ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2024, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (9): 1239-1251.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.01239

• 亲社会行为专刊(1) • 上一篇    下一篇


石荣1, 刘昌2, 唐慧琳3, 郝俊懿2, 沈汪兵4   

  1. 1山东大学基础医学院医学心理学与伦理学系, 济南 250012;
    2南京师范大学心理学院, 南京 210097;
    3南京晓庄学院教师教育学院, 南京 210097;
    4河海大学公共管理学院, 南京 210097
  • 收稿日期:2023-09-27 发布日期:2024-06-25 出版日期:2024-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘昌, E-mail:; 石荣, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学青年项目(22YJC190018), 山东省自然科学基金青年项目(ZR2022QC021), 中国博士后基金(2022M711914)

Spontaneous giving: Processing mode and emergency affect prosocial behavior

SHI Rong1, LIU Chang2, TANG Huilin3, HAO Junyi2, SHEN Wangbin4   

  1. 1Department of Medical Psychology and Ethics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China;
    2School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China;
    3School of Teacher Education, Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, Nanjing 210097, China;
    4School of Public Administration, Hohai University, Nanjing 210097, China
  • Received:2023-09-27 Online:2024-06-25 Published:2024-09-25

摘要: 亲社会行为作为亲社会属性的重要方面, 一直是自然和社会科学研究的焦点。然而, 对于人们是否能够形成亲社会行为的一般直觉倾向, 仍存在争论。研究聚焦于慈善情境下的捐助行为, 采用事件相关电位技术考察加工模式和情境紧急性对捐助行为的影响及其神经机制。行为结果发现, 捐助行为受紧急性和捐助成本的双重影响, 随着成本的增加, 个体更愿意帮助紧急情境下的求助者。脑电结果发现, 直觉加工比反思加工诱发了更大的前部N1波幅, 而反思加工比直觉加工诱发了更大的P2波幅。在非紧急情境下, 反思加工比直觉加工诱发了更大的P3波幅。这一结果表明加工模式不仅影响了个体的早期注意和对刺激的评估, 还调节了晚期阶段对非紧急事件的认知投入。研究揭示了加工模式和事件紧急性对亲社会行为的影响, 通过关注紧急性这一潜在调节因素为不一致结果指出了方向, 扩展了对社会启发式假说的理解。

关键词: 加工模式, 亲社会行为, 紧急性, 社会启发式假说, 事件相关电位

Abstract: Prosocial behavior is suggested to be a central feature of human life and there is an ongoing debate regarding whether individuals have, therefore, developed a general intuitive tendency to act prosocially or not. Although previous studies have found various indicators of intuitive prosociality from different perspectives, evidence on the potential causal relationship between processing mods and prosocial behavior is mixed. The social heuristics hypothesis (SHH), as a theoretical framework to address this conflicting issue, suggests that associations between processing mode and prosocial behavior are complex and multifaceted, influenced by individual variability and the contexts in which it occurs. A previous study has revealed that intuitive prosocial behavior is more likely to emerge in a perceived emergency that require immediate response. We expected that processing mode (intuition vs. deliberation) will impact people's decision-making in different helping situations.
The study focused on charitable giving. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of processing mode and emergency on helping behaviors. We explored whether a neural signature that rapidly encodes the motivational salience of an event, the P3, can be regulated by processing mode × situation interaction or not. Participants were required to allocate varying amounts of money between themselves and charities they initially labelled as emergency or non-emergency situation that promoted intuitive or deliberative decision making. Each participant received 70 CNY. An instruction on the screen explained that the task required participants to “Accept” or “Reject” donation offers affecting their 70 CNY. To manipulate processing mode, each participant completed fast donation sessions where they were instructed to make decisions as fast as possible, and slow donation sessions where they were instructed to stop and reflect for at least 5 seconds before deciding. EEG signals were recorded during decision making.
The behavioral results indicated that both average contributions and average acceptance rates were affected by emergency, with emergency events eliciting more helping behavior compared to non-emergency events. Moreover, participants considered the offer costliness when making decisions. In emergency situations, participants were more likely to accept high-cost offers than in the non-emergency situations. The ERP components analysis revealed that: a) In the early stages, intuitive processing induced a more negative anterior N1 (AN1) compared to deliberative processing; b) Deliberative processing was associated with a more positive P2 compared to intuitive processing; c) In non-emergency situations, deliberative processing induced a more positive P3 compared to intuitive processing, whereas no significant differences were observed between processing mode in emergency situations.
These results suggest that prosocial behavior is affected by both the emergency of event and the costliness of the offer. As costs increase, individuals are more inclined to help in emergency situations than in non-emergency situations. Furthermore, processing mode affects individual's early attention and the evaluation of stimuli. Stimuli in intuition condition can capture more early attention, while stimuli in deliberation condition receive more thorough processing. Notably, deliberative processing of non-emergency events involves greater decision-making conflicts and consumes more psychological resources. Overall, these findings shed light on the connection between processing mode and human prosociality, and extend our understanding of the social heuristics hypothesis.

Key words: processing mode, prosocial behavior, emergency, the social heuristics hypothesis, event-related potential (ERP)