ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 508-516.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00508

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  1. (广州大学心理学系, 广州 510006)
  • 收稿日期:2012-07-16 发布日期:2013-05-25 出版日期:2013-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 邢强
  • 基金资助:


The Electrophysiological Mechanisms of Constraint Relaxation Studied with A Chinese Logogriph Task

XING Qiang;ZHANG Zhonglu;WANG Mengruo;ZHANG Jinlian;WANG Jing;YAO Yanfen;ZHAN Danling   

  1. (Department of Psychology, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China)
  • Received:2012-07-16 Online:2013-05-25 Published:2013-05-25
  • Contact: XING Qiang

摘要: 尽管“限制解除”作为一种顿悟问题解决的关键途径早在上世纪90年代就被德国心理学者Knoblich及其同事提出, 但学界对于“限制解除”所包含的信息加工程序、阶段以及相应的脑认知过程却并未有进一步的探讨和细化。本文从“限制解除”的理论角度出发, 以答案提示催化的“诱发式”字谜解决顿悟为例, 首次提出了一个关于“诱发式”限制解除过程的信息加工阶段初步构想。该构想认为:顿悟问题解决中的“诱发式”限制解除过程包含3个不同的信息加工阶段。第一阶段是以早期注意参与为特征的冲突信息的预警或预处理过程; 第二阶段是以新旧思路交替为特征的关键限制解除过程, 鉴于这个过程以基本问题表征空间的拓展为特征, 因此我们推测右脑的活动很有可能在这个过程中占据主导地位; 第三阶段是以自上而下的控制加工为特征的重新整合过程。脑电研究数据部分地支持了本研究的假设, 发现了上述第一阶段在脑电变化上体现为顿悟性限制解除所伴随的N100/P200复合体; 第二阶段体现为P300在300~400 ms的时间窗内的地形图分布及差异波; 而第三阶段则体现为N400在400~800 ms内的变化。脑电结果还证实:在第二阶段也就是限制解除的关键阶段, 右脑的活动明显强于左脑, 提示基本问题空间的拓展可能更多地依赖于右脑, 而在第三阶段也就是信息的重新整合阶段则表现出相反的半球偏侧化倾向。上述发现有可能为进一步认识和理解顿悟中“限制解除”的脑认知机理提供了新的见解。

关键词: 限制解除, 信息加工阶段, 事件相关电位, 汉字字谜

Abstract: Although constraint relaxation had been proposed by Knoblich and colleagues in 1990s as a key process in insight problem solving, the involved procedure and stages of information processing and the associated brain mechanisms have not yet been investigated in detail. From a theoretical perspective, the present paper for the first time proposed a preliminary account of the processing stages in hinted constraint relaxation, based on evidence from a logogriph insight problem solving task involving the use of hinted answers. According to this account, in insight problem solving, hinted constraint relaxation consists of three different information processing stages. The first stage involves pre-warning from conflicting messages or preprocessing operations characterized by the engagement of early attention. The second stage is the crucial process of constraint relaxation characterized by the alternation between the old and new ways of thinking. As this process mainly involves the expansion of the space for basic problem representation, the right hemisphere is suggested to play a dominant role during the process. The third stage is the process of re-integration characterized by top-down controlled processing. In support of this account, the ERP results showed that the first stage manifested itself as the N100/P200 complex accompanying constraint relaxation in insight problem solving; that the second stage manifested itself as the P300 varying in the 300-400ms time window illustrated with scalp topography and difference waves; and that the third stage manifested itself as changes in N400 in the 400-800ms time window. Furthermore, the ERP results showed that in stage 2, or the crucial stage for constraint relaxation, the right brain showed significantly stronger activity than the left brain, suggesting that the expansion of the basic problem representation space relies more on the right brain. In contrast, an opposite trend in the pattern of hemisphere lateralization was found in stage 3 or the stage for information re-integration. These findings offer a new view in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms of constraint relaxation in insight problem solving.

Key words: constraint relaxation, stages in information processing, event-related potentials (ERP), Chinese logogriph