ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

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Conceptual Framework
 Thinking of change in times of danger: The differential impact of job insecurity on innovative behavior MA Bing, YANG Rong, DU Jing, MA Guimei 2022, 30 (11):  2381-2394.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02381 Abstract ( 952 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF (845KB) ( 1482 )   Enterprises are experiencing a “dilemma” in employee management and organizational innovation- it is difficult for enterprises to provide stable jobs, though they have to rely on employees to realize organizational innovation. Thus, it is very essential to study the impact of employees' job insecurity on innovative behavior. When employees encounter job insecurity caused by different environmental threats, they show different level of innovative behavior. Previous studies mainly focus on subjective perception in defining the concept of job insecurity, and only pay attention to mechanism of the holistic construction on innovative behavior from the perspective of intrinsic motivation. This study defines and deepens the concept of job insecurity underpinned by the focus of threats, and explores its differential impact on innovative behavior based on the “variable-centered” approach and the “person-centered” approach. Firstly, this study regards job insecurity as subjective perceptions related to environmental threats and divides it into two dimensions, job-focus insecurity and person-focus insecurity. A measurement scale is also developed. Secondly, with the adoption of longitudinal method and the analysis of the subordinate-supervisor dyad data, it is expected to reveal the chain mediating role of situational regulatory focus and work passion in the impact of job insecurity on innovative behavior. Job-focus insecurity has a negative impact on innovative behavior while person-focus insecurity has an inverted U-shaped impact on innovative behavior. Finally, the “person-centered” approach will be adopted to explore the potential types of job insecurity and its impact on innovative behavior by using latent profile analysis. The main contributions of this study at theoretical level are as follow: 1) considering the sources of environmental threats, the definition of the concept of job insecurity, the deconstruction of the dimensions based on threat focus and the development of the measurement scale will promote the conceptual research and measurement development of job insecurity. 2) based on the regulatory focus theory and the dual model of passion, this study adopt the "variable-centered" approach to comprehensively reveal the differential impact of various dimensions of job insecurity on innovative behavior from the process of motivation and emotional response, which will enrich and improve the research of mechanisms. 3) in response to the call of debus et al. (2020), this study adopts the "person-centered" approach and pays attention to the variability between individuals to investigate whether it is possible to identify different job insecurity profiles and whether innovative behavior differs between job insecurity profiles. Thus, how different dimensions are combined within profiles of employees can be uncovered, which can make up for the shortcomings of the previous “variable-centered” approach, and provide a new direction to the in-depth study of job insecurity. In addition, at practical level, the results of this study can equip managers to have a more comprehensive understanding of the threatening nature of job insecurity, and help them have a better view of the differential impact of job-focus insecurity and person-focus insecurity on innovative behavior. What is more, this study can also provide guidance and suggestions for enterprises on effective employee management and innovative behavior promotion in an unstable environment.
 The formation mechanism of ambivalent occupational identification of non-decent workers from paradoxical perspective WANG Hongli, LI Zhen, XU Guangyi 2022, 30 (11):  2405-2413.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02405 Abstract ( 363 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (703KB) ( 490 )   Occupation is the product of social division of labor, and every occupation beneficial to the society are not superior or inferior to others. In practice, however, some occupations have been “stigmatized” by the public because of their dirty attributes, and have been marginalized in the labor market. Dirty work refers to the occupations that are necessary for the functioning of the society but belittled or disliked by the general public, such as caregivers in hospital who provide patient care services, undertakers who defend the dignity of life at the end, and sanitation workers who play the role of city beauticians. Despite the social value of these occupations, the “defaced image” viewed by the public poses serious identify threat to dirty workers. Occupation is an important source of an individual’s positive self-concept and existence value. Dirty worker would usually be questioned by mainstream value that “how could you be occupied in this work”. Therefore, the scientific community takes it as a key issue that how dirty workers exert influence on their identification, and have controversy on whether practitioners identify or disidentify their occupations. Some researchers point out that dirty workers own complicated identification process and hardly identify or disidentify their occupations, and thus, they are more or less ambivalent about their occupations. However, existing researches about the ambivalent identification of dirty worker are limited in theoretical discussion, and do not have clear idea on the formation mechanism of the ambivalent identification of dirty workers. Accordingly, this study stands from the perspective of paradox and aims to construct a formation mechanism of dirty workers’ ambivalent occupational identification. Specifically, we introduce conflict experience as a mediator, and internal motivation (i.e., family motivation and career calling) and work environment (i.e., work chance and organizational support) as boundary condition. We suggest that the interaction of occupational stigma perception with internal motivation, or with work environment, would induce dirty workers’ conflict experience, which in turn leads to ambivalent occupational identification. The possible innovations of this study are as followed. First, standing from the paradox theory, we propose that the multiple tensions among individuals, organizations and occupations are important sources of conflict experience, and the conflict experience would act as an important influence mechanism of occupational stigma perception on practitioners’ ambivalent occupational identification. It provides a new theoretical perspective for understanding the formation mechanism of dirty workers’ ambivalent occupational identification. Second, we take internal motivation (i.e., family motivation and career calling) and work environment (i.e., work chance and organizational support) into consideration, and present the interaction of occupational stigma perception with these two boundary conditions would be more likely to trigger dirty workers’ conflict experience, which would further lead to ambivalent occupational identification. It points out the direction to discuss the formation mechanism of dirty workers’ ambivalent occupational identification. Third, based on the paradigm of paradox, we construct a formation mechanism of dirty workers’ ambivalent occupational identification. In Chinese context, dirty workers own more complicated identification process and hardly absolutely identify or disidentify their occupations. Therefore, ambivalent occupational identification would be more realistic to describe the identification process of dirty workers.
