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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Cultural differences in behavior: A few big elephants or an army of ants?
    Song YAN; Ype H.POORTINGA
    2017, 25 (4):  523-541.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00523
    Abstract ( 1449 )   PDF (393KB) ( 2211 )  

    This overview of research on the relationship between behavior and culture is organized as follows. The first section relates how cross-cultural psychology, or cultural psychology, since it emerged in the mid 20th century has reflected a continuous tension between how and how much humans are the same psychologically and to what extent there is cultural specificity in psychological functioning. The second section on the charm of differences argues that research is often biased towards finding differences rather than cross-cultural invariance. The third section briefly outlines problems of cultural bias, or lack of equivalence, in assessment across cultural populations and its implications for interpretation of data. The fourth section makes explicit a theme that is embedded in other sections and reflected in the title, namely the psychological organization of cross-cultural differences. The section challenges the tendency to conceive of such differences as being organized in broad dimensions or psychological functions. This tendency to over-generalize is illustrated in the fifth section for various traditions of research, including the recent tradition of cultural neuroscience where the increasing contributions of Chinese researchers are particularly evident. An outlook and some conclusions are presented in the final section.

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    Conceptual Framework
    The process and antecedents of team ethical decision-making: A study in Chinese context
    YANG Jianfeng; MING Xiaodong
    2017, 25 (4):  542-552.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00542
    Abstract ( 962 )   PDF (426KB) ( 1379 )  

    Although most business ethical decisions are made by teams rather than individuals, only a few studies have focused on team ethical decision making, which remain on comparing the results of individual and team ethical decision-making directly without much aid of theories. Based on studies of individual ethical decision-making, group decision-making, and Chinese cultural characteristics (reflection, zhongyong, authoritarian leadership, et al.), we intend to explore the mechanism of team ethical decision making process and the effect pattern of its antecedents. Specifically, it will include four sub-studies in two aspects via multiple methods. First, a process mechanism model is developed to look at the mechanism of team ethical decision-making process. Second, based on social decision scheme theory, an opinion integration mechanism is set up to integrate the opinions out of team ethical decision-making when focusing on the core differences between team and individual ethical decision-making. The other two are about member and leadership with regard to the effect pattern of antecedents: to study the mechanism of how member diversity influences team ethical decision-making via information processing and team conflict; to study the mechanism of how leadership features affects team ethical decision-making by information sampling model.

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    Meta-Analysis
    A meta-analysis of preference for sexual dimorphism of male’s face
    CHEN Lijun; JIANG Jie; REN Zhihong; YUAN Hong
    2017, 25 (4):  553-569.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00553
    Abstract ( 1996 )   PDF (1327KB) ( 3614 )  

    In our life, some people prefer more masculine faces while some favor feminine faces instead. A lot of research has been dedicated to explain this disagreement and obtained inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to explore difference preference for sexual dimorphism in male face shape, and the factors affecting this preference. Through literature retrieval, 23 cases and 56 independent effect sizes together with 8408 participants which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were selected. The result of funnel plot and Egger’s intercept illustrated that there was not publication bias. Main-effect test findings demonstrated that there was no significantly preference for masculinity or femininity (Odds ratio point estimate = 0.95). The moderator analysis revealed that menstrual cycle, computer graphics methodology moderated the preference, however, the culture background, participant’s gender, relationship context had no significant moderate effect. Therefore, we can draw a conclusion that people’s preferences for sexual dimorphism in male face shape is not only influenced by biological factors (Menstrual Cycle) of themselves, but also modulated by graphics methodology.

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    The influence of ego depletion on sporting performance: A meta-analysis
    XIANG Mingqiang; ZHANG Liwei; ZHANG Apei; YANG Hongying
    2017, 25 (4):  570-585.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00570
    Abstract ( 1040 )   PDF (607KB) ( 1590 )  

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of ego depletion, as well as potential moderators, on sporting performance. A search of relevant literature in both Chinese and English databases yielded a total of 31 papers (n = 1613 participants), which were all included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that: (1) There was a moderate effect of ego depletion on sporting performance (d = 0.55, 95% CI [0.39, 0.71]), although this might be overestimated due to publication bias. (2) The effect of ego depletion on sporting performance was not moderated by the type of participant or sporting task, but was moderated by the type of ego depleting task and stress manipulation used. (3) There was no significant effect found for ego depletion on subjective perceived exertion, heart rate, or EMG activation in the sporting tasks. These findings support the generalizability of Baumeister’s Strength Model of Self-Control, as well as its integration with Eysenck and colleague’s Attention Control Theory. Future research should attempt to standardize the experimental conditions employed, and explore interventions designed to mitigate against ego depletion effects in sport.

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