ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (7): 853-865.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00853

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 中文阅读中预视阶段和注视阶段内词汇视觉编码 的过程特点:来自消失文本的证据

 刘志方1;  张智君2;  潘 运3;  仝 文4;  苏 衡2   

  1.  (1宁波大学心理学系暨研究所, 宁波 315211) (2浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028) (3贵州师范大学心理学系, 贵阳 550003) (4山西师范大学心理学系, 临汾 041004)
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-29 出版日期:2017-07-25 发布日期:2017-05-26
  • 通讯作者: 张智君, E-mail: zjzhang@zju.edu.cn; 苏衡, E-mail: 1205428690@qq.com E-mail: E-mail: zjzhang@zju.edu.cn; , E-mail: 1205428690@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
     教育部人文社会科学研究青年项目成果(15YJC190014); 国家自然科学基金项目(31371039); 省教育科学规划课题(2015SCG103); 宁波大学人文社会科学培育项目研究成果

 The characteristics of visual word encoding in preview and fixation frames during Chinese reading: Evidences from disappearing text

 LIU Zhifang1; ZHANG Zhijun2; PAN Yun3; TONG Wen4; SU Heng2   

  1.  (1 College of Education, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China) (2 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China) (3 Department of Psychology, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China) (4 Department of Psychology, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China)
  • Received:2016-04-29 Online:2017-07-25 Published:2017-05-26
  • Contact: ZHANG Zhijun, E-mail: zjzhang@zju.edu.cn; 苏衡, E-mail: 1205428690@qq.com E-mail: E-mail: zjzhang@zju.edu.cn; , E-mail: 1205428690@qq.com
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摘要:  研究采用消失文本范式考察中文阅读中双字词汇视觉信息编码的过程特点。实验一操控词n+1上字词消失方式及其延迟时间, 结果发现, 注视词n时, 词n+1上不同位置的汉字及时消失(延迟时间为0 ms)都影响总阅读时间, 且影响程度与消失汉字的具体位置与消失汉字的数量有关; 延迟时间为60 ms时, 词n+1上的左侧字消失不再影响总阅读时间, 而词n+1上的右侧字消失仍会影响总阅读时间。实验二操控词n上字词消失方式及其延迟时间, 结果发现, 注视词n时, 词n上不同位置的汉字及时消失对总阅读时间的影响程度完全一致, 说明词n上汉字视觉编码不受消失汉字的具体位置与消失汉字的数量的调节; 延迟时间为60 ms时, 各消失条件都不影响总阅读时间, 说明词n上不同汉字的视觉编码同时完成。基于两项实验结果可得出, 在预视阶段内中文读者以汉字单元编码内双字词汇的视觉信息, 在注视阶段内以整词为单元编码双字词汇的视觉信息。

关键词:  中文阅读, 视觉编码, 消失文本范式, 眼动

Abstract:  Encoding the visual information of text into a more permanent representation is necessary for text processing and comprehension. It was found that young English readers are able to encode all the visual information of a fixated word within 55 ms, but cannot encode word n+1 within this time in English reading. Evidence has shown that young Chinese adult readers could not only encapsulate a fixated word as soon as young adults English readers, but also encode the text of word n+1 within this time. It has also been found that the process of encoding a fixated word in Chinese reading is more susceptible to the effects of childhood development and age than English; thus, it may be language-related. With two disappearing text experiments, we explore the characteristics of text and visual encoding of words n and n+1 during Chinese reading. By doing so, we want to clarify whether the process of encoding visual information during Chinese reading is word-or character-based. If the encoding process is character-based, the impairment in reading performance from disappearing manipulations should be mediated by the number and locations of disappeared characters. On the contrary, a word-based hypothesis denies these results. The sentences used in both experiments consisted of 7 or 8 two-character words. The first experiment was conducted to explore the visual encoding in preview frames. The experiment was a 4 (disappearing manipulations: no disappearing vs word n+1 disappearing vs character n+1 disappearing vs character n+2 disappearing) ×2 (disappearing onset: 0 ms vs 60 ms) mixed design. After word n was fixated for 0 or 60 ms in each condition, word n+1, the left character of word n+1, and the right character of word n+1 disappeared respectively. An immediate refixation on word n did not result in the reappearance of disappeared text. Reading time was the most important reference in the present study. The results showed that the disruption caused by disappearing manipulations was mediated by the number and locations of disappeared characters; thus, indicating that the encoding process in preview frames is character-based during Chinese reading. The second experiment also had four disappearing manipulations and two disappearing onset times. This experiment was a 4 (disappearing manipulations: no disappearing vs word n disappearing vs fixated character disappearing vs no fixated character disappearing) × 2 (disappearing onset: 0 ms vs 60 ms) mixed design. In the word n disappearing condition, word n disappeared after it was fixated for 0 or 60 ms. In the fixated character disappearing condition, the fixated character disappeared after word n was fixated for 0 or 60 ms. In the no fixated character disappearing condition, the nonfixated character, which also belonged to word n, disappeared after word n was fixated for 0 or 60 ms. An immediate refixation on word n did not result in the reappearance of disappeared text. It was found that all of the disappearing manipulations disrupted reading performance equally when the disappearing onset time was 0 ms, and that not all of them prolonged reading time in the conditions with a 60 ms onset time. These results indicated that the encoding process in fixation frames is word-based during Chinese reading. By integrating the two results mentioned above, it may be concluded that Chinese readers encode the visual information of word n and characters in word n+1 parallel. Further, the encoding process is character-based in preview frames and word-based in fixation frames.

Key words: Chinese reading, visual encoding, disappearing text, eye movements

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