ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 22-26.

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支持性条件对记忆年龄差异的影响

罗琳;韩布新   

  1. 中国科学院心理研究所,中国科学院心理研究所 北京100101 ,北京100101
  • 出版日期:2001-10-25 发布日期:2001-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 罗琳

EFFECTS OF SUPPORTIVE CONDITIONS ON AGE DIFFERENCES IN MEMORY

Luo Lin Han Buxin(Institute of Psychology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)   

  • Online:2001-10-25 Published:2001-10-25

摘要: 通过三个实验探讨支持性条件对记忆年龄差异的影响。结果表明 ,在操作条件下记忆高语义关联度项目时 ,有缩小记忆年龄差异的作用 ,(实验一 ) ;线索回忆时 ,对于低语义关联度项目 ,青年人可从名词线索中获得更多支持 (实验二 ) ;当使用具范畴组织关系的词表作为记忆材料时 ,操作条件和范畴线索的结合对老年人记忆有干扰作用 (实验三 )。记忆中年龄差异的变化反映了编码条件、记忆材料和提取条件三方面的综合作用。

关键词: 记忆, 年老化, 动作记忆, 语义关联, 线索

Abstract: Three experiments were conducted to explore the effects of cognitive supports on age differences in memory. In Experiment 1, encoding condition and semantic integration level were varied, while the combination of subject-performed (SPT) encoding and well-integrated (WI) items produced reduced age differences, applying these conditions alone did not affect age differences. In Experiment 2, cued recall task was used; for poorly-integrated (PI) items, using noun as retrieval cue had a greater supportive effect on younger subjects compared to older adults. In Experiment 3, structured list was used as memory material; a negative cueing effect of verb cue was found. In addition, combining SPT encoding with categorical cue resulted in larger age differences. It is suggested that the variances of age differences in memory reflect an interaction between encoding condition, memory materials and retrieval condition. The different patterns are discussed in terms of the strategic nature of encoding, self-initiated processing and encoding-specificity principle.

Key words: memory, aging, action memory, semantic integration, retrieval cue