ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    The Advance of Parafoveal Preview Effects in Chinese Reading
    BAI Xue-Jun;LIU Juan;ZANG Chuan-Li;ZHANG Man-Man;GUO Xiao-Feng;YAN Guo-Li
    2011, 19 (12):  1721-1729. 
    Abstract ( 854 )   PDF (272KB) ( 2014 )  
    Parafoveal preview effect refers to when readers are fixating on one word (parafoveal word n), they can obtain some information from the words on the right of their fixation (parafoveal word n+1 or word n+2) at the same time. And those previewed information can influence the reading efficiency directly. Therefore, to explore the necessary conditions, the influencing factors and the mechanism of the parafoveal preview during reading has become a significant focus in Reading Psychology. This paper systematically reviews the prior researches on parafoveal preview effects in English and Chinese reading. It mainly contains the paradigm of parafoveal preview effects, what kind of information readers can obtain, the time course of lexcial processing, and the spatial extent of preview benefit. At last, this paper further discusses several critical problems of parafoveal preview effects to be resolved.
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    The Motivational and Organizational Mechanism of Collective Action in Mass Incidents
    ZHANG Shu-Wei;WANG Er-Ping
    2011, 19 (12):  1730-1740. 
    Abstract ( 1084 )   PDF (291KB) ( 1431 )  
    Mass incidents, which refer to the conflicts between certain civilians and local administrations, are typical collective action (CA) in China. In social psychological field, the motivational mechanism of CA includes research on group relative deprivation, group identity, group-based anger, and group efficacy. Meanwhile, the organizational mechanism of CA includes research on emergent norm, rumor and de-individuation. group-based anger and group efficacy belong to both motivational and organizational mechanism. These psychological factors are expected to be further integrated to discuss and explain mass incidents in China.
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    The Functional Status of Syntactic Category Processing in Sentence Comprehension
    ZHANG Ya-Xu;PIAO Qiu-Hong;YU Jing;YANG Yan-Ping
    2011, 19 (12):  1741-1748. 
    Abstract ( 673 )   PDF (157KB) ( 1145 )  
    Syntax-first theories assume that the processing of syntactic category (SC) is functionally prior to that of lexical semantics, verb argument structure, and discourse information. Previous event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in German and French have demonstrated that SC violations block both semantic and argument structure processing and thus SC has a functional primacy over the other two processes. It is still unknown whether there is also a functional primacy of SC over discourse processing, for any language. Although previous studies in Chinese revealed no functional primacy of SC over semantics, they didn’t thoroughly address the possible influence of experimental tasks on the findings. Further studies need to investigate the functional status of SC relative to a variety of non-syntactic information such as lexical semantics, verb argument structure, as well as discourse information, in languages that differ from German and French in terms of syntactic properties, such as Chinese and Korean. In addition, these studies should record ERPs in the violation paradigm in which non-syntactic factors and the correctness of SC are manipulated simultaneously, as done in previous studies.
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    Subject Preference Effect and Its Cognitive Mechanism
    ZHENG Yuan-Yuan;LI Xiao-Qing
    2011, 19 (12):  1749-1758. 
    Abstract ( 684 )   PDF (188KB) ( 1156 )  

    Subject preference is a kind of word-order effect during sentence comprehension, which refers to the following three processing tendency: (a) Ambiguous initial arguments tend to be analyzed as subjects; (b) Initial subjects are easier to process than initial object in unambiguous sentences; (c) Subjects are easier to extract than objects in relative clauses. In the present paper, we mainly discussed three aspect of this preference effect: 1) by analyzing various Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages, we talked about this effect’s particularity and universality; 2) different models of subject preference were discussed, which included the working memory principle, the syntax dependency theory, the prominence principle and the influence of frequent; Third, we also summarized several subject preference-related ERP (Event-related potential) components, and discussed the underlying cognitive processes of each component in the first part; Finally, we pointed out the future directions of subject preference study.

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    The Genetic Model of Handedness and Language Lateralization
    WANG Peng-Fei;CAI Hou-De
    2011, 19 (12):  1759-1768. 
    Abstract ( 759 )   PDF (284KB) ( 1056 )  
    Handedness and language lateralization are the phenomena with transcultural coherence, relevance in human ontogenesis and development, as well as great ecological advantages. So it is necessary to explore the cause of their formation from genetic aspect. It has been proposed that left and right handedness were determined by a pair of alleles respectively in the early genetic model. Recently, with a suggestion to include the language lateralization, the current monogenic model assumed that the alleles could not only determine directional asymmetry, but also affect the odds of its right or left orientation. Under this framework, directional-chance alleles model, recessive X-linkage model and right shift theory were proposed. The models differ in how they account for the location and function of alleles, the distinctions of handedness, sex differences, and the relationship between heredity and environment. Further research should lay emphasis on data validation of language lateralization, and the correlation between handedness and language perception or comprehension. Besides, issues on the genetic pleiotropy, multiple genes collaboration, as well as how genes determine the phenotype are to be explored.
