ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Neural Mechanism of Self-motion Perception
    ZHANG Tao;LI Sheng-Guang
    2011, 19 (10):  1405-1416. 
    Abstract ( 987 )   PDF (342KB) ( 1968 )  
    Using optic flow signal to guide one’s effective movement through outside environment is one of the most important tasks of our visual system. In primate cerebral cortex, the processing of visual motion is attributed to a series of areas in the dorsal pathway, which is believed to be specialized in the analysis of motion and spatial actions. In high-order areas, it’s very likely that the visual system integrates visual and non-visual cues to compensate the distortion caused by eye movement, thus reconstructs the precise self-motion direction. Based on current research progress, two parietal areas, MST and VIP are involved in self-motion perception, and they are both necessary for precise heading direction estimation. This review systematically went through the most recent progress in the research field of neural mechanism of self-motion perception, especially focused on works done by neurophysiologist using non-human primate animal model. In the end, we also point out some important questions, which we think has to be answered in the near future investigation.
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    From Multiple-play to Single-play in Risky Decision Making: Quantitative Change or Qualitative Change?
    SUN Hong-Yue;SU Yin;ZHOU Kun;LI Shu
    2011, 19 (10):  1417-1425. 
    Abstract ( 1189 )   PDF (248KB) ( 1640 )  
    In risky decision making, the subtle interplay between single-play and multiple-play is well illustrated by the literature that has followed an early paper by Paul Samuelson (1963). The article summarized the difference between responses for single-play and multiple-play and questioned traditional theoretical explanations. Most risky decision-making theories are based on the same assumption: a rational decision maker behaves as if he or she were attempting to maximize some kind of expectation. However, based on a combination of research evidence, maybe we could infer that the multiple-play and single-play gambles were in fact so utterly different that the short run one was perhaps not based on the expectation rule. From multiple-play to single-play, it is likely to represent a strategy shift from expectation rule to non-compensatory rule (qualitative change) rather than pure change on the number of gamble times (quantitative change). The status and perspectives on the applied researches of multiple-play were introduced and the research prospect was put forward as well.
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    A Theory on the Mechanism Underlying Moral Intuitions
    TIAN Xue-Hong;YANG Qun;ZHANG De-Xuan;ZHANG Ye
    2011, 19 (10):  1426-1433. 
    Abstract ( 1120 )   PDF (178KB) ( 1876 )  
    How cognition and emotion influences moral judgment has been the focus of dispute for decades in moral psychology and in the social neuroscience research. The present project proposes that there might be a universal moral intuition which consists of moral knowledge and emotions and drives our moral judgment in a fast and automatic way. Three studies are planned to be carried out to examine the hypothesis: In study 1, transcranial magnetic stimulation technique is employed to explore the possibility that moral intuitions are used to make moral judgment; In study 2, event–related potential technique is used to investigate the temporal features of moral intuition; In study 3, lateralized readiness potential is derived to examine how moral intuitions dissociate from basic disgust emotion.
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    Ethnic Psychological Contract of the Stuff and Characteristics of Extra-role Behavior of Hui Nationality Staff
    YONG Shao-Hong, KANG Xiao-Qing
    2011, 19 (10):  1434-1441. 
    Abstract ( 758 )   PDF (632KB) ( 797 )  
    Based on traditional psychological contract dimension, this paper proposed a theory of Ethnic Psychological Contract of the Stuff. Taking into account Hui nationality culture in our country and social realistic characteristics, we try to build dimension of Ethnic Psychological Contract of the Stuff and its hierarchy character, analyze organizational and also cultural factors that affect Ethnic Psychological Contract, and discuss the formation mechanism of Ethnic Psychological Contract of the Hui nationality stuff and the impact Ethnic Psychological Contract has on organizational performance. The research also put forward the characteristics of extra-role behavior of Hui nationality staff which include beneficial behavior and harmful behavior and try to build an organizational intervention model by corporate management method and corporate culture.
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    The Controversy over Speech Perception Theory: Evidence from Neural Mechanisms
    LIU Wen-Li;ZHOU Yi-Qi;YUE Guo-An
    2011, 19 (10):  1442-1452. 
