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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 19 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    主编特邀
    Psychological and Behavioral Research after Major Disaster in China
    LIU Zheng-Kui;WU Kan-Kan;WANG Li
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1091-1098.  
    Abstract   PDF (192KB) ( 1623 )
    China is a disaster-phone country. Major disasters not only threaten safety of life and property of people and cause enormous lost to the national, but also severely affect the psychological well-being of the survivors, their families and community. The present article reviewed research progress on disaster psychology after “512 Wenchuan Earthquake”, including epidemiological study on psychological trauma, structural model of Post Trauma Stress Disorder (PTSD), behavioral traits, changes in cognitive function and immunological function aftermath of disaster, group dynamics and group behaviors. Finally, the article analyzed future research directions and foresees the potentials in disaster psychology research in China.
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    博士论坛
    Spatiotemporal Dynamics for Emotional Processing
    LUO Qian;PENG Dan-Ling;LIU Hong-Yan
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1099-1103.  
    Abstract   PDF (147KB) ( 1447 )
    This is a review of the research work on emotional processing that Dr. Qian Luo and colleagues have performed in recent years. Using behavioral and brain imaging techniques including fMRI and MEG, we have identified the neural mechanisms underlying privileged and automatic processing of emotional stimuli. These are revealed first by showing the neural basis for emotional processing at the subliminal level. Particularly enhanced activation in occipitotemporal cortex, amygdala and attention-related regions for emotional relative to neutral stimuli presented subliminally possibly underlie the biased processing of emotional stimuli even when stimuli are unseen. Second, we revealed the spatiotemporal dynamics and functional connectivity between regions involved in emotional processing. Particularly, we provided first direct evidence in humans that the quick automatic emotional response is based on the subcortical route from thalamus to amygdala. Moreover, the spatiotemporal development between regions sensory cortex, amygdala, frontal cortex were also identified. Thirdly we investigated the interaction between emotion and attention. We found that amygdala automaticity was a function of time: while early amygdala responding to emotional stimuli was unaffected by attention, later amygdala response, subsequent to frontoparietal cortex activity, was modulated by attentional load.
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    研究构想
    The Neural-mechanisms of the Formation of Inversion Effect in Non-face Object Recognition
    TAO Wei-Dong;SUN Hong-Jin;ZHANG Xu-Dong;ZHENG Jian-Hong
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1104-1114.  
    Abstract   PDF (297KB) ( 1062 )
    Neural mechanisms of object recognition, especially the neural mechanisms of novel artificial objects expertise recognition are an important window to investigate the brain plasticity. In current research, the event-related potential was used to investigate the formation process of non-face object inversion effect. Two kinds of participants were selected: (1) Experts of a certain kinds of object recognition without any arbitrary trained by experimenter, such ability formed in daily life; (2) novice participant who recognize novel artificial objects with or without arbitrary training. Through manipulating the magnitude of inversion effect in a serial experiment, we aim to dissociate specific ERP components of expertise recognition and explore the brain plasticity of object recognition. The whole project tries to propose our own model which can explain the relationship between the level of experience from a certain orientation of object and the selection of processing strategies in object recognition. The result of this project also could provide the exact evidence of cognitive neuroscience to support and improve theory of configural processing continuum.
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    研究方法
    The History and Development of Experiment Design for Placebo Effect Studies
    ZHANG Wen-Cai;YUAN Li-Zhuang;LU Yun-Qing;LUO Jing
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1115-1125.  
    Abstract   PDF (265KB) ( 1664 )
    Placebo treatment initially was a controlled condition in studying certain active therapeutic effect, but now it has been the study object that the investigators who are interested in. And the experimental paradigm also has kept changing accordingly. Randomized and double-blind design concerns about if the active therapy is more effective than placebo treatment; Deceptive design investigates placebo effect itself by directly compared the placebo treatment and natural history condition; Open-hidden paradigm estimates the size of placebo effect by subtracting hidden effect from open effect; Balanced paradigm can observe placebo effect and therapeutic effect simutaneously; Reinforcement paradigm can produce strong placebo effect with conditioned reinforcement and is an optimized paradigm for studying the mechanism of placebo effect; Transferable paradigm built by our team, can observe the transferable effect from pain domain to emotion domain, is a complement to reinforcement paradigm.