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    Emerging Adulthood’s Ego Identity: Developmental Characteristic and Influencing Factors
    GONG Si-Yuan;XU Xing-Chun
    2011, 19 (12):  1769-1776. 
    Abstract ( 1616 )   PDF (209KB) ( 2765 )  
    In Erikson’s view, ego identity was life-long development process and the 18 to 25 years as a critical period of development. According to the reality of the postmodern society, Arnett renamed this period “emerging adulthood”. In one’s emerging adulthood, identity focuses on the field of love, work and world value. It stays in a senior identity state, but regression still exists in the process of development. The attribute of postmodern society was basic factor in emerging adulthood’s ego identity development; original family continuing impact of the ego identity development in emerging adulthood; while schools and work-units that constitute the proximal environment of social institutions, directly act on the emerging adulthood’s ego identity development. Autonomy at the emerging adulthood plays a key regulatory role in his interaction between family and social institution.
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    The Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Older Adults
    BAI Rong;FAN Hui-Yong;ZHANG Jin-Fu
    2011, 19 (12):  1777-1787. 
    Abstract ( 935 )   PDF (249KB) ( 2517 )  
    How to preserve or improve cognitive function in later life and slow down the process of aging effectively has become an important public health goal. A great deal of research indicated that the different types, intensity and volume of physical activity and the midlife physical activity had influenced on cognition of older adults positively, such as executive function, attention, process speed, memory and so on. In addition, the selectively improvement hypothesis, cardiovascular fitness hypothesis and physical activity/exercise-cognition model were used to explain the mechanism of the effect. All these findings have great significance for the preservation of cognitive function and the improvement of life quality of older adults, and delayed aging effectively.
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    Controversy in Negative Effects of Video Games
    ZHAO Yong-Le;HE Ying;ZHENG Yong
    2011, 19 (12):  1788-1797. 
    Abstract ( 1339 )   PDF (224KB) ( 2559 )  
    Plenty of researches have been done in negative effects brought by violent and non-violent video games, which are argued scholarly from other researching on positive effects coming with the development of general learning model. Upon the negative effects on video games, we summarized the arguments in four aspects which are the disassociation between theoretical researches and practical situations, the dissent on designs and methods, the narrow range of studies and conflictive conclusions. The predictive studies are demonstrated in the positive effects on video games, and extensive longitudinal studies are also discussed.
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    Mental Health for the Children of Farmers Who Worked in City in China
    XIONG Meng;YE Yi-Duo
    2011, 19 (12):  1798-1813. 
    Abstract ( 1097 )   PDF (291KB) ( 3257 )  
    The children of farmers who worked in city refer to the group of those whose parents have the identity of peasant, the farmland by contract, but are mainly engaged in non-agricultural industries, and take the salary as their main source of income. They are generally the children of 6 to 18 who are at the right age to school. Generally speaking, the mental health of them is worse than that of the urban children. In social cognition, they have a certain discrimination perception, a feeling of relatively depriving and some identity crisis. In emotion and feeling, the imbalance of emotion, tendency of lonely (depression) and feeling of inferiority (self-accusation) are often serious. In social adaption, the social maladjustment, interpersonal tension and sensation, poorer learning adaptability and more behavior problems are obvious. Furthermore, the individual factors, such as gender, age, personality, coping style and life satisfaction, together with the environmental factors, such as factors from family, school and society, are the main influencing factors to their mental health. In addition, the education intervention for them are lack of systematization, which mainly are some qualitative researches. As a result, the broadening of study objects and contents, the improvement of research approaches, and the strengthening of systematic research and theoretical construction are the trends of research in this field.
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    Decisions from Experience: Concept, Researches and Prospect
    HUANG Zhi-Hua;YAN Gong-Gu;WANG Tian-Le
    2011, 19 (12):  1814-1821. 
    Abstract ( 932 )   PDF (235KB) ( 1331 )  
    In traditional paradigm of decision making research, participants make judgments or choice after playoffs and probabilities of each alternative are given. Previous studies indicated that people tend to overweight small probability when they face the problems with low probability in uncertain situation. However, this overweighting small probability phenomenon was challenged by a series of findings published recently using a new paradigm, called decisions from experience. In this paper two kinds of decisions, decisions from experience and decision from description, were introduced and differentiated from concept to methodology. D-E gap, a phenomenon showed people tend to underweight low probability event in decision-making experiments, and its different theoretical explanations were comprehensively reviewed. Finally, the implications of the study of decisions from experiences in the fields of learning and memory, human developmental, decision and judgment were discussed.
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    The Psychological Mechanism and Influential Factors of Attribute Framing Effect
    WEN Gui-Chan;XU Fu-Ming;YU Hui-Hui;HUANG Bao-Zhen;WANG Lan
    2011, 19 (12):  1822-1833. 
