ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 538-545.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00538

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

道德概念的垂直空间隐喻及其对认知的影响

王锃; 鲁忠义   

  1. (1河北师范大学教育学院, 石家庄 050024) (2河北医科大学临床学院, 石家庄 050017)
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-20 出版日期:2013-05-25 发布日期:2013-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 鲁忠义
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(31271111); 河北省自然科学基金资助项目(C2012205046)。

The Vertical Spatial Metaphor of Moral Concepts and Its Influence on Cognition

WANG Zeng;LU Zhongyi   

  1. (1 College of Education, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, China) (2 College of Clinical Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China)
  • Received:2012-01-20 Online:2013-05-25 Published:2013-05-25
  • Contact: LU Zhongyi

摘要: 采用不同的研究方法考察道德概念的垂直空间隐喻表征, 及其对于人的认知的影响。实验1采用迫选法, 在明确要求被试把道德词放在垂直空间位置的上方或下方时, 发现在意识层面, 被试倾向于把道德词放在垂直空间的上部, 把不道德词放在垂直空间的下部。实验2采用无关任务法, 对实验词语作褒贬义判断, 实验结果发现, 道德词出现在空间的上方(相对于下方)时, 被试对道德词作褒贬义判断的时间短; 不道德词出现在空间的下方(相对于上方)时, 被试作褒贬义判断的时间则短。实验3通过记忆任务发现, 道德概念的启动使得个体高估了相继出现的客体的高度和长度, 不道德概念的启动使得个体低估了其高度和长度。三个实验的结果表明, 汉语道德概念的垂直空间隐喻具有心理现实性; 汉语道德概念的垂直空间隐喻既存在于无意识层面又可以在意识的层面显现; 汉语道德概念的垂直空间隐喻表征会影响对物体的高度和长度的估计, 表现为汉语道德概念隐喻表征的“认知偏移效应”。

关键词: 道德, 概念隐喻, 空间表征, 知觉符号, 体验认知

Abstract: Three studies investigate the vertical spatial metaphor of moral concepts and its influence on cognition. Study 1 was a paper-pencil forced-choice task in which participants saw a cartoon character and two square boxes (one above and one below the character), and were asked to place moral and immoral words into the top or the bottom box of their own will. A matching effect appeared both between the moral terms and the above/up space, and between the immoral terms and the below/down space. Study 2 was a computerized categorization task carried out in E-prime. Participants were instructed to categorize words according to whether they were positive or negative in meaning as quickly and accurately as possible. Response times were shorter when moral words appeared at the top of the screen, and when immoral words appeared at the bottom. Study 3 employed a implicit priming task in which participants first memorized moral or immoral concepts and then estimated the height of objects. Moral concepts led to height overestimation while immoral ones led to underestimation. All together, the results suggest that, for Chinese language, there is psychological reality of “Moral is up, immoral is down”. Such a spatial representation of Chinese moral concepts exists at both the conscious and the subconscious level. Other cognitive activities can be influenced by the spatial metaphor of moral concepts subtly. And this new effect is called the Cognitive Deviation Effect of Chinese Moral Concepts’ Metaphorical Representation.

Key words: morality, conceptual metaphor, spatial representation, perceptual symbols, embodied cognition