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    研究前沿
    The Role of Configural and Featural Processing in Face Recognition
    WANG Ya-Min;HUANG Ya-Mei
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1126-1137.  
    Abstract   PDF (189KB) ( 1344 )
    Configural and featural processing, two most important processing modes in face recognition, were reviewed based on literatures frequently cited and supported during recent 40 years. Different related conceptions and methods were discussed, and the findings supported both by behavioral and cognitive neuroscience researches were emphasized and systematically interpreted under a frame of dissociated facial recognition. Developmental and neurobiological studies were further reviewed to provide a robust evidence of two processing modes in facial recognition. Furthermore, the potential different levels of configural processing were proposed to explain the conflicted conclusions in the field. Whatever, the distinction between configural processing and featural processing was well supported, and these two processing pattern may be used to account for how we obtain different facial property information from one’s faces. Still, the subcategory of configural information and the differences between conceptions such as configural, holistic, whole, and global were suggested to be explored in the future.
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    Ideomotor Theory: The Connotation and Evidences
    SUN Yue;CHEN Wei;DING Jun
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1138-1146.  
    Abstract   PDF (196KB) ( 868 )
    There are two kinds of human beings’ daily actions. One is a kind of reaction to external stimuli in a bottom-up mode, which could also be called sensorimotor mode; the other is that the presentation of action was intention-based and driven by intention in people’s mind, and actions were executed in a top-down mode for specific effects or goals, which could also be called ideomotor mode. Ideomotor theory has been through a long evolution. Lots of behavioral and neuroscience evidence found in the general action imitation and general action research has already proved the hypothesis of ideomotor theory and the two mechanisms of it(common coding and mirror neurons). Ideomotor theory is significant in linking up perception and action, according to which the researchers put forward some new perspectives in this area, including the shared circuits model(SCM). Besides, ideomotor theory also stressed the important position of goal and anticipation. It suggested that future studies should provide findings that the path between action and perception and proximal effects of action.
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    Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Semantic Unification in Sentence Comprehension
    ZHU Zu-De;WANG Sui-Ping;FENG Gang-Yi;LIU Ying
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1147-1157.  
    Abstract   PDF (148KB) ( 809 )
    Semantic unification, the process that combines word-level semantics into an overall meaning representation of an utterance, is a crucial aspect of language comprehension. Although many brain imaging studies using fMRI and MEG techniques have associated left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal regions with semantic unification, there are also contradictory findings and alternative explanations attributing the observed LIFG activation to other processes such as controlled semantic retrieval and general selection. Based on review of the present empirical evidence and theoretical arguments, future directions are suggested to reveal the mechanism of semantic unification and its underlying neural substrates.
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    Intentional Self-Regulation in Adolescence
    WANG Guo-Xia;GAI Xiao-Song
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1158-1165.  
    Abstract   PDF (226KB) ( 1450 )
    Intentional self-regulations are contextualized actions that are actively aimed towards harmonizing demands and resources in the context with personal goals in order to attain better functioning and to enhance self-development. The concept of intentional self-regulation is based on SOC (selection, optimization and compensation) theory. The process of intentional self-regulation emerges dramatically in adolescence; the level of intentional self-regulation could predict positive developmental outcomes, by interacting with contextual factors and other proximal process. Future studies should emphasize domain-specific measurement of intentional self-regulation, the process paradigm, and the promotion of intentional self-regulation.
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    A Social-Cognitive Approach to Motivational Contagion between Teacher and Student
    CHAI Xiao-Yun;GONG Shao-Ying;DUAN Ting;ZHONG Liu;JIAO Yong-Qing
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1166-1173.  
