ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (7): 788-797.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00788

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

攻击动机对特质愤怒与反应性攻击关系的中介作用:一项纵向研究

李芮, 夏凌翔()   

  1. 西南大学心理学部, 认知与人格教育部重点实验室, 重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-03 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-05-24
  • 通讯作者: 夏凌翔 E-mail:xialx@swu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究规划(19YJA190008)

The mediating effect of aggression motivation on the relationship between trait anger and reactive aggression: A longitudinal study

LI Rui, XIA Ling-Xiang()   

  1. Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715, China
  • Received:2020-07-03 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-05-24
  • Contact: XIA Ling-Xiang E-mail:xialx@swu.edu.cn

摘要:

特质愤怒是影响反应性攻击的重要人格因素, 反应性攻击的提出是基于攻击动机, 但是特质愤怒影响反应性攻击的动机机制尚不清楚。本研究假设特质愤怒可以通过增强反应性攻击的特异性动机(即敌意性动机)以及反应性攻击与主动性攻击的共同性动机(即道德准许动机)来纵向预测反应性攻击。为了检验该假设, 对5个省市共1007名大学生的特质愤怒、敌意归因偏向(代表敌意性动机)和道德推脱(代表道德准许动机)、反应性攻击与主动性攻击进行了3次追踪调查。结果显示:(1)在控制性别后, 第一个时间点的特质愤怒可以通过第二个时间点的敌意归因偏向和道德推脱预测第三个时间点的反应性攻击; (2)敌意归因偏向只能纵向预测反应性攻击, 而不能跨时间预测主动性攻击; (3)道德推脱可以纵向预测反应性攻击和主动性攻击。这一结果支持了特质愤怒影响反应性攻击的动机模型, 发展了人格与攻击关系的理论与研究, 对于揭示反应性攻击形成的动机机制具有积极作用。

关键词: 特质愤怒, 反应性攻击, 攻击动机, 敌意归因偏向, 道德推脱

Abstract:

Trait anger is a widely recognized susceptibility personality factor for reactive aggression. However, to the best of our knowledge, the longitudinal effect of trait anger on reactive aggression is unclear. More importantly, even though reactive aggression differs from proactive aggression by their motivations, the motivation mechanism underlying the effect of trait anger on reactive aggression is not known. Thus, the present study attempts to explore the longitudinal effect of trait anger on reactive aggression, and the mediating role of reactive aggression motivation, as well as the relationship between the two different motivations. Reactive aggression refers to the behavior or tendency to respond to perceived provocation with hostile and angry feeling. It is also called impulsive, hostile, or hot-blooded aggression. The motivation of the reactive aggression is comprised of hostile motivation (unique motivation) and moral approval motivation (common motivation). Hostile attribution bias is a typically representative variable of hostile motivation, and moral disengagement is the representative variable of moral approval motivation.
A three-wave longitudinal study with the time interval of 6 months was conducted to test our hypotheses. A total of 1007 undergraduates (mean age = 19.00 years, SD = 0.99) from 5 provinces in China completed a series of questionnaires concerning trait anger, hostile attribution bias, moral disengagement, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression in their classrooms. SPSS 20.0 was used to conduct churn rate, reliability, and common method bias tests, and to calculate descriptive statistics. Mplus 7.0 was used to conduct item parceling and structural equation modeling. A cross-lagged model was developed for trait anger predicting reactive aggression from hostile attribution bias and moral disengagement. Moreover, longitudinal relationships among trait anger, hostile attribution bias, moral disengagement, and proactive aggression were also tested.
The results indicate that there is no serious churn problem for participants, for all variables considered. All measurements show good reliability, and there is no serious common method bias. Moreover, trait anger at Wave 1 significantly predicts hostile attribution bias and moral disengagement at Wave 2, hostile attribution bias and moral disengagement at Wave 2 significantly predict reactive aggression at Wave 3, moral disengagement at Wave 1 significantly predicts hostile attribution bias at Wave 2, and hostile attribution bias at Wave 2 significantly predicts moral disengagement at Wave 3. After controlling for gender, trait anger at Wave 1 significantly predicts reactive aggression at Wave 3 through hostile attribution bias and moral disengagement at Wave 2. Furthermore, the path of hostile attribution bias predicting proactive aggression is non-significant. Moral disengagement at Wave 1 significantly predicts proactive aggression at Wave 2.
This study supports that idea that trait anger would facilitate reactive aggression, and further suggests that trait anger could longitudinally predict reactive aggression through the mediating role of reactive aggression motivation (including hostile motivation represented by hostile attribution bias and moral approval motivation represented by moral disengagement). The present study constructs a motivational model of personality and reactive aggression, and hence develops the theories and study of personality and aggression. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that prevention of, and interventions for, reactive aggression could usefully focus on the personality and motivational factors of aggression.

Key words: trait anger, reactive aggression, aggression motivation, hostile attribution bias, moral disengagement

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