ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (10): 1128-1142.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01128

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国人的善与恶:人格结构与内涵 *

焦丽颖1, 杨颖1, 许燕1(), 高树青1, 张和云2   

  1. 1 北京师范大学心理学部, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学), 北京 100875)
    2 上海政法学院政府管理学院, 上海 201701
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-24 出版日期:2019-11-25 发布日期:2019-08-19
  • 通讯作者: 许燕
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金面上项目(31671160);上海市哲学社会科学规划教育学青年项目(B1804);上海市晨光计划项目资助(17CG63)

Good and evil in Chinese culture: Personality structure and connotation

JIAO Liying1, YANG Ying1, XU Yan1(), GAO Shuqing1, ZHANG Heyun2   

  1. 1 Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University), Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2 School of Government, Shanghai University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 201701, China
  • Received:2018-11-24 Online:2019-11-25 Published:2019-08-19
  • Contact: XU Yan


为了探究中国人善恶人格的结构和内涵, 研究基于人格的词汇学假设, 从现代汉语词典和开放式问卷调查获得的人格词汇中选取善与恶的人格词, 分别建立了善、恶人格词表。通过探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析( N = 1467), 最终得到27个善人格词汇与28个恶人格词汇, 因素分析的结果显示:中国人的“善”人格包含尽责诚信、利他奉献、仁爱友善、包容大度四个维度; “恶”人格包含凶恶残忍、虚假伪善、污蔑陷害、背信弃义四个维度。

关键词: 善, 恶, 人格结构, 词汇学, 中国文化


The ideas of good and evil characteristics have a long history in Chinese language and culture, with these characteristics considered to be two aspects of the Chinese personality. Abundant descriptions of good and evil characteristics can be found in human nature. However, the specific structures of good and evil concepts have not yet been delineated clearly and detailed studies on these concepts are limited. A careful definition is important with regard to what comprises a good or evil personality and to understand the psychological structure of the two concepts.

A lexical approach was applied to determine constitutes a good or evil personality in Chinese culture. In Study 1, a set of 3, 240 good and evil personality descriptors was selected from The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary and accompanied by daily life expressions. The list was condensed into 62 good and 65 evil items following evaluation and selection by 12 psychology graduates. In Study 2, we explored the dimensions of a good personality using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with Sample 1 (n = 313) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with Sample 2 (n = 518). Results revealed that good personality contained four dimensions: conscientiousness and integrity, altruism and dedication, benevolence and amicability, and tolerance and magnanimity. We refined the four-dimensions good personality lexical rating scale, which contained 27 items. In Study 3, we used the same method as in Study 2 to explore the structure of an evil personality (EFA: Sample 1, n = 367; CFA: Sample 2, n = 269). Results showed the evil personality contained four dimensions: atrociousness and mercilessness, mendacity and hypocrisy, calumniation and circumvention, and faithlessness and treacherousness. Thus, we employed a 28-item evil personality lexical rating scale. The internal consistency, reliability, and criterion-related validity of the two scales were verified.

The study found four-factor structures of good and evil personalities using the lexical approach and psychometrics methods, which contributes to knowledge on personality. In China, Confucius regarded benevolence as the highest moral principle for a person. Therefore, good and evil traits are embedded naturally in the personality structure of Chinese people. Understanding the structure of good and evil is useful for researchers interested in Chinese culture and for studies in Chinese indigenous psychology.

Key words: good, evil, personality structure, lexical method, Chinese culture