    Abstract ( 876 )   PDF (306KB) ( 2416 )  
    A major theoretical controversy in the field of speech perception is the opposition between the auditory theory and the motor theory, the focus of controversy is the role of motor representations in speech perception. The findings concerning neural mechanisms of speech perception, which are helpful for the settlement of theoretical controversy, were reviewed. The review found that the most significant and consistent activation loci lied in the posterior auditory cortex when human (even animals) perceived speech sounds, which consisted of the dorsal (Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale) and lateral (superior temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus) superior temporal cortex. The motor cortex in anterior frontal lobe didn’t exhibit a consistent activation pattern, and the effects of motor representations on speech perception mainly derived from a top-down feedback mechanism in some special conditions, which seemed to be not necessary for normal speech perception.
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    Category-Specific Semantic Memory Deficits in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
    MIN Bao-Quan;ZHOU Ai-Hong;ZHANG Ya-Xu
    2011, 19 (10):  1453-1459. 
    Abstract ( 817 )   PDF (194KB) ( 857 )  
    Category-specific semantic deficits, that is, selective or disproportionate impairment for one semantic category compared to other semantic categories, can occur in brain-damaged patients. It has been shown that category-specific semantic deficits in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could be due to differences between items of different categories in familiarity, word frequency, age of acquisition, visual complexity, semantic distance, processing demands, and types of semantic features being involved. However, it is still not clear whether the category-specific semantic deficits in these people are also due to the category of living/non-living itself. Future studies need to integrate the category-based and feature-based approach and to differentiate between the storage and access of semantic memory. In addition, the seriousness of AD needs to be taken into account when addressing how AD disrupts semantic memory.
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    Emotional Memory Trade-offs Effect: Memory for Complicated Emotional Stimuli
    ZOU Ji-Lin;ZHOU Ren-Lai;ZHANG Huan;ZHANG Xiao-Cong;LUO Xin-Yu
    2011, 19 (10):  1460-1470. 
    Abstract ( 1183 )   PDF (204KB) ( 2613 )  
    Recently, researches in emotional memory consistently revealed that memory performance is enhanced for central or core features of emotional events but memory for peripheral or background features is not enhanced and may even be impaired, named emotional memory trade-offs effects or the emotion-induced memory trade-offs effects. The effects suggest that emotional memory have selectivity and emotional arousal may evoke some kinds of memory selectivity effects, which are strongly universal and stable, but impacted by a number of subjective and objective factors in some situations. Some theoretical approaches discussed the potential mechanisms and behavioral evidences in attentional distribution, encoding and post-encoding processes were increasing gradually. However, relevant studies exploring the neural mechanisms are rare. The neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the effects should be emphasized and emotional face expressions-evoked memory trade-offs effects will be discussed in future.
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    Baby Schema and Sex Differences in Its Process
    LUO Li-Zhu;LUO Yu;JU En-Xia;MA Wen-Juan;LI Hong
    2011, 19 (10):  1471-1479. 
    Abstract ( 1555 )   PDF (149KB) ( 1765 )  
    Baby schema (or Kindchenschema), referring to a kind of people’s mental representation about a set of infant-like physical features, such as large head, big eyes and round face, can induce a positive emotion and care-giving behaviors towards the infant. Such a function plays an important role in improving the survival of individuals and satisfying the need to reproduce. There exist sex differences in people’s reaction to infant faces, of which females are more sensitive to baby schema than males. The reasons may be attributed to their different brain structures, female-specific emotive responses, female reproductive hormones, and the early environment. Future studies should go further in disclosing the special neural mechanisms of baby schema, and explore the relationship between maternal love and baby schema on the basis of the sex differences.
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    Oxytocin and Human Social Behavior
    LIU Jin-Ting;CAI Qiang;WANG Ruo-Han;WU Yin
    2011, 19 (10):  1480-1492. 