    Abstract ( 901 )   PDF (234KB) ( 2489 )  
    Attribute framing effect refers to the phenomenon that evaluations of an object or event are more favorable if a key attribute within any given context is framed in positive rather than negative terms. Attribute framing effect widely exists in consumer judgment, medical treatments, political decision and other decision-making fields. Currently, the researchers have used cognitive mechanism of valence, reference dependence, query theory and the view of cognitive neural mechanisms to illustrate the generation mechanism of attribute framing effect. Researchers have found that experience, personality traits, numeracy, need for cognitive closure may influence the attribute framing effect. Future researches on attribute framing effect should focus on the following five aspects, such as deepening our understanding of its original roots and influential factors, expanding its applied values, exploring the situation in which decision maker prefer to the negative framing and at last clarifying the relationship between attribute framing effect and other decision phenomena.
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    The Psychological Mechanism and Influential Factors of Omission Bias in Behavioral Decision Making
    MA Xiang-Yang;XU Fu-Ming;WU Xiu-Liang;HUANG Bao-Zhen;HUANG Ya-Ling
    2011, 19 (12):  1834-1841. 
    Abstract ( 1024 )   PDF (159KB) ( 2008 )  
    Omission bias described people`s tendency to favor the loss caused by omission rather than the same or less loss caused by commission. This phenomenon is universal in people`s daily decision-making behavior, especially in social public policy area. This paper introduces two psychological mechanism of the omission bias, namely, loss aversion and norm theory. Afterwards, we introduce influential factors of the omission bias, including protected value, the knowledge of outcomes, negative emotion, social roles and cultural values. Moreover, the deficiencies existing in current research are discussed and the directions for future research on omission bias are suggested.
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    Stereotype Threat: New Issues and New Controversy
    GAUN Jian;CHAI Min-Quan
    2011, 19 (12):  1842-1850. 
    Abstract ( 1407 )   PDF (182KB) ( 2662 )  
    Stereotype threat has become one of the most vigorously explored topics of the past decade in social psychology. It is a situational predicament where individuals are at risk, by dint of their actions or behaviors, of confirming negative stereotypes about their groups. There are some new development and new controversy on the stereotype threat, such as stereotype threat spillover, interaction and systematic. More specifically, it has several new issues on the coping and intervention strategies, such as identity fusion, denial strategy, stereotype performance boosts, stereotype threat choking, role, identity change and coping with stereotype threat. We conclude with a discussion of the benefits, limitations, and unique contributions of stereotype threat to our understanding of stigma and social identity threat.
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    Influencing Factors and Explanations of “Saying-is-Believing” Effect
    DING Ying;ZHENG Quan-Quan
    2011, 19 (12):  1851-1858. 
    Abstract ( 935 )   PDF (122KB) ( 1863 )  
    In interpersonal communication, Communicators often tune their description of the target person to suit their audience’s attitude, and then their subsequent memory and evaluation of the target is biased in the direction of the audience’s attitude, which is called “saying-is-believing” effect. There are many influential factors, including communication goals, feedback, the relationship of communicator and audience, epistemic needs, the personality of communicator and so on. Researchers explain this effect with the basic information process, cognitive dissonance theory, and shared reality theory. Future research could be extended to the group research and improve the theory and carry out more applied research.
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    Item Parceling Strategies in Structural Equation Modeling
    WU Yan;WEN Zhong-Lin
    2011, 19 (12):  1859-1867. 
    Abstract ( 3258 )   PDF (233KB) ( 4895 )  
    Item parceling is a technique using in structural equation modeling (SEM). Parceling can improve the quality of indicators and model fit. Bias that due to parceling was often neglectable and can be corrected. Parceling greatly enhances model parsimony, but it greatly reduces falsifiability of the tested model. It could be summarized that the prerequisites of parceling are unidimension and homogeneity, and the applicability of parceling is the analysis of structural models, rather than measurement models. Parcel-building algorithms and the number of parcels were discussed and recommended. A procedure for item parceling was proposed when the scale was unidimensional. If the scale was multidimensional, internal-consistency approach was recommended such that the items of the same dimension are parceled to one or three indicators for structural equation modeling.
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    The Appropriate Effect Sizes and Their Calculations in Psychological Research
    ZHENG Hao-Min;WEN Zhong-Lin;WU Yan
    2011, 19 (12):  1868-1878. 
    Abstract ( 6047 )   PDF (325KB) ( 17362 )  
    Effect sizes are important supplement of the null hypothesis significance testing. More and more academic journals request authors provide the effect sizes of their researches. Our purpose is to provide a guideline on how to compute the appropriate effect sizes of different researches and data types. We classified the effect sizes into three types, including difference-type, correlation-type and group-overlap. For each type of the effect sizes, there are different approaches of calculations and applications under different research designs (e.g., single-factor/multifactor between-subjects, single-factor/multifactor within-subjects) and data conditions (e.g., small sample size, heterogeneity of variance). Many effect sizes, however, can be transformed from one type to another. We summarized a table that may help readers to choose appropriate effect sizes for their researches based on the research purposes and research designs.
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