ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 568-584.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00568

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

歧视知觉对城市流动儿童幸福感的影响:中介机制及归属需要的调节作用

刘霞;赵景欣;申继亮   

  1. (1北京师范大学发展心理研究所, 北京 100875) (2山东师范大学心理学院, 济南 250014)
  • 收稿日期:2010-06-17 出版日期:2013-05-25 发布日期:2013-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵景欣
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(11YJC190015); 教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目(04JZD0026)。

Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being among Urban Migrant Children: The Effect of Mediator and Moderator

LIU Xia;ZHAO Jingxin;SHEN Jiliang   

  1. (1 Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (2 School of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China)
  • Received:2010-06-17 Online:2013-05-25 Published:2013-05-25
  • Contact: ZHAO Jingxin

摘要: 采用整群取样法对选自北京市的1551名流动儿童进行测查, 探讨歧视知觉对城市流动儿童的个体和群体幸福感的影响机制, 即内群体认同和群体地位感在其中的中介作用, 以及不同归属需要下内群体认同和群体地位感的中介作用差异。结果表明:(1)公立学校小学流动儿童的个体和群体幸福感相对较高; 流动男生比流动女生具有较高的生活满意度, 流动女生比流动男生具有较高的群体幸福感。(2)歧视知觉对城市流动儿童的个体和群体幸福感存在直接显著的负向预测作用, 并通过内群体情感认同和群体地位感的中介作用负向预测群体幸福感。(3)不同归属需要下歧视知觉对个体和群体幸福感的作用机制存在差异。在高归属需要组, 歧视知觉对个体幸福感存在直接显著的负向预测作用, 并通过群体地位感和群体幸福感的双重中介消极地影响个体幸福感; 歧视知觉完全通过群体地位感的中介消极地影响群体幸福感。在低归属需要组, 歧视知觉对个体幸福感既存在直接的负向预测作用, 也通过内群体情感认同和群体地位感的中介发挥间接性的积极作用; 歧视知觉对群体幸福感只存在间接的消极影响, 内群体情感认同和群体地位感在其中发挥完全中介作用。这表明, 内群体情感认同和群体地位感在流动儿童歧视知觉与幸福感之间的中介效应受到归属需要的调节影响。

关键词: 歧视知觉, 幸福感, 内群体认同, 群体地位感, 归属需要, 流动儿童

Abstract: According to the recent statistics by Chinese government, there are more than 43 million children who migrated with their parents from rural areas to cities, and the number still keeps growing (Floating population division of national population and family planning commission, 2010). Existing literature suggests that perceived discrimination is a critical factor in the adaptation of migrant children to the city and school life, and that many migrant children had experienced some form of discrimination. For more than half a century, psychologists have examined discrimination primarily from the perspective of the members of dominant social groups. Recently, attention has turned to how potential targets of discrimination construe their predicaments and the effect of perceived discrimination on psychological adaptation. The majority of research has found that perceived discrimination has negative effect on well-being. Other lines of research conducted within a feedback-oriented paradigm have suggested that perceived discrimination has indirect positive effect on well-being. In order to providing a deeper understanding of the complexity of perceived discrimination, the rejection-identification model (RIM) was proposed as a theoretical framework to specify both positive and negative consequences of perceived discrimination. While the RIM has provided new insights and elucidated several key pathways in the formation of subjective well-being, it still needs to be improved with incorporating current theory. Based on the refinement of the RIM, this study aimed to explore the mediating effects of in-group identity and perceived group status on the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being, and to examine the moderating role of belonging need on the mediating effects. Totally, 1551 migrant children from public schools and migrant children schools in Beijing volunteered to participate in this study. Data of demographic information (i.e., gender, grade, and school type), perceived discrimination, in-group identity (i.e., cognitive identity and emotional identity), perceived in-group status, belonging need, personal and collective subjective well-being were collected through a set of self-administrated questionnaires. The results indicated that the migrant children in public primary schools had higher scores on personal and collective subjective well-being than did those in public middle schools and migrant children schools; compared with girls, boys had higher scores on life satisfaction and lower scores on collective well-being. Perceived discrimination had negative direct effects on the personal and collective subjective well-being of migrant children, and negative indirect effect on the collective subjective well-being via the mediating effects of in-group emotional identity and perceived in-group status. The effects of perceived discrimination on personal and collective subjective well-being differed across the levels of migrant children’s belonging need. For those with higher level of belonging need, perceived discrimination had negative direct effects on the personal subjective well-being, and negative indirect effect via the dual mediating effects of perceived in-group status and collective well-being; it also had negative indirect effects on the collective well-being via the complete mediating effect of perceived in-group status. For those with lower level of belonging need, perceived discrimination had both negative direct effects on the personal subjective well-being and positive indirect effects via the mediating effects of in-group emotional identity and perceived in-group status ; moreover, it had negative indirect effects on the collective subjective well-being via the complete mediating effects of in-group emotional identity and perceived in-group status. Overall, the present study showed that the mediating effects of in-group emotional identity and perceived in-group status on the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being was moderated by belonging need. And as a result, identifying the conditions of mediating mechanism is very important to fully understand the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. We should consider the in-group emotional identity, perceived group status, and the level of belonging need in the prevention and intervention of migrant children’s perceived discrimination.

Key words: perceived discrimination, subjective well-being, in-group identity, perceived group status, belonging need, migrant children