 The relationship between customer experience journey and input with digitalized interactive platforms offerings LI Chunqing, ZHANG Jieli, LIU Wei, ZHANG Chenlu 2022, 30 (11):  2424-2447.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02424 Abstract ( 400 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (1495KB) ( 433 )   With the development of emerging technologies such as 5G, big data, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things, business environments are gradually becoming a digital ecosystem, in which the interdependence between enterprises and customers is increasingly affected by Digitalized Interactive Platforms (DIP) offerings. DIP has resulted in the increased usage and engagement by multiple stakeholders, which offers a complex and dynamic experience. However, it remains unclear how firms can leverage DIP to facilitate customized and enriched customer experience to increase customer input, thereby co-creating value with other stakeholders. This project fills this void by providing a research framework to address this question, which includes five different studies. Study 1 is based on the stakeholder marketing theory to explore the value co-creation process of stakeholders during the consumer journey of DIP offerings through a qualitative research. Firstly, the recursive reflexive process of multiple stakeholders of DIP offerings will be analyzed based on the theory of recursive reflexivity; secondly, the action and interaction of stakeholders’ practice continuity and consumption experience will be explored based on the theory of practice continuity; finally, based on the identity theory and institution theory, identity evolution, identity co-construction and institutional change process will be examined. These steps help us analyze the behavior and experience of stakeholders in the consumption journey of DIP offerings, which is a step towards theory development in DIP and provides basis for future related studies. Study 2 focuses on the customer experience journey in DIP offerings (DXJ) and intends to explore the definition, dimensions, measurement and generalizbility of this concept. Firstly, DXJ will be defined, similarities and difference between DXJ and other related concepts will be discussed through relevant literature discussion; secondly, we will explore the dimensions of DXJ using qualitative research methods, and develop its measurement scale; then the predictive validity of the developed scale will be tested; data will be collected through a large scale survey study to empirically examine the antecedents and behavioral outcomes of DXJ. In study 3, a new concept, DXJ ambidexterity, is proposed and developed. The conceptualization, source of tension and reconciliation mechanism of DXJ ambidexterity will be explored using qualitative research methods. Firstly, sources of tension of DXJ ambidexterity are explored based on the ambidexterity theory, and factors influencing the tension of DXJ ambidexterity will be investigated; secondly, the reconciliation mechanism of DXJ ambidexterity tension will be discussed; finally, the reconciliation process will be discussed and explained. Study 4 intends to study the evolution process, generation, management and evaluation of customer input with DIP offerings (that is, DCI). Firstly, we will explore the definition and dimensions of DCI, and develop the measurement scale accordingly; secondly, the mechanism and process of the generation and management of DCI will be investigated; finally, the antecedents, mediators, moderators of DCI, as well as how they affect customer behavior and corporate performance will be investigated empirically. Study 5 explores the reciprocal relationship between DXJ and DCI. Based on the theory of spirals, we propose to use a large scale survey method to collect panel data to explore the interaction mechanisms between DXJ and DCI from the following five aspects: customers, their social network, firms, their partners, and enterprise customers. We also intend to identify the lower and upper boundaries of the spiral. This study uncovers the new phenomena of DIP offerings and contributes to the existing research related to customer experience and customer input. This study also extends the existing theories such as recursive reflexivity theory, institution theory, ambidexterity theory, and the theory of spirals. The results of this study will offer insights to DIP companies to establish a win-win, long-term relationship with multiple stakeholders, and ultimately co-create value.
