ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (3): 336-348.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00336

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

流动儿童同伴侵害的特点及与内化问题的循环作用关系:一项追踪研究

郭海英1 ;陈丽华1; 叶 枝1; 潘 瑾1,3; 林丹华1,2   

  1. (1北京师范大学发展心理研究所, 北京 100875) (2北京师范大学心理学院, 北京 100875) (3北京市通州区永顺镇西马庄小学, 北京 101100)
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-27 出版日期:2017-03-25 发布日期:2017-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 林丹华, E-mail: danhualin@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金重大项目(15ZDB138)和北京师范大学自主科研基金项目(SKZZY2014052)资助。

Characteristics of peer victimization and the bidirectional relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems among rural-to-urban migrant children in China: A longitudinal study

GUO Haiying1; CHEN Lihua1; YE Zhi1; PAN Jin1,3; LIN Danhua1,2   

  1. (1 Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (2 School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (3 Ximazhuang Primary School, Beijing 101100, China)
  • Received:2016-01-27 Online:2017-03-25 Published:2017-03-25
  • Contact: LIN Danhua, E-mail: danhualin@bnu.edu.cn

摘要:

本研究采用纵向设计, 以北京市426名四、五年级流动儿童为被试, 进行连续4次的追踪测查, 考察流动儿童同伴侵害的特点及其与内化问题的动态相互作用关系。结果发现:(1) 打工子弟学校流动儿童的同伴侵害与内化问题水平比公立学校流动儿童高; 流动儿童的流动性越大, 同伴侵害和内化问题越多。 (2) 控制了性别、年级、家庭社会经济地位(SES)和流动性后, 从T1到T2, 同伴侵害与孤独感为相互作用关系, 且同伴侵害可以显著预测抑郁, 但对社交焦虑的预测作用不显著, 而从T2到T4, 同伴侵害和3种内化问题的相互作用模式完全一致, 即T2时的社交焦虑、抑郁和孤独感显著预测T3的同伴侵害, 进而显著预测T4的社交焦虑、抑郁和孤独感。(3) 抑郁、孤独感与同伴侵害的循环作用在两类流动儿童中具有较强的稳定性, 而在社交焦虑和同伴侵害的模型中, 打工子弟学校流动儿童的同伴侵害对社交焦虑的作用比公立学校流动儿童更大。可见, 同伴侵害和内化问题呈循环作用关系, 未来预防/干预研究可以聚焦于减少流动儿童的同伴侵害或内化问题的角度打破二者的恶性循环, 帮助他们建立良好的人际关系, 构建良性循环, 促进他们的积极发展。

关键词: 流动儿童, 同伴侵害, 内化问题, 追踪研究, 循环作用关系

Abstract:

China’s rapid urbanization has led to unprecedented growth of rural-to-urban migrant children. Although previous studies have shown that migrant children report more peer victimization and internalizing problems, limited studies have yet examined associations between peer victimization and internalizing problems, as well as the direction of these relationships. Therefore, the current longitudinal study aimed to explore characteristics of peer victimization and associations between peer victimization and internalizing problems over a two-year period. A sample of 426 rural-to-urban migrant children was recruited from one migrant children’s primary school (n = 185) and two public primary schools (n = 241) in Beijing, China. Of the 426 participants, 157 (36.9%) were girls and 269 (63.1%) were boys. The sample showed moderate attrition over a two-year period, with 281 (66.0%) participants completing all surveys during the four waves of assessment. Quantitative surveys were administered to participants in October of 2011(Wave 1), June of 2012 (Wave 2), October of 2012 (Wave 3), and June of 2013 (Wave 4). At each wave, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that requested information on demographic variables, experiences of various types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, verbal, relational, property), and internalizing problems (i.e., social anxiety, depression, loneliness). Results indicated high prevalence of perceived peer victimization, with participants reporting the prevalence of the four types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, verbal, relational, property) to be 76.5%, 77.8%, 71.4%, and 63.2%, respectively. Boys reported experiencing more physical victimization than girls, and migrant children who moved more often reported experiencing more peer victimization and greater internalizing problems. Migrant children enrolled in public schools reported less peer victimization and fewer internalizing problems than their counterparts enrolled in the separate migrant school. Cross-lagged analysis showed a significant bidirectional relationship between peer victimization and internalizing problems when controlling for key demographic variables (i.e., gender, grade, socio-economic status, and frequency of moves). Specifically, peer victimization in Wave 1 significantly predicted depression and loneliness in Wave 2, and loneliness in Wave 1 also significantly predicted peer victimization in Wave 2. In addition, internalizing problems in Wave 2 significantly predicted peer victimization in Wave 3, which, in turn, increased reported internalizing problems in Wave 4. Multi-group cross-lagged analysis showed that the bidirectional relationship between peer victimization and depression, as well as between peer victimization and loneliness, did not differ by school group (i.e., migrant or public). However, the association between peer victimization and social anxiety was stronger for children enrolled in the migrant school than for children enrolled in public schools. These findings contribute to our understanding of the complex relationships between peer victimization and internalizing problems among rural-to-urban migrant children in China. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the development of prevention and intervention programs for this at-risk group. Programs that aim to improve the mental health of migrant children and to reduce incidents of peer victimization among this vulnerable group may be helpful in breaking the detrimental cycle between peer victimization and internalizing problems.

Key words: migrant children, China, peer victimization, internalizing problems, longitudinal study