and guided by internalized standards. By reviewing the self-leadership literature abroad including its conception, construct structure measurement, empirical investigations, and current researches, the authors have identified some promising topics or trends of theoretical and practical significance. They are: (1) theoretical analysis and empirical verification of self-leadership effects; (2) the relationship between self-leadership and related personality traits; (3) maximization of the effects of self-leadership by leaders in organizations; and (4) self-leadership research in the Chinese context.
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    Affective Events Theory: Contents, Application and Future Directions
    DUAN Jin-Yun;FU Qiang;TIAN Xiao-Ming;KONG Yu
    . 2011, 19 (4): 599-607.  
    Abstract   PDF (166KB) ( 3073 )
    Research on affect in organization has begun to accumulate recently, while affective events theory (AET) proposes an integral framework for this field study. AET proposes that specific work events have impact on the arousal of affective reactions which, in turn, determine employees’ attitudes and behaviors. AET makes a clear separation of affective reactions and job satisfaction, as well as affect-driven behaviors and judgment-driven behaviors. Generally, AET is helpful to explain the importance of affect in the workplace. However, future studies should consider the team affect and its measurements. Lastly, more researches are needed for further validation and consummation for various persons under different cultures.
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    The Psychological Research of Nostalgia
    XUE Jing;HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2011, 19 (4): 608-616.  
    Abstract   PDF (170KB) ( 2900 )
    Nostalgia is a complex emotional state when someone yearning for the past. It can be positive, negative, or even bittersweet. Nostalgia can be subclassified by taking a social, cultural, or other perspective. Nostalgia can serve as a repository of positive affection, maintain and enhance self-regard, widen someone’ s social connectedness, optimize meaning of life, better the integration of one’s self-concept so adapt to the environment more effectively, and so on and so forth. Methodologically, content analysis, survey, and experimental design are typical approaches in this field. Applied studies have been conducted in the field of marketing, tourism and clinical psychology. It is of great importance to carry out theoretic and application research of nostalgia according to the social, cultural and historical characteristics of China.
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