ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (3): 300-318.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00300

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中文读者词汇视觉信息获取速度的发展 ——来自消失文本的证据


  1. (1天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074) (2国民心理健康评估与促进协同创新中心, 天津 300074) (3天津师范大学教育科学学院, 天津 300074) (4宁波大学心理系暨研究所, 宁波 315211)
  • 收稿日期:2013-10-11 出版日期:2015-03-25 发布日期:2015-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 闫国利, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(2009JJDXLX005), 天津市高校“中青年骨干创新人才培养计划”项目和天津师范大学2014年博士新人项目(2014BSXR)资助。

The Comparison of Eye Movements between Chinese Children and Adults When Reading Disappearing Text

YAN Guoli1,2,3; LIU Nina1,2,3; LIANG Feifei3; LIU Zhifang4; BAI Xuejun1,2,3   

  1. (1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China) (2 Center for Cooperative Innovation in Mental Health Assessment and Promotion, Tianjin 300074, China) (3 School of Education and Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China) (4 Department of Psychology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China)
  • Received:2013-10-11 Online:2015-03-25 Published:2015-03-25
  • Contact: YAN Guoli, E-mail:


通过消失文本范式操纵注视词的呈现时间, 记录儿童(10~12岁)与成人(18~23岁)阅读消失文本和正常文本时的眼动行为, 考察中文阅读中读者获取文本视觉信息速度的发展变化。结果发现:在40 ms及更长的文本呈现条件下, 儿童与成人的阅读理解率和总阅读时间均不受显著的干扰, 表明中文读者在非常短暂的文本呈现时间内能够快速地获取阅读所必需的文本视觉信息。然而, 儿童受到消失文本操作更大的影响, 表现为:儿童比成人采用更多回视进行信息的再次提取、再注视概率也较成人减少更多、同时当文本呈现时间不足时(20 ms), 儿童需要增加更多的总阅读时间来完成阅读活动, 表明阅读机能较低的儿童比成人需要更长的文本呈现时间。本研究也说明, 儿童在阅读时认知加工速度比熟练读者慢, 除了表现在信息获取的空间范围, 还在一定程度上表现在视觉信息获取的速度方面, 与拼音文字研究中所发现的结果不完全一致。

关键词: 消失文本, 中文阅读, 眼动, 儿童和成人读者


Recent studies using the disappearing text paradigm have shown that reading in alphabetic writing systems is not impaired substantially if words remain visible for only a short period when they are fixated (e.g., English: Rayner et al., 2006; Finnish: Blythe et al., 2011).There are, however, important developmental differences in performance on this task, and findings indicate that developing child readers often must fixate more often on words, especially long words, whereas skilled adult readers do not (Blythe et al., 2011). The present study used the disappearing text paradigm in two experiments to investigate if there is a similar developmental difference in performance on the disappearing text paradigm when reading Chinese. These experiments recorded the eye movements of native Chinese developing child readers and skilled adult readers. Participants read sentences formed from regular sequences of two-character words and each sentence was between 7 and 8 words long. These sentences were either presented normally or in a disappearing text paradigm in which, as each word was fixated, the word remained visible only for a short period before disappearing. There were four disappearing text conditions: in Experiment 1, each word remained visible for 20ms, 40ms, 60ms, or 80ms following fixation onset; and in Experiment 2, each word remained visible for 20ms, 60ms, 100ms, or 140ms following fixation onset. Both experiments showed that there was no overall cost to reading times for either age group except in the 20ms display condition, which was longer compared to when sentences were shown normally. This was consistent with the findings from studies in alphabetic languages. However, both the child and adults readers produced different patterns of eye movement behaviour in the disappearing text conditions compared to when sentences were shown normally. First, there was a trade-off between refixation probability and fixation duration, such that both age groups of readers made fewer but longer fixations on words. In addition, both groups of readers were more likely to make regressions back to words in the disappearing text condition compared to when sentences were shown normally, indicating that both age groups were more likely to refixate words, to facilitate word identification, when words were shown only briefly. However, there was also a clear developmental difference in the use of this strategy and the developing child readers made more regressions back to words in the disappearing text paradigm, as compared to when text was shown normally, than did the skilled adult readers. This showed that, as in previous studies using alphabetic languages, developing child readers had more difficulty identifying words when these were visible for only short periods following fixation and often made a regression in order to reinspect words. The indication, therefore, is that developing child readers identify words more slowly than skilled adult readers. Finally, both age groups made initial fixations on words which were closer to the center of the two-character words in disappearing text conditions than when sentences were shown normally, suggesting that the disappearing text manipulation cued readers to the regularity in the construction of the sentences. To conclude, skilled readers of Chinese can identify words extremely quickly during reading. This is consistent with the findings from alphabetic writing systems. For less skilled developing Chinese readers, however, more time is needed to encode words and so these readers often have to reinspect words that are available only very briefly when reading disappearing text. In other words, the findings show that developing child readers' encoding of words is slower than that of skilled adult readers.

Key words: disappearing text, Chinese reading, eye movements, children and adult readers

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