Meta-Analysis
Research Method
 Moderation analysis for longitudinal data FANG Jie, WEN Zhonglin 2022, 30 (11):  2461-2472.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02461 Abstract ( 1204 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (933KB) ( 1095 )   At present, the analysis of moderating effect is mainly based on cross sectional data. This article discusses how to analyze the moderating effect with longitudinal data. If the independent variable X and the dependent variable Y are longitudinal data, longitudinal moderation models can be divided into three categories according to the type of moderator: time-invariant moderator, time-variant moderator, and moderator generated from X or Y. For example, Xtj is divided into two parts, time-varying intra-individual differences $X_{t j}-\bar{X}_{\bullet} j$ and time-invariant inter-individual differences$\bar{X}_{\boldsymbol{\bullet} j}$, and then the moderating effect of $\bar{X}_{\boldsymbol{\bullet} j}$ on the relationship between $(X_{t j}-\bar{X}_{\bullet} j)$ and Ytj can be analyzed. In that case, there will be no new moderator Z, which is characteristic of moderation research on longitudinal data in contrast to research on cross-sectional data. Four types of longitudinal moderation analysis approaches are summarized: 1) Multilevel model (MLM); 2) Multilevel structural equation model (MSEM); 3) Cross-lagged model (CLM); 4) Latent growth model (LGM). It is found that the decomposition of the moderating effect and the use of the latent moderating structural equation (LMS) method are the two characteristics of the moderation analysis for longitudinal data. Specifically, MLM, MSEM, and CLM divide the moderating effect of longitudinal data into three parts: the time-varying intra-individual part, time-invariant inter-individual part, and the cross-level part. In addition, the moderating effect of longitudinal data can be decomposed into the moderating effect of initial level and rate of change by LGM. In the present study, we propose a procedure to analyze longitudinal mediation analysis. The first step is to decide whether it is necessary to make a causal inference. If the aim of research is to make a causal inference, CLM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation. Otherwise, proceed with the second step. The second step is to decide whether it is necessary to treat longitudinal data as multilevel data. If longitudinal data is treated as multilevel data, MSEM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation, because MSEM and MLM are more suitable for describing individual differences. Otherwise, LGM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation, because only an LGM can simultaneously examine the effect of some variables on change and how the change affects other variables. The third step is to decide whether MSEM converges. If MSEM converges, the result of MSEM should be reported. Otherwise, MLM should be adopted to analyze longitudinal moderation. Compared with MLM, MSEM takes sampling error into account when the group mean is calculated, but the convergence of the MSEM is more difficult. Therefore, the MSEM with sampling error taken into account is preferred. If convergence fails, MLM will be considered. This paper exemplifies how to conduct the proposed procedure by using Mplus. Directions for future research on moderation analysis of longitudinal data are discussed, such as the moderation analysis for intensive longitudinal data based on the dynamic structural equation model.
Regular Articles
 The combination of metacognition and face cognition: Cut-in points and methods ZHOU Xingchen, HE Wen 2022, 30 (11):  2473-2486.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02473 Abstract ( 361 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (777KB) ( 372 )   Metacognition is the cognition of cognition, including all aspects of cognition. The recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in research on the combination of metacognition and face cognition. Face cognition is often thought to be ‘special’ in some respects, due to its innateness, automaticity, neural specificity, and heredity. The combination of metacognition and face cognition can broaden the research of the two fields and explore whether the phenomena widely confirmed at the level of face cognition apply to its metacognitive level, and whether the metacognitive illusions found in many non-face fields also appear in the field of face cognition. In addition, face conveys important identity information and social information. The combination of metacognition and face cognition also has rich practical significance in social communication, clinical diagnosis, administration of justice, and other practical fields. The current research on metacognition of face cognition is still in its infancy. The term "metacognition" has been rarely directly mentioned, and the related concepts has been used instead. Moreover, most researchers have only focused on the study of the judgment of learning (JOL) in face memory. This paper aims to make an in-depth analysis of the current metacognitive research on face cognition, in order to provide more inspiring research ideas for scholars in the related fields, and promote the follow-up development of the empirical research on the combination of metacognition and face cognition studies. This paper firstly systematically reviewed the domestic and foreign research on the cut-in points of the combination of metacognition and face cognition, and further summarized the main research methods. The cut-in points of recent studies on the combination of the two fields included the applicability of metacognitive illusions (Dunning-Kruger effect and egocentric bias) in face cognition and the applicability of face cognition phenomena (own-race effect and familiarity advantage) in metacognition. As for the main research methods of the research on the combination of metacognition and face cognition, according to different testing timings, methods have been mainly divided into three ways, including the prospective measurements (e.g., judgment of learning, JOL), concurrent measurements (e.g., feeling of knowing, FOK), and retrospective measurements (e.g., retrospective assessment questionnaires). According to different evaluation targets, methods can also be divided into the estimates of one’s own performance (e.g., self-assessment questionnaires) and the estimates of other people's performance (e.g., estimates of the number of people who answered correctly in the face cognition tasks). Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, and it should be selected according to the metacognitive components that researchers aim to explore. Multiple methods can be combined based on different research aims. Finally, four feasible directions for further theoretical and applied research were proposed. First, the previous research remains at the level of metacognitive monitoring. In the future, it can be expanded to the level of metacognitive control of face cognition, metacognitive performance of the subjective judgment of facial arousal and the cognitive neural mechanism of the two fields. Second, comparative studies can be conducted with non-face cognition fields to further explore whether the consistent metacognitive results across face and non-face fields are related to the domain general feature of metacognition or due to some possible personality traits. Thirdly, whether metacognitive ability of face cognition can be improved by improving the face cognition ability would also be an interesting direction for future studies to focus on. Fourthly, with the wide application of human face automatic recognition system, it is particularly important to expand the targets of the metacognitive evaluation from human beings to algorithms, based on the part of the need for manual review of machine learning face recognition results. This would provide new perspectives for understanding face cognition, and enhance its application values.