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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 19 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    主编特邀
    A Review on the Integrative Cognitive Model of Trait Anger and Reactive Aggression
    YANG Li-Zhu;DU Wen-Xuan;SHEN Yue
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1249-1258.  
    Abstract   PDF (190KB) ( 1813 )
    The integrative cognitive model (ICM) is an integration of several related theories, which explore the effect of individual differences in internal cognitive processes on a person’s level of trait anger from hostile situation inputs to reactive aggression. With considering the element of personality trait, it builds up a relational model among the three internal core cognitive processes, which are hostile interpretation, ruminative attention and effortful control. This model, with features of a clear and obvious structure and being easily controlled, enlightens integrative empirical researches of this area and opens a new path to reactive aggression theory exploration, and it also has great value of application. This theory still lacks further studies which multiple processing mechanisms of the ICM are assessed among the same set of participants, and some relevant neurophysiology studies and mental intervention exploration, which will be important topics for the future research.
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    研究构想
    Cognitive Neural Mechanisms and Effects of Emotion Regulation on Memory
    ZHANG Qin;WANG Yan;LUO Zheng;CHEN Jing
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1259-1266.  
    Abstract   PDF (228KB) ( 1832 )
    Many studies have confirmed that emotion can enhance memory. However, there are inconsistent results about emotion-induced memory impairment. Exploring the mechanism of the emotion-induced memory impairment is important for understanding the relationship between emotion and memory. Another important question is whether people can make conscious efforts to modulate effects of emotion on memory. Previous research on emotion regulation analyzed different strategies of emotion regulation (e.g., reappraisal and suppression) and examined effects of emotion regulation on memory of emotional events. So far, however, few researches focused on whether the emotion regulation strategies can modulate effects of emotion on memory of neutral items. Relatively little is known about cognitive neural mechanism of emotion regulation during memory. Therefore, the present study will employ behavioral measurement and methods of cognitive neuroscience to investigate emotion-induced memory impairment and whether emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal and suppression can be used to modulate effects of emotion on memory. The results may contribute to theories about emotion, emotion regulation, and memory, and have significant implications for practical learning and memory.
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    元分析
    The Genetic Basis of Individual Differences in Reading Ability: A Mata-analysis of Twins Studies
    WANG Song;LI Jing-Guang;LIU Jia
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1267-1280.  
    Abstract   PDF (259KB) ( 1203 )
    The origin of individual differences in reading ability is one of the most popular questions studied in the field of behavioral genetics. Here we used a meta-analysis on eighty empirical twin studies in reading ability to examine its genetic basis. Three new and fundamental findings have been observed. First, genetic factors have a moderate influence on general reading ability, reading-related processes (e.g., word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension), and pre-reading cognitive skills (e.g., phonological processing, orthographic coding, rapid naming, and print knowledge). Second, components of the reading process are modulated by both general and specific genetic factors. Finally, the genetic overlap between reading ability and general cognitive ability and the genetic overlap between reading ability and mathematic ability are also moderate. Taken together, our meta-analysis indicates that twin studies play a critical role in exploring the genetic basis of individual differences in reading ability, complementary to studies based on rapidly growing molecular genetics.
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    研究前沿
    Semantic Context Effect of Picture Naming in Speech Production
    ZHU Xue-Bing;ZHANG Qing-Fang
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1281-1292.  