    Abstract ( 1586 )   PDF (161KB) ( 4008 )  
    Oxytocin is often called the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone". Recently, interest in human oxytocin has been shifted from studying its role in parturition and lactation to understanding its impact on human social behavior. Research methods include urine, blood and cerebrospinal measurement, nasal spray through nostrils and genotyping. Studies have focused on the impacts of oxytocin on human social behavior, including social relationship, social decision-making, social information processing, social memory and anxiety. Recently, researchers have examined the therapeutic potential of oxytocin in the treatment of psychopathological diseases, including autism spectrum disorder, social anxiety disorder, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. Further studies should focus on its clinical application, side effect and neural mechanisms.
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    The Influences and Mechanisms of Pain on Mental Processes
    2011, 19 (10):  1493-1501. 
    Abstract ( 1755 )   PDF (258KB) ( 3017 )  
    Pain has been identified to impact mental processes, like cognition, emotion, etc. Pain may disturb individual’s selective or persistent attention, and even damage one’s memory function. Long-term pain can also cause negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression. Two main theories of pain mechanism, the Gate Control Theory and the Neuromatrix Theory, explained the interaction between pain and mental processes at spinal cord level and at brain level respectively. The theories which explained coding mechanisms of pain included Specificity Theory, Pattern Theory and “Cell Assemblies” Theory. Future studies should pay attention to the differences between laboratory and clinical researches, and distinguish specific mechanisms of acute pain and chronic pain, and then demonstrate the rationality of these pain theories.
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    Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Emotion Regulation:Theories and Neural Mechanismse
    CHEN Yu;ZHAO Xin;HUANG Jun-Hong;CHEN Si-Yi;ZHOU Ren-Lai
    2011, 19 (10):  1502-1510. 
    Abstract ( 3960 )   PDF (215KB) ( 12286 )  
    Individuals can regulate negative emotions and promote positive emotions through mindfulness meditation training, which has proved to have significant effects on the interventions for psychological and physical disorders. The mindfulness-based theoretical models of the reperceiving model, the mindful coping model, the upward spiral of flourishing and the mindful emotion regulation model all underscore the effects of mindfulness meditation on emotion regulation. Cognitive neuroscientific research findings showed that mindfulness meditation may produce increases in left-sided anterior activation, and the brain areas involved mainly include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC). The researchers further found that trait mindfulness achieve the effect of emotion regulation by improving prefrontal cortical regulation of limbic responses. Moreover, the effect of mindfulness meditation training on emotion regulation may also appear in neural dissociation between two distinct forms of self-referential processing that are habitually integrated but can be dissociated through training, thus strengthening the experiential focus of the neural mechanism. In addition, the researchers found that mindfulness meditation training may also change the brain structures associated with emotion processing. Future directions for the empirical study in this field should attach importance to further clarify the relationship between mindfulness meditation training relates to brain lateralization and to develop comparison studies of different types of the subjects.
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    Ethnic Differences of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    LIU Yin;CHEN Zheng-Gen;Zhang Yu-Qing;ZHANG Ning
    2011, 19 (10):  1511-1517. 
    Abstract ( 999 )   PDF (161KB) ( 1799 )  
    The evidence for differences in prevalence and symptom structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in western countries, especially U.S., was reviewed. We tired to summarize the explanation of the differences in terms of trauma exposure, socioeconomic status (SES) and cultural context. Some studies have found higher rate of PTSD among victims of Qiang than their Han counterparts after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China. Deepgoing and systematic studies are essential, in order to provide targeted interventions for different ethnic groups, as well as to gain a understanding of PTSD from the background of China.
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    Attention for the Mental Health among the Helpers: the Connotation, Structure and Mechanism of Compassion Fatigue
    SUN Bing-Hai;LOU Bao-Na;LI Wei-Jian;LIU Xuan-Wen;FANG Xia-Hui
    2011, 19 (10):  1518-1526. 
    Abstract ( 1915 )   PDF (220KB) ( 3819 )  
    Compassion fatigue (CF) is a peculiar mental health problem for the helpers (e.g., Psychotherapist, fire fighter and paramedic) who helped the traumatic client. The two-factor model of CF includes the secondary trauma (ST) and job burnout (JB), and the three-factor model of CF includes the compassion satisfaction (CS) besides the ST and JB. The clinical symptoms of CF are similar with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), ST, vicarious trauma (VT) and burnout, while none of them could represent CF. Empathy for others and indirect exposure to traumatic events are preconditions of CF which brings about compassion pressure and reduces the capacity and interest in being empathic. And the second traumatic symptoms and the feeling of job burnout are the consequences of CF. Simultaneously, the helper’s demographics (e.g., marital status, education background, years working and personal traumatic history), the degree of exposure to traumatic events and personal psychological resources would affect the generating course of CF.
