ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (12): 1318-1329.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01318

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

提问类型对自传体记忆概括化的影响

宫火良, 杨迪(), 张方屹   

  1. 河南大学教育科学学院心理与行为研究所, 开封 475004
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-19 出版日期:2019-12-25 发布日期:2019-10-21
  • 通讯作者: 杨迪 E-mail:yangdi0917@163.com

The influence of questioning type on the generalization of autobiographical memory

GONG Huoliang, YANG Di(), ZHANG Fangyi   

  1. Institute of Psychology and Behavior, School of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
  • Received:2018-10-19 Online:2019-12-25 Published:2019-10-21
  • Contact: YANG Di E-mail:yangdi0917@163.com

摘要:

自传体记忆概括化程度较高是抑郁症产生与发展的重要影响因素, 探究降低自传体记忆概括化程度的方法以缓解抑郁症状、降低抑郁复发率是心理咨询与治疗中的一个重要研究课题。基于此, 本研究选取344名初中生进行实验, 实验1对比了问题状态组与正常状态组被试的自传体记忆概括化程度, 结果发现, 问题状态组被试的正性、负性自传体记忆得分均显著低于正常组, 两组在中性自传体记忆得分上差异不显著; 实验2对比了问题取向提问和解决取向提问对问题状态下人们自传体记忆概括化程度的影响, 结果发现, 解决取向提问组被试无论是在正性、负性自传体记忆得分上还是在中性自传体记忆得分上均显著高于问题取向提问组和控制组, 问题取向提问组和控制组在各类自传体记忆得分上差异均不显著; 实验3进一步考察了解决取向提问对问题状态下不同归因风格者自传体记忆概括化程度的影响, 结果发现, 内归因组被试的正性、负性自传体记忆得分均显著高于外归因组, 在中性自传体记忆得分上, 两组被试间差异不显著。结论:与抑郁症等精神障碍患者类似, 遭受一般心理困扰个体的自传体记忆概括化程度也较高; 相比问题取向提问, 解决取向提问能较好地降低一般心理困扰者的自传体记忆概括化程度; 对于一般心理困扰者而言, 解决取向提问对内归因者自传体记忆概括化程度改善效果优于外归因者。综上, 解决取向提问可以作为心理咨询师或治疗师降低个案自传体记忆概括化程度的一种有益尝试。

关键词: 解决取向提问, 问题取向提问, 自传体记忆概括化

Abstract:

Current researchers are largely concentrated on the characteristics of the high degree of autobiographical memory related to the negative emotion and depression, very few studies investigated the ways to reduce or improve the degree of autobiographical memory. The high degree of generalization of autobiographical memory is a symbol of occurrence and development of depression. Knowing how to reduce degree of generalization of autobiographical memory in order to alleviate the symptoms and lower the relapse rate of depression that needs to be resolved in psychological counseling and treatment.
Based on the previous research, 344 junior, middle school students have been selected for the experiments. The present study includes three parts: Experiment compared the generalization difference in the autobiographical memories of both the problematic state and the normal state, verifying that the positive and negative autobiographical memory scores of the problematic state were significantly lower than those of the normal group, and no significant difference in the neutral autobiographical memory score between the two groups. Experiment 2 compared the two questioning types, namely, solution-focused (SF) and problem-focused (PF) on the generalization of autobiographical memory and proved that the scores of positive, negative autobiographical memory and neutral autobiographical memory in the problem- focused questioning were significantly higher than those solution-focused questioning and control group, but there was no significant difference between the problem- focused questioning and control group in all kinds of autobiographical memory scores. A relationship between the questioning type and the autobiographical memory was established, the relation would be used in the counselling. Experiment 3 further explores the influence of solution-focused questioning on the generalization of autobiographical memory in different attribution styles, and testifies that the positive and negative autobiographical memory scores of the internal attributive group were significantly higher than those of the external attributive group, but there was no significant difference between the two groups in the neutral autobiographical memory score.
The result shows that similar to depression and other mental disorders, the degree of autobiographical memory generalization of individuals suffering from general psychological distress show a higher generalization degree of autobiographical memory; a solution-focused questioning can palliate the generalization of autobiographical memory better than question-focused questioning. Moreover, solution-focused questioning is beneficial in improving the generalization of autobiographical memory in internal attribution groups of individuals suffering from general psychological distress.
In short, we can conclude that the questioning type does affect the degree of the generalization of autobiographical memory, provides a useful attempt for psychological counselors or therapists to reduce the generalization of autobiographical memory in cases.

Key words: solution-focused questioning, question-focused questioning, autobiographical memory generalization

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