    Abstract   PDF (234KB) ( 980 )
    Picture naming is a typical task used to investigate the processes of speech production, which consists of processes of conceptual preparation, lemma selection, phonological encoding, phonetic encoding, and articulation. The present paper addresses semantic context effect in spoken picture naming. First, we introduce interactive activation models and discrete serial models of language production. Then two opposite effects (semantic inhibition and semantic facilitation effects) are discussed with picture-word interference paradigm (PWI) and semantic blocking paradigm in picture naming. We summarize variables that contribute to semantic effects and the main hypotheses proposed for interpreting semantic effects: lexical selection by competition, swinging lexical network account, response congruency account, semantic selection account, and response exclusion hypothesis. We mainly focus on why these hypotheses are proposed, and discuss the similarities and differences among them. Finally, we propose three important issues for the further study.Picture naming is a typical task used to investigate the processes of speech production, which consists of processes of conceptual preparation, lemma selection, phonological encoding, phonetic encoding, and articulation. The present paper addresses semantic context effect in spoken picture naming. First, we introduce interactive activation models and discrete serial models of language production. Then two opposite effects (semantic inhibition and semantic facilitation effects) are discussed with picture-word interference paradigm (PWI) and semantic blocking paradigm in picture naming. We summarize variables that contribute to semantic effects and the main hypotheses proposed for interpreting semantic effects: lexical selection by competition, swinging lexical network account, response congruency account, semantic selection account, and response exclusion hypothesis. We mainly focus on why these hypotheses are proposed, and discuss the similarities and differences among them. Finally, we propose three important issues for the further study.
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    Paradigms in the Study of Perceptual Symbol Systems
    XIE Jiu-Shu;ZHANG Chang-Qing;WANG Rui-Ming;LU Zhi
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1293-1305.  
    Abstract   PDF (193KB) ( 1568 )
    Perceptual Symbol Systems is one of the core theories of the Second-Generation Cognitive Science. Researchers have used a variety of experimental paradigms in various fields to test it. Through the analysis of the previous studies, it was found that a large number of studies have focused on topics including language representation, perception and concept, embodying emotion, reasoning, social attitude and the development of perceptual symbols. The development of this field was firstly summarized briefly in the article. The aforementioned topics were used as the main thread in the article to introduce the development of Perceptual Symbol Systems in detail. Based on that, an idea of diverse representations was also proposed. Finally, a few suggestions for the development of Perceptual Symbol Systems were proposed.
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    The Brain Mechanism of Musical Absolute Pitch Processing
    HOU Jian-Cheng;DONG Qi
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1306-1312.  
    Abstract   PDF (214KB) ( 966 )
    Musical absolute pitch (AP) is an interesting perceptive for musical psychologists. ERP studies indicated that the population with AP ability adopted less cognitive resources to process musical pitch, meanwhile there were different processing mechanisms for different AP abilities. Functional neuroimaging indicated that left posterior dorsolateral frontal and left planum temporale played an important role in AP processing; brain structure studies found that the cortical thickness in some brain regions for AP population was thinner than Non-AP population, it might be reflected the specific neural mechanisms for AP processing. The form of AP ability needs the interaction between congenital and acquired environment, and the brain mechanism of this interaction needs the studies about behavioral genetics.
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    Neural Mechanism of Self-Face Recognition
    GUAN Li-Li;QI Ming-Ming;ZHANG Qing-Lin;YANG Juan
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1313-1318.  
    Abstract   PDF (122KB) ( 1253 )
    Self-face recognition is an experimental paradigm of self-referential processing. It reflects the process that someone can recognize one’s own face by distinguishing self from others. The brain regions involving in self-face recognition include the prefrontal cortex, insula, cingulated cortex, temporal and parietal areas. There are three stages involving in the neural mechanism of self-face recognition, including low-level sensory processing, self-referential information processing, and identity discrimination. The future research should discriminate the time course of each cognitive process of self-face recognition, and combine it with the brain areas to determine each processing stage and cognitive component in self-face recognition.
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    Role of the Right or the Left Hemisphere? Dispute on Neural Mechanism of Self-awareness
    CHENG Lei;CHEN Xu-Hai;HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1319-1327.  
    Abstract   PDF (305KB) ( 1319 )
    Self-awareness refers to the inner subjective state of individual when he is aware of himself. Almost all tasks involved self may arouse self-awareness. Due to its complexity, there remain many disputes about the neural mechanism of self-awareness. The researches of neural mechanism proceed from cognitive neuropsychiatry and neural imaging. Many researches find that self-awareness activates the right hemisphere. Furthermore, some high-level tasks involve with inner speech activate the left hemisphere. Nowadays, more researchers consider the cortical middle structure plays important role in self-awareness. Specific tasks relate to self-awareness and social background should be paid more attention in the future study.