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    Online Games Motivations: Types, Effects and Mechanism
    WEI Hua;FAN Cui-Ying;PING Fan;ZHENG Lu-Lu
    2011, 19 (10):  1527-1533. 
    Abstract ( 1766 )   PDF (156KB) ( 4687 )  
    It is a growing concern for researchers to understand the online games from the perspective of motivations. The researches of motivations for playing online games included: (1) Types of motivations. Among numerous motivations, enjoyment has been upper most in researchers’ mind, and flow, social interaction, escapism, curiosity and competition were in the next place. (2) The influence of motivations, embraced personality and the interaction of social and individuals in online games. (3) The effect of motivations on online gamers’ intentions and behaviors, included fun, social and achievement. (4) The mechanism of motivations contained the mediating role of motivations for playing online games, mediator and moderator between motivations and behavioral intention for playing online games. Future studies should pay attention to the division and integration of motivations for playing online games, and investigating them from the perspective of developmental psychology, formation and developmental process of motivations and emotion.
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    The Preliminary Literature Review and Future Research Directions of Proactive Behavior at Work
    HU Qing; WANG Sheng-Nan; ZHANG Xing-Wei; CHENG Bin; SUN Hong-Wei
    2011, 19 (10):  1534-1543. 
    Abstract ( 1594 )   PDF (229KB) ( 4088 )  
    Proactive behavior at work is about bringing about or promoting changes in the organization. It involves self-initiation, anticipatory action, and change orientation. In organizational proactive behavior, example constructs including taking charge, proactive problem solving, personal initiative, making idiosyncratic-deals (i-deals), and proactive feedback seeking. In this paper, we first define proactive behavior based on previous literature and identify a higher-order construct of proactivity in the work place. Then we distinguish proactive behavior from related concepts, (e.g., creativity and adaptive behavior). After that, we describe a model delineating the antecedents and outcomes of proactive behavior, as well as moderators in the relationship between proactive behavior and the outcome variables. Lastly, we propose several future research avenues particularly for the unique cultural and economic background of China.
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    Characteristics and Procedures of Evolutionarily Motivated Social Cognition
    LI Hong-Li;Wang Yan
    2011, 19 (10):  1544-1551. 
    Abstract ( 995 )   PDF (134KB) ( 1529 )  
    Motivated evolutionary social cognition addressed the origin and function of social cognition. The given mechanism of processing social information was designed to deal with the certain evolutionary problem. For example, the solutions of parenting offspring can not be used to solve mating search issues. The empirical studies of motivated evolutionary social cognition usually make hypotheses on the evolution theory, and then used the traditional experimental methods to examine these hypotheses. When the evolved psychological mechanisms (such as mating motives) were primed, mating motives or other evolved motives can affect people cognition process that was activated. However, Future studies of motivated evolutionary social cognition should pay attention to the effect of positive psychology and embodied cognition on the research of social cognition.
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    Item Selection Method in Computerized Adaptive Testing
    MAO Xiu-Zhen;XIN Tao
    2011, 19 (10):  1552-1562. 
    Abstract ( 756 )   PDF (356KB) ( 1359 )  
    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a kind of test model, which is based on the measurement theory and computer techniques. It selects items according to each examinee’s answers of the previous items. Item selection method is an important component of a computerized adaptive testing and has significant effects on the measurement efficiency, test security, test reliability and validity. According to whether there are some non-statistical constraints, item selection methods are classified into different categories. Then the item selection methods developed for traditional CAT and cognitive diagnostic CAT are introduced and evaluated separately. At last, future studies should improve the synthesis performances of item selection methods and pay more attention to examine item selection methods for polytomous scoring items and cognitive diagnostic CAT.
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