ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (7): 850-866.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00850

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    


焦丽颖1,2, 许燕1(), 田一3, 郭震1, 赵锦哲1   

  1. 1北京师范大学心理学部, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学), 北京 100875
    2北京师范大学教育学部, 北京 100875
    3北京教育科学研究院, 北京 100036
  • 收稿日期:2021-06-24 发布日期:2022-05-16 出版日期:2022-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 许燕
  • 基金资助:

The hierarchies of good and evil personality traits

JIAO Liying1,2, XU Yan1(), TIAN Yi3, GUO Zhen1, ZHAO Jinzhe1   

  1. 1Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University), Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3Beijing Academy of Educational Sciences, Beijing 100036, China
  • Received:2021-06-24 Online:2022-05-16 Published:2022-07-25
  • Contact: XU Yan


善恶问题是人们在社会生活中的重要话题, 在对他人进行知觉时, 人们首先关心的信息是什么, 是否会对不同类型善恶特质有所权衡?研究基于人格心理学视角, 通过4个研究对该问题进行了探讨。研究首先探究了人格的道德概念激活时善恶的差异, 并以代表性、好恶度、特质度和重要性为衡量指标分别考察了不同类型善恶特质的核心程度差异。结果发现, 善恶人格的特质差序体现在两个方面:(1)善恶人格间的差序, 在人格的道德范畴中, 存在善人格的优先效应; (2)善恶人格内的差序, “善”的核心由内到外为尽责诚信、仁爱友善与包容大度、利他奉献; “恶”的核心由内到外为凶恶残忍、背信弃义与污蔑陷害、虚假伪善。研究有助于进一步理解中国人的善恶观, 为善恶领域的探究提供了新思路。

关键词: 善恶人格, 人格结构, 特质差序, 特质度, 中国文化


Researchers found that moral information plays the most important role in the formation of impressions of individuals. In the previous studies on person perception, most of them distinguish moral character from other traits such as ability and sociability, and examined the priority and dominance of moral information. However, in order to understand and predict people's behavior in more specifically, it is not enough to distinguish morality from other types of traits. Five studies were conducted to explore whether different types of traits have different effects on perceptions of other people's moral (good and evil) levels?

The perception of others’ moral level is fundamentally to judge their level of good and evil. The concept of good and evil personalities proposed by researchers in Chinese culture, conducts a specific interpretation of moral and immoral characters from the perspective of personality. Study 1 investigated whether there was a hierarchy between good and evil personalities. The results showed that when asked to select which traits belong to morality, the frequency of good personality traits that participants selected was more than evil personality traits. Both good and evil personality traits were selected more often than non-moral traits. In Study 2, two sub studies were conducted to explore the differences in the representativeness (i.e., the degree of usefulness) of different dimensions of good or evil personality in judging whether an individual is “good” or “evil”. The results of study 2a showed that when people judged a person as “good”, the representativeness of each dimension from high to low was: conscientiousness and integrity > benevolence and amicability ≈ tolerance and magnanimity > altruism and dedication. The results of study 2b showed that when people judged a person to be “evil”, the representativeness of each dimension from high to low was: atrociousness and mercilessness > faithlessness and treacherousness ≈ calumniation and circumvention > mendacity and hypocrisy. In Study 3, desirability and the scope of trait were used as the measurement standards to verify the hierarchies of good (and evil) personality traits inference. The scope of trait describes the minimum behavior frequency that people need to identify a trait. Results showed that desirability and the scope of trait of each dimension were consistent to Study 2. The differential patterns were also demonstrated by ranking method in Study 4. When people need to judge the good and evil degrees of a person, they thought that the conscientiousness and integrity dimension was more important than the altruism and dedication; and the atrociousness and mercilessness dimension was more important than the mendacity and hypocrisy.

People always show different patterns of good and evil in thoughts, feelings and behaviors, which can be attributed to personality traits related to good and evil. The study of good and evil personality contributes to people’s basic understanding of good and evil. Moreover, the hierarchies model of good and evil personality traits which based on Chinese culture provided a new idea for the integration of the content of good and evil judgment.

Key words: good and evil personalities, personality structure, hierarchy, scope of trait, Chinese culture