ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (7): 805-815.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00805

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

发展性阅读障碍儿童阅读中的眼跳定位缺陷:基于新词学习的实验证据

梁菲菲(), 马杰, 李馨, 连坤予, 谭珂, 白学军()   

  1. 天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-28 出版日期:2019-07-25 发布日期:2019-05-22
  • 通讯作者: 梁菲菲,白学军 E-mail:feifeiliang_329@126.com;baixuejun@tjnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金项目(31600902);国家自然科学基金项目(81471629);国家自然科学基金项目(31571122);天津市哲学社会科学规划课题(TJJX16-013)

Saccadic targeting deficits of Chinese children with developmental dyslexia: Evidence from novel word learning in reading

LIANG Feifei(), MA Jie, LI Xin, LIAN Kunyu, TAN Ke, BAI Xuejun()   

  1. Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China
  • Received:2018-11-28 Online:2019-07-25 Published:2019-05-22
  • Contact: LIANG Feifei,BAI Xuejun E-mail:feifeiliang_329@126.com;baixuejun@tjnu.edu.cn

摘要:

通过与生理年龄匹配儿童比较新词重复学习中眼跳定位模式变化的异同, 探讨发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词学习中的眼跳定位是否存在缺陷。以发展性阅读障碍儿童和生理年龄匹配儿童为被试, 采用重复学习新词范式, 结果发现:(1)与生理年龄匹配组相比, 发展性阅读障碍儿童跳入新词的眼跳距离较短、首次注视落点位置更靠近词首; (2)生理年龄匹配组儿童利用学习次数调节新词眼跳定位模式的能力高于发展性阅读障碍儿童, 即随着新词学习次数的增加, 生理年龄匹配组儿童跳入和跳出新词的眼跳距离随之增长, 首次注视落点位置更靠近词中心; 相比之下, 发展性阅读障碍儿童仅在跳出新词的眼跳距离上有所增长, 但增加幅度也显著小于生理年龄匹配组。结果表明, 发展性阅读障碍儿童在新词学习中的眼跳定位, 及利用学习次数对眼跳定位的调节上均表现出一定缺陷。

关键词: 发展性阅读障碍, 新词学习, 眼跳定位, 中文阅读

Abstract:

It is reported that, the primary approach for school children to acquire vocabularies is by deriving word meanings from contexts. The typical deficit of developmental dyslexia is that they have smaller vocabulary size than their chronological age-matched children. One recent study has examined the cognitive processes underlying dyslexic children’s novel word learning during reading by using eye tracking. This is a method that is well established as a means of investigating reading behaviour by measuring when and where the eye fixates on text as written language is processed naturally. It should be noted that all the studies investigating novel word learning measured fixation durations on novel words fixated by dyslexic children with a view to quantifying the time required for those novel words to be successfully identified within the context of a sentence. In the present study we investigated saccadic targeting in relation to novel word learning in dyslexia children.
Each novel word was embedded into eight sentences, each of which provided a context for readers to form a new lexical representation. Two groups of dyslexic children and age-matched control children’s eye movements were recorded when they read sentences. Given the ongoing lexical processing difficulty influences the basic decision of “where to target” in Chinese reading, the novel word poses substantial processing difficulty, particular for dyslexic children with inefficient lexical processing, we predict that dyslexic children would be less efficient to target the eyes than control children did in novel word learning.
Consistent with our prediction, the mean initial landing positions on novel words were further away from the word center for dyslexic than control children, showing that the basic decision of saccadic targeting on novel words was less efficient for dyslexic than control children. Additionally, we categorized 8 exposures to novel words as being two learning stages: Learning stage 1 including exposures 1 to 4; and learning stage 2 including the exposures from 5 to 8. We aimed to examine whether they were able to modulate their saccadic targeting as the accumulated learning of novel words. The results showed that, control children targeted the initial saccades closer to the word centers with increased exposures, while such effect did not occur for dyslexic children. These findings indicate that control children adjusted the initial saccadic targeting based on lexical familiarity information, while dyslexic children did not.
On the basis of the findings above, we argue that, dyslexic children may adopt more careful strategy of saccade-target selection given their lower efficiency in word processing, such that they had lower efficiencies in the basic decision of saccadic targeting, as well as the usage of “lexical familiarity information” to modulate the saccadic targeting to novel words. This might account for their low word acquisition efficiency in reading.

Key words: developmental dyslexia, novel word learning, saccade targeting, Chinese reading

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