ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (02): 135-143.

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  1. 北京大学心理学系,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2008-02-04 修回日期:1900-01-01 发布日期:2009-02-28 出版日期:2009-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 苏彦捷

Relations between Judgment of Others’ Memory and Theory of Mind in Preschoolers

LU Hui-Jing;SU Yan-Jie   

  1. Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2008-02-04 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-02-28 Published:2009-02-28
  • Contact: SU Yan-Jie

摘要: 从观点采择的角度考察儿童对他人记忆的评判及其与错误信念理解的关系。与他人分享记忆时,个体需要同时处理自我与他人对过去的表征和看法;而要顺利完成错误信念任务,个体需要同时加工自我的真实信念与他人的错误信念。因此个体对他人记忆的评判能力可能会与其对错误信念的理解相关。40名4岁儿童完成一系列错误信念任务和评判他人记忆是否正确任务,情境包括视觉、意图解释和情绪解释。结果表明,控制年龄、语言和记忆能力等因素后,被试评判他人记忆的成绩仍然可以预测其对错误信念的理解。这些结果为幼儿在回忆叙述中谈及他人越多,其心理理论越好提供了进一步的证据和可能的解释

关键词: 心理理论, 观点采择, 记忆, 他人

Abstract: Previous research has shown that talking about others in reminiscence facilitates the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in 4-year-old Chinese preschoolers. The present study provides one potential interpretation for those findings by exploring the relations between ToM and judgment of other’s memory. We assume that children who have talked more about others during recall have represented more information regarding others. They should therefore perform better when judging other’s memory because they possess more knowledge about others. Processing views and situations related to others involves perspective-taking, which includes various levels of perspectives, such as perceptional (simple visual and complex visual) and cognitive (intentional and emotional) ones. In this study, different levels of perspective-taking were used to assess children’s representation and judgment of others’ memories, and the relations between ToM and memory judgment were examined.
Forty 4-year-old children completed a verbal productive task and four ToM tasks including two Mistaken Location tasks and two Content Change tasks. They also completed a series of memory tasks in which their memory ability and judgment of others’ memory were examined. In each task, participants first experienced a scenario; two days later they were required to recall the scenario and judge others’ views about the scenario. The views included others’ visual perception and perspectives on intention and emotion of the story characters. These views sometimes pertained to reality, but they were always not consistent with the participant’s own views.
Results showed that memory ability, judgment of others’ memory and ToM correlated with one another, and the judgment of others’ memory could still explain ToM when age, memory ability, and verbal ability were statistically controlled. Further examination showed that, in the case of others’ views not pertaining to reality, performance related to judging others’ memory was positively correlated with ToM scores once age, verbal abilities and memory ability had been statistically controlled. However, this correlation was absent in the case of others’ views pertaining to reality.
These results are discussed in relation to the ability to simultaneously process two different perspectives, which is required in both ToM tasks and memory judgment tasks. When judging others’ memory, participants should be aware of others’ views about a previously experienced scenario and distinguish others’ perspectives from the self’s perspective. Children who pass false belief tasks have to process the true belief by themselves and the false belief of others at the same time. The correlation between judging others’ memory and ToM helps to account for the findings that talking about others during reminiscence facilitates the development of ToM. The nature of first-order and second-order false belief tasks is used to discuss the minor finding that children’s performance on false belief tasks correlated with judgment of others’ memory only in the case of others’ views that do not pertain to reality

Key words: theory of mind, perspective taking, recollection, othe