    Abstract   PDF (182KB) ( 1432 )
    Motivational contagion between teacher and student refers to a process which motivational orientation spreads from teacher to student in the classroom setting. The occurring of motivational contagion is based on the students’ social perception when they perceive some clues from teachers’ behavior, emotion and classroom motivational climate. In the present researches, expectancy formation mode and instruction supportive mode explain potential processes of motivational contagion from a different perspective. On the basis of social cognitional perspective, the mechanism of motivation contagion model can be separated into two paths, which are unconscious, automatic goal contagion and conscious satisfaction of basic psychological demands. This mechanism model should be further verified. The future studies should concern generally as follow: (1) Extending ideas of researches through qualitative methods. (2) Focusing on the values of motivation contagion in culture and context variables etc. (3) Systematically research within reciprocal processes.
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    A Commentary of Neuroendocrine Stress Response in the Functional Neuroimaging Context
    YANG Juan;HOU Yan;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1174-1178.  
    Abstract   PDF (103KB) ( 960 )
    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major endocrine stress axis of the human organism. Brain networks exercises their regulatory function on HPA axis function and cortisol regulation. Moreover, cortisol regulates its own release via the negative feedback loop in the central nervous system, where it influence stress responsiveness and alter the rate of brain and body aging. Hippocampus, amygdale, prefrontal cortex, and brainstem are involved in cortisol regulation in response to stress. Future study should classify different type of stressors and try to find experimental paradigms of psychosocial stress in the event-related potential (ERP) context.
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    The Psychological Mechanisms of Tinnitus
    LI Zhi-Cheng;GU Ruo-Lei;ZENG Xiang-Li
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1179-1185.  
    Abstract   PDF (225KB) ( 1072 )
    Numerous studies have dedicated to investigate the mental problems caused by tinnitus. Recently, researchers found out that tinnitus patients’ attentional disorders might be associated with their levels of negative emotions. In addition, brain imaging studies revealed that the activations of some “emotional” brain regions were stronger in tinnitus patients’ brain, indicating that tinnitus is possibly linked with emotional disorder. We suggest these results would prove beneficial to clinical diagnosis of tinnitus, as well as psychological care of tinnitus patients. Considering tinnitus patients’ demands of life quality, future research on their execution function and social skills are necessary.
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    Temporal Self-regulation Theory: A New Perspective on Health Behavior Study
    CHENG Cui-Ping;ZHANG Yong-Hong
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1186-1192.  
    Abstract   PDF (145KB) ( 1070 )
    Temporal self-regulation theory (TST), based on the intention-behavior link, is a new theoretical framework which emphasizes the combined influence of temporality, behavioral prepotency and self-regulatory capacity on health behavior. According to TST, connectedness beliefs and temporal valuations affect intentions; behavioral prepotency and self-regulatory capacity not only adjust the strength of the intention-behavior link, but also affect human behavior directly. Compared with other health behavior models, the major difference is the inclusion of self-regulation and time factors that affect human behavior. Future research can further specify intervention strategies of health behavior and give behavioral prepotency an appropriate position as well.
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    “One for All, All for One”: Review of Research on Team-Member Exchange
    ZOU Wen-Chi1;LIU Jia
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1193-1204.  
    Abstract   PDF (350KB) ( 1615 )
    TMX examines the influence of relationship quality between individual member and other members in the group on the group’s overall performance and on individual performance as well. It first gives a systematic introduction about the TMX Theory by means of reviewing its concept, theoretical basis, method and measurement. Furthermore, it summarizes the empirical researching results of the antecedents and outcomes of TMX, and also includes researches of TMX as mediator and moderator. In the summary, variables of these researches have been differentiated at group level and individual level. Finally, it puts forward that the further empirical researches on TMX should be carried on under the Chinese context, and develops the TMX scales suitable to Chinese managerial context.
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    Trust in Online Shopping
    GUAN Yi-Jie;TAO Hui-Jie;WANG Zhou-Lan;SONG Yan
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1205-1213.  