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    The Role of Metacognition in Cognitive Strategy Selection
    LIU Wei-Fang;SI Ji-Wei;WANG Yu-Xuan
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1328-1338.  
    Abstract   PDF (171KB) ( 1174 )
    Metacognition refers to individual’s cognition about its’ own cognitive process. Great deals of findings have been made concerning the relationship between the metacogniton and strategy selection that is always the metacogniton influences the strategy selection when the research first emerged in 1980s. The present review summarized the new findings about this domain in the fields such as the learning and memory, problem solving, and strategy instruction based on the nearest decade relevant researches at home and abroad. The authors looks forward to breakthrough on the four aspects which should be concluded the regulative use in high level, strategies in the basic memory and instruction, deep operation mechanism, and the new technique used to the research in the future.
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    Beyond Dichotomy of Valence and Arousal: Review of the Motivational Dimensional Model of Affect
    ZOU Ji-Lin;ZHANG Xiao-Cong;ZHANG Huan;YU Liang;ZHOU Ren-Lai
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1339-1346.  
    Abstract   PDF (205KB) ( 2710 )
    Previous theories emphasizing valence and arousal dimensions of affect directed a number of experimental researches, but they have always gave rise to some controversies. Recently the motivational dimensional model of affect was proposed, in a word, affect of low motivational intensity broadens cognitive processes, whereas affect of high motivational intensity narrows cognitive processes. This model demonstrated that narrowing and broadening effects of other dimensions of affect to attention, memory processes and so on, which go beyond dichotomy of valence and arousal. In summary, this model have significant implications in understanding the interaction of cognition and emotion and must be further tested in future. It is critical to explain the operational definition of motivational dimension and develop relevant standard stimuli materials or tasks.
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    Neuroendocrine Response and Its Mediators Induced by Acute Psychosocial Stress
    QI Ming-Ming;ZHANG Qing-Lin;GUAN Li-Li;YANG Juan
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1347-1354.  
    Abstract   PDF (254KB) ( 1022 )
    Acute psychosocial stress is thought to induce neuroendocrine response by hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and sympathetic-adrenal medulla axis separately. Salivary cortisol is a stable indicator of HPAA activity response to acute psychosocial stress. This article focuses on studies which have employed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its modified version for stimulation of HPAA and discusses the role of various mediators (e.g., demographic factors, biological factors, and training) of the acute specificity stress response to psychosocial stress. Authors proposed that neuroendocrine responses to acute psychosocial stress await longitudinal studies.
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    The Cognitive Bias in Food Cues for Restricted Eaters: Evidences from Behavioral and Neuropsychological Studies
    KONG Fan-Chang;ZHANG Yan;CHEN Hong;Shi Ming-Li;TODD Jackson;GAO Xiao
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1355-1362.  
    Abstract   PDF (222KB) ( 1025 )
    Restricted eating refers to consistent, cognitively-mediated efforts to restrict eating for the purpose of weight control. Considerable study has indicated that restricted eaters have cognitive biases in processing food cues, particularly high-energy or palatable food cues, relative to unrestricted eaters. Such biases are associated with specific patterns of electrophysiological activation in regions including the medial prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. Future experimental studies on restricted eating should employ strict selection criteria and employ varied methodological strategies including the odd-one-out and study-test paradigms to elucidate neural bases related to processing food cues and fully identify associated cognitive mechanisms and psychosocial influences in samples of Chinese restricted eaters.
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    The Motivation of Employee Creativity: Employee Creative Self-efficacy
    (1江苏大学工商管理学院, 江苏 镇江 212013) (2南京大学商学院, 南京 210002)
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1363-1370.  
