ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2024, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (3): 281-294.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00281

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


梁菲菲1,2,3(), 冯琳琳2, 刘瑛2, 李馨1,2,3, 白学军1,2,3   

  1. 1教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300387
    2天津师范大学心理学部, 天津 300387
    3学生心理发展与学习天津市高校社会科学实验室, 天津 300387
  • 收稿日期:2023-05-26 发布日期:2023-12-11 出版日期:2024-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 梁菲菲, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

Different roles of initial and final character positional probabilities on incidental word learning during Chinese reading

LIANG Feifei1,2,3(), FENG Linlin2, LIU Ying2, LI Xin1,2,3, BAI Xuejun1,2,3   

  1. 1Key Research Base of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    2Faculty of Psychology, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    3Tianjin Social Science Laboratory of Students’ Mental Development and Learning, Tianjin 300387, China
  • Received:2023-05-26 Online:2023-12-11 Published:2024-03-25


本研究通过两个平行实验, 探讨重复学习新词时首、尾词素位置概率信息作用于词切分的变化模式。采用阅读伴随词汇学习范式, 将双字假词作为新词, 实验1操纵首词素位置概率高低, 保证尾词素相同; 实验2操纵尾词素位置概率高低, 保证首词素相同。采用眼动仪记录大学生阅读时的眼动轨迹。结果显示: (1)首、尾词素位置概率信息的词切分作用随新词在阅读中学习次数的增加而逐步变小, 表现出“熟悉性效应”。(2)首词素位置概率信息的“熟悉性效应”表现在回视路径时间、总注视次数两个相对晚期的眼动指标, 而尾词素位置概率信息的“熟悉性效应”则从凝视时间开始, 到回视路径时间, 再持续到总注视时间。结果表明首、尾词素的位置概率信息均作用于阅读伴随词汇学习的词切分, 但首词素的作用时程更长, 更稳定, 支持了首词素在双字词加工中具有优势的观点。

关键词: 词素位置概率, 词切分, 阅读伴随词汇学习, 中文阅读


In natural unspaced Chinese reading, there are no salient visual word segmentation cues (like word spaces) to demark where words begin or end, yet Chinese skilled readers process a comparable amount of text content as efficiently as English readers, processing roughly 400 characters (equal to 260 words) per minute. This raises the question of how Chinese readers engage in such word segmentation processing efficiently and effectively. Liang et al (2015, 2017) have shown that the positional probability information associated with a character, might offer a cue to the likely positions of word boundaries during Chinese incidental word learning. Given that they simultaneously manipulated the positional probabilities of both word initial and word final characters to make their manipulations maximally effective, it is unclear whether the initial, the final, or both constituent characters’ positional probabilities contribute to the word segmentation and word identification effects during incidental word learning in Chinese reading. For this reason, in the present study, two parallel experiments were designed to directly investigate whether word initial, or word ending characters are more or less important for word segmentation word learning in Chinese reading.

Two-character pseudowords were constructed as novel words. Each novel word was embedded into six high-constraint contexts for readers to establish novel lexical representation. In Experiment 1, we examined how word’s initial character positional probability influenced word segmentation and word identification during Chinese word learning. The initial character’s positional probability of target words was manipulated as being either high or low, and the final character was kept identical across the two conditions. In Experiment 2, an analogous manipulation was made for the final character of the target word to check whether the final character positional probability of two-character words can be used as word segmentation cue. We also included “Exposure” as a continuous variable into the model to further examine how the process of initial and final character positional probabilities changed with exposure.

In both experiments, the participants spent shorter reading times and made fewer fixations on targets that comprised initial and final characters with high relative to low positional probabilities, suggesting that the positional probability of both the initial and final character of a word influences segmentation commitments in novel word learning in Chinese reading. Furthermore, both the effect of initial and final character positional probabilities of novel words decreased with exposure, showing the typical familiarity effect. To be somewhat different, the familiarity effect associated with the initial character had a slower time course relative to final character. This finding suggests that the role of word’s initial character positional probability is of more importance than that of final character’s, supporting the concurrent standpoint that word beginning constituents might be more influential than word final constituents during two-character word identification in Chinese reading.

Based on the findings above, the time course of the process of initial and final character positional probabilities of novel words is argued and summarized as follows. During the early stage of word learning, both the statistical properties of word’s initial and final character positional probabilities are processed as segmentation cue. As lexical familiarity increases, the extent to such segmentation roles decreases, which initially begins with final character, and then occurs with initial character. Later, both the roles of initial and final character positional probabilities disappear with the establishment of a more-integral representation of novel words.

Key words: character positional probability, word segmentation, incidental word learning, Chinese reading