ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (7): 1087-1098.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01087

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


叶颖, 张琳婷, 赵晶晶, 孔风()   

  1. 陕西师范大学心理学院, 西安 710062
  • 收稿日期:2022-03-03 发布日期:2023-04-21 出版日期:2023-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 孔风, E-mail:
  • 作者简介:叶颖和张琳婷为共同第一作者。
  • 基金资助:

The relationship between gratitude and social well-being: Evidence from a longitudinal study and a daily diary investigation

YE Ying, ZHANG Linting, ZHAO Jingjing, KONG Feng()   

  1. School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China
  • Received:2022-03-03 Online:2023-04-21 Published:2023-07-25


感恩是一种重要的积极情绪, 对人类的社会生活有着重要的意义。已有研究表明, 感恩与社会幸福感存在关联, 但缺乏因果性证据。为此, 本研究采用长期追踪法和日记法探讨感恩和社会幸福感的因果机制。研究1对482名被试进行间隔7个月的两拨次追踪调查, 来探讨特质感恩和社会幸福感之间的相互预测关系。交叉滞后分析发现, 前测的特质感恩能够预测后测的社会幸福感, 前测的社会幸福感也能预测后测的特质感恩。为了减小回忆偏差, 研究2对248名被试进行连续21天的日记法调查。结果发现, 前一天的状态感恩能预测后一天的社会幸福感, 前一天的社会幸福感也能预测后一天的状态感恩。本研究揭示了感恩和社会幸福感之间的因果机制, 并提出感恩和社会幸福感的螺旋上升双向影响模型, 这对培育个体感恩和提升个体社会幸福感具有一定的实践价值。

关键词: 感恩, 社会幸福感, 长期追踪法, 日记法


The positive psychological construct of gratitude is crucial for health and well-being. Previous studies have shown a significant positive correlation between gratitude and social well-being. However, no studies have examined this potentially reciprocal relationship from a longitudinal perspective. According to the broaden-and-build theory and gratitude amplification theory, we hypothesized that gratitude has a predictive effect on social well-being. In addition, based on the personality and social relationships model and self-determination theory, we proposed that social well-being is an antecedent to gratitude. In summary, this research combines a longitudinal study and a daily diary investigation to systematically explore the causal relation between gratitude and social well-being.

Study 1 employs a two-wave cross-lagged design to explore the long-term relationship between trait gratitude and social well-being. The sample comprised 563 undergraduate students, who all participated online. Pursuant to the study purpose, participants were asked to complete the gratitude and social well-being scales twice, separated by a seven-month interval. The cross-lagged path analysis suggested reciprocal effects between trait gratitude and social well-being. To reduce recall bias and explore the short-term association between gratitude and social well-being, Study 2 employs a daily diary method. A total of 274 young adults completed daily gratitude and social well-being measures for 21 consecutive days.

In Study 1, trait gratitude at T1 significantly positively predicted social well-being at T2, while social well-being at T1 also significantly predicted trait gratitude at T2. These effects remained significant after controlling for age and gender. Consistent with Study 1, Study 2 also revealed a reciprocal relationship: state gratitude on one day positively predicted social well-being the next day, while social well-being on one day also positively predicted state gratitude the next day. Moreover, these relationships were stable after controlling for time trend. Overall, the results of Study 1 and Study 2 support the hypotheses by showing reciprocal predictive effects between gratitude and social well-being.

In summary, we predicted that experiencing gratitude would lead to higher social well-being, which would, in turn, result in higher gratitude, activating an upward spiral. This work deepens understanding of the interaction between gratitude and social well-being, paving the way for future intervention research to help increase both.

Key words: gratitude, social well-being, longitudinal study, daily diary method