ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (6): 954-967.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00954

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


兰泽波1,2, 郭梅华1,3, 姜琨4, 吴俊杰1, 闫国利1()   

  1. 1天津师范大学心理学部, 天津 300387
    2福建医科大学健康学院, 福州 350122
    3闽南师范大学教育科学学院, 漳州 363000
    4天津理工大学心理健康教育与咨询中心, 天津 300384
  • 收稿日期:2022-07-28 发布日期:2023-03-06 出版日期:2023-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 闫国利
  • 基金资助:

The distinctness of visual word recognition in hearing-impaired college readers: The effects of language experience and reading ability

LAN Zebo1,2, GUO Meihua1,3, JIANG Kun4, WU Junjie1, YAN Guoli1()   

  1. 1Faculty of Psychology, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    2School of Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China
    3School of Educational Science, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000, China
    4Mental Health Education and Consultation Center, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China
  • Received:2022-07-28 Online:2023-03-06 Published:2023-06-25


听障者词汇识别过程是否表现出特异性一直是研究者关注的焦点问题, 然而当前观点并不一致。本研究采用语义相关性判断任务, 通过两个实验探讨语言经验和阅读能力对听障大学生词汇识别中字形、语音和手语表征激活的影响。实验1比较不同语言经验和阅读能力的听障大学生在形似干扰字、同音干扰字和无关干扰字条件下的表现, 实验2比较他们在手语相关和无关条件下的表现。实验1结果显示, 在正确率和反应时指标上, 不同语言经验和阅读能力的听障大学生表现出相似的字形干扰效应(与无关干扰字相比, 形似干扰字条件下正确率更低、反应时更长), 均未出现语音干扰效应。实验2结果显示, 在正确率指标上, 当控制听障大学生阅读能力时, 阅读能力高的手语组表现出显著的手语干扰效应(与无关条件相比, 手语相关条件下正确率更低), 阅读能力高的口语组未出现手语干扰效应。当控制听障大学生语言经验, 阅读能力高的手语组和阅读能力低的手语组表现出相似的手语干扰效应。综合两个实验的结果可以发现, 语言经验影响听障大学生的词汇表征, 阅读能力不影响听障大学生的词汇表征。在此基础上, 本研究尝试提出听障大学生中文词汇识别的认知加工模型。

关键词: 听障大学生, 书面词汇识别, 字形表征, 语音表征, 手语表征


Compared with hearing readers, orthographic information and phonological information may play different roles in the word recognition process for hearing-impaired readers. As a communication mode for hearing-impaired readers, sign language may also affect their word recognition process. A large number of studies have examined the activation of orthographic representation, phonological representation, and sign language representation during visual word recognition in hearing-impaired readers. Previous studies have found that hearing-impaired readers could activate stable orthographic representations, but there were inconsistent results in the activation of phonological representations, whereas studies on hearing-impaired readers who primarily use sign language have found that they can activate stable sign language representations. Hearing-impaired readers grow up in a complex language environment, which leads to great individual differences in language experience and reading ability. However, previous works have not clearly identified the effect of language experience and reading ability on the cognitive mechanism of reading in hearing-impaired readers. Continuous attention to this problem will help to provide a reference to guide reading instruction for hearing-impaired readers.
This study conducted two semantically related decision tasks to investigate the activation of orthographic, phonological, and sign language representations during Chinese visual word recognition in hearing-impaired college students. Orthographic and phonological representations play an important role in word recognition for hearing readers, but sign language representations are a phenomenon unique to deaf readers. In the current study we investigated the activation of orthographic and phonological representation in Experiment 1 and the activation of sign language representation in Experiment2. To investigate the effects of individual differences, according to their language experience and reading fluency, hearing-impaired college students were divided into deaf college students with oral language experience and higher reading ability (Skilled Oral Deaf, SOD), deaf college students with sign language experience but higher reading ability (Skilled Sign Deaf, SSD), and deaf college students with sign language experience and lower reading ability (Less-Skilled Sign Deaf, LSSD).
The results of Experiment 1 showed that (a) hearing students showed a stable orthographic interference effect, whereas the phonological interference effect was weak. (b) The SOD group and the SSD group showed similar performance. Both showed a stable orthographic interference effect but did not show a significant phonological interference effect. (c) The SSD group and the LSSD group showed similar performance. Both groups showed a stable orthographic interference effect but did not show a phonological interference effect. Experiment 2 found that (a) hearing students did not show a sign language interference effect. (b) The SOD group and the SSD group differed in performance. The SSD group exhibited a sign language interference effect, whereas this effect was absent in the SOD group. (c) The SSD group performed similarly to the LSSD group. Both groups showed a stable sign language interference effect. Taken together, the following conclusions were drawn from the two studies: (a) after controlling for reading ability, language experience affected Chinese lexical recognition in deaf college students; lexical representation of oral deaf college students was similar to that of hearing readers., orthographic representations were mainly activated; and the activation of phonological and sign language representations was weak. Deaf college students who used sign language developed a unique cognitive mechanism, and they activated stable orthographic and sign language representations during visual word recognition. (b) After controlling for language experience, reading ability did not affect lexical representation during Chinese word recognition in hearing-impaired college students. (c) Based on the results of this study, combined with the representation and processing models of Chinese word recognition, we attempted to construct a cognitive model of Chinese word recognition for hearing-impaired college readers.

Key words: hearing-impaired college students, visual word recognition, orthographic representation, phonological representation, sign language representation