    Abstract   PDF (233KB) ( 2168 )
    Trust is the willingness of a party to be actions of another party based on the positive expectation. Trust in online shopping includes disposition to trust, institution-based trust, trusting beliefs (trust in e-vendor) and trusting intentions. Personal experiences, personality and cognition influence disposition to trust. Security construction of Internet and service of the third-party institution influence institution-based trust. Practice of the Web, e-vendor reputation and e-shop size influence trust belief. The future researches may focus on the conception of trust in online shopping, the development of trust, cultural effect in trust and regaining trust after negative events.
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    Indecisiveness in the Domain of Career Decision Problems
    XIONG Hong-Xing;ZHENG Xue
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1214-1223.  
    Abstract   PDF (233KB) ( 1480 )
    Indecisiveness is a general tendency to repeatedly experience difficulties in making all sorts of life decisions and is a major concern of career psychologists. It has a great impact on career decision-making, such as decisional procrastination, tunnel vision, and post-decisional problems etc. It is not only associated with many personality factors, but also with some clinical symptoms. The position of indecisiveness in the career decision-making concept system and how to translate it into Chinese are discussed. Further researches about this issue are as follows: the structure of indecisiveness, the impact of indecisiveness on decision-making in the dynamic context, the antecedent variables of indecisiveness, the longitudinal study on indecisiveness etc.
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    Moral Emotions: The Moral Behavior’s Intermediary Mediation
    REN Jun;GAO Xiao-Xiao
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1224-1232.  
    Abstract   PDF (224KB) ( 2410 )
    Moral emotion, an important research area of Psychology, is an emotional experience which results from people’s judgment of one’s own or other’s behavior and thought based on certain moral standards. It is a complex emotion, including disgust, empathy, guilt, shame, etc. Moral purity and moral compensation constitute typical behaviors people would exhibit under the influence of moral emotions. Behavior recalled paradigm, physical goods or picture stimulus paradigm and situation settings paradigm are the main psychological research paradigms of moral emotions. Future research may focus on the role of positive moral emotions in moral development, the impact of moral emotions on group behavior and the value of moral emotions in different cultural backgrounds.
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    A Review of the Research on Moral Psychological Licensing
    SHI Wei
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1233-1241.  
    Abstract   PDF (161KB) ( 1510 )
    Moral psychological license may be defined as people’s perception that they are permitted to take an action or express a thought without fear of discrediting themselves. We present evidence that good behavior in one domain can license otherwise-discrediting behavior in the same domain or an unrelated domain. Observers are sometimes willing to extend license to actors on the basis of the actors’ behavioral history. The potential mechanisms behind licensing are moral credits and moral credentials which can be viewed as two independent routes. When one acts in domains that are relatively unimportant to one’s identity or can avoid appearing hypocritical, one’s behavioral history will liberate rather than constrain future behaviors. We also discuss remaining questions in the literature and propose avenues for future research, the questions including the relationship between self-licensing and person-licensing, verification fundamental assumptions of moral credits and moral credentials models, the desirable consequences of moral licensing.
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    Physical Cleanliness and Morality
    YAN Shu-Chang
    . 2011, 19 (8): 1242-1248.  
    Abstract   PDF (156KB) ( 1663 )
    The metaphor “cleanliness is next to godliness” widely exists in cultural and religious fields. Several recent empirical studies have suggested that physical cleanliness relieves one’s immoral emotions, and a clean self enhances one’s moral self image and can render harsh moral judgment. There were evidences supporting the conclusion that different parts of body involved in moral transgression tend to be cleaned. There are two theoretical explanations of the association between physical cleanliness and morality, which is the framework of conceptual metaphor theory and the embodied cognition theory. Stabilization, specificity and cross-cultural consistency of the association still need to be further explored. The present article offers several directions of future research on the threshold of the effects of physical cleanliness on moral self, the impact of different types of bodily cleansing on one’s mind, the status of physical cleanliness among the moral copings, and the integration of interdisciplinary theories.
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