ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (8): 875-889.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00875

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


辛素飞, 梁鑫, 盛靓(), 赵智睿   

  1. 鲁东大学教育科学学院, 山东 烟台 264025
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-27 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 盛靓
  • 基金资助:

Changes of teachers’ subjective well-being in mainland China (2002~2019): The perspective of cross-temporal meta-analysis

XIN Sufei, LIANG Xin, SHENG Liang(), ZHAO Zhirui   

  1. School of Educational Sciences, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, China
  • Received:2020-11-27 Online:2021-06-25
  • Contact: SHENG Liang


教师主观幸福感作为衡量教师群体心理健康状况的一项关键指标, 对其现状的调查和分析至关重要, 同时, 对其随社会变迁的动态变化趋势、及其与社会变迁的关系的监测也不可忽视。本研究对2002至2019年间的51篇采用总体幸福感量表(GWB)测量教师主观幸福感的研究报告(共包括13600名教师)进行横断历史的元分析。研究发现:(1)教师主观幸福感均值与年代呈显著负相关, 这说明我国教师主观幸福感在逐年下降。(2)来自社会经济条件(居民消费水平、房价、老年抚养比和教育经费)、社会联结(家庭规模数、离婚率和城镇化水平)和社会威胁(犯罪率)三方面的8项宏观社会指标的变化能显著预测教师主观幸福感的下降。(3)中小学教师的主观幸福感随年代下降的趋势更明显, 其主观幸福感得分要显著低于高校教师。本研究不仅探究了我国教师主观幸福感近20年的变迁趋势, 而且结合社会宏观发展的指标, 提出了影响我国教师主观幸福感的三维理论框架, 对群体社会心理的研究思路进行了纵向(随时代变迁)及横向(宏观社会指标)的拉伸, 拓展理论基础的同时, 在实践上, 为干预调节我国教师群体主观幸福感提供决策依据。

关键词: 教师, 主观幸福感, 总体幸福感量表, 社会变迁, 横断历史研究, 元分析


The subjective well-being (SWB) of teachers affects not only their own mental health and career development, but also has flow-on effects for the well-being of students in their care, school processes and the sustainable development of education. As a consequence, the SWB of teachers has attracted the attention of researchers across various fields. Previous work on the SWB of Chinese teachers offers contradictory findings; while some studies have found the level of SWB of Chinese teachers to be high, others provide a more pessimistic assessment. The debate has proven difficult to untangle for two reasons: (1) different norms were applied in different studies, and (2) previous meta-analysis does not consider the effect of publication year. In order to address these limitations, and to explore the pattern and changing trajectory of Chinese teachers’ SWB over time, the current study applies a cross-temporal meta-analysis technique.
Fifty-one samples/papers using the General Wellbeing Schedule (GWB) to investigate Chinese teachers’ SWB level (N= 13, 600) from 2002 to 2019 were included. Each sample was coded according to journal type, sampling area, learning stage, and sex ratio, these being used as independent or control variables. Our results showed that: (1) The total scores of SWB among Chinese teachers were negatively correlated by year, indicating that teachers’ SWB level has decreased steadily in the past 18 years. (2) The changes of eight social indicators, including social economic condition (residents’ consumption level, housing prices, elderly dependency ratio and educational expenditure), social connectedness (divorce rate, family size and urbanization level) and overall threat (crime rate), were key predicting factors for the decrease in SWB level among Chinese teachers. (3) The decreasing trend in SWB levels was more striking among primary and middle school teachers than for college teachers, with the mean SWB scores of college teachers being significantly higher than that of primary and middle school teachers.
In conclusion, the present study showed that Chinese teachers’ SWB level has decreased in the context of rapid social change occurring in contemporary China. In addition, combined with the corresponding macro-social indicators, a three-dimensional theoretical framework is proposed to explain the SWB for teachers as a social group.

Key words: teachers, subjective well-being, the General Wellbeing Schedule, social change, cross-temporal meta- analysis, meta-analysis