    Abstract   PDF (268KB) ( 1800 )

    Creative self-efficacy, which is defined as the belief one has the ability to produce creative outcomes, plays an important role in the employee creative process. Creative self-efficacy explains as a person’s belief that he or she can successfully perform in a particular setting, derived from Bandura’s more general concept of self-efficacy. The main factors impact on employee creative self-efficacy is summarized: leadership support, the complexity of the work, the years of employee education, work experience and work self-efficacy. The relationship between creative self-efficacy and employee innovation is analysised, positive correlation between them is tested and verified by empirical studies. Finally, Some points about future trends on the research about creative self-efficacy are put forward, which is exploring more measurement tools, doing more empirical research on particular settings and trying to find more related factors.

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    Facial Self-Resemblance in Kinship Selection and Mate Choice
    ZHUANG Jin-Ying;ZHANG Jin-Mei;YING Juan-Juan
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1371-1377.  
    Abstract   PDF (192KB) ( 1462 )
    The role of facial self-resemblance in kinship altruism behavior and mate choice has been investigated according to Hamilton’s inclusive fitness theory. While many researches indicate that self-facial resemblance promotes kinship altruism, its role in mate choice is quite controversy. While the evidence of assortative mating claims facial self-resemblance preference in mate choice, the experimental data are inconsistent. Some researches confirm the facial self-preference effect, but the others do not. However the recent research indicates that the facial self-preference effect in mate choice is an implicit process. As soon as the subjects realize that the composites have themselves in it the effect disappears. Another research claims that the facial self-preference effect depends on what strategies the subjects take on tradeoffs between absolute and relative qualities of potential mates. Based on the behavioral data, neural implications are introduced to further understanding the nature of these two kinds of social behavior.
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    A Review on the Psychology of Suicide Terrorism
    SHI Wei;JIA Feng-Xiang
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1378-1386.  
    Abstract   PDF (422KB) ( 1497 )
    Suicide terrorism refers to that someone actively and intentionally kills themselves along with the chosen innocent targets to meet with a success of the mission, in the service of catching the attention of the target objects or the public and creating an atmosphere of terror, and eventually achieving certain political, religious or social purposes. There is no single profile of the individual suicide terrorist. And their motivations are complex. Perhaps they are motivated by religious or political purpose, or it’s the choice after rational analysis. The Quest-for-Significance Model is a comprehensive model that integrates all the levels of analysis and links related theories or views. There is not much difference of male and female suicide terrorists. But females may want to strive for gender equality. And they are more likely to be driven by personal causes. Because it’s arduous for us to collect actual data and information of suicide terrorist, the conclusions may be speculative. In future we have to apply more other empirical approaches.
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    Place Identity: Analysis from Environmental Psychology Perspective
    ZHUANG Chun-Ping;ZHANG Jian-Xin
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1387-1396.  
    Abstract   PDF (165KB) ( 2536 )
    In 1978, Proshansky proposed the concept of place identity. Now in the field of environmental psychology, place identity is an important concept for investigating the relationship between humans and the places. As one component of self identity, it is related to physical environment. In the past literature, researches distinguish place identity from place attachment, sense of place and place dependence in terms of cognitions, feelings and behaviors, respectively. Across the levels of individual, society and culture, the factors affecting place identity were demonstrated. In the future, new research approaches such as experimental methods investigating social cognition and longitudinal design can be used to explore the internal mechanism of place identity. The ways of applying this concept to solve currently practical problems in China are discussed.
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    The Latest Development of the Rorschach Test in the West in Recent Ten Years
    KONG De-Sheng;CAI Li;LIU Hui;JIN Lu-Lu;LI Shu-Hong;ZHANG Lin-Lin
    . 2011, 19 (9): 1397-1404.  
    Abstract   PDF (204KB) ( 1393 )
    The Rorschach Comprehensive System has been developing in the past ten years with XA%, WDA%, perception - thinking Index PTI, GHR: PHR and Some other indicators added, 8 clusters of variables modified and the schizophrenia index SCZI removed. All these changes improve the system, and make the Rorschach a more reliable and valid, standardized and objective test in the west. Though there are still some problems with its complex operations and some imperfect features, combined with other objective tests, the Rorschach Comprehensive System as a typical projective test will play a more and more significant role in a complete system of the psychological assessment.
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