ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
    The spatial extent and depth of parafoveal pre-processing during Chinese reading
    ZHANG Manman, ZANG Chuanli, BAI Xuejun
    2020, 28 (6):  871-882.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00871
    Abstract ( 1832 )   HTML ( 29 )  
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    The ability to pre-process information from the parafovea, a hallmark component of skilled reading ( Blythe & Joseph, 2011), refers to the fact that readers visually and linguistically analyse upcoming words prior to their direct fixation. Previous findings regarding depth of pre-processing effects that are based on alphabetic language reading are mixed. One very important reason is that there is considerable variability in the length of target words in those studies conducted on alphabetic reading scripts. By contrast, it is possible to conduct such studies in Chinese to allow for parafoveal processing of text to be operationalized over characters without length variability. Chinese is a language with characteristics that are optimal for investigating parafoveal processing. The present project will take advantage of Chinese text characteristics to examine three aspects of parafoveal processing by using the eye tracking technique: (1) the first study aims at exploring how parafoveal load affects the spatial extent of pre-processing; (2) the second study attempts to examine whether and how foveal load influences the spatial extent and depth of pre-processing; on the basis of the first two studies, (3) the third study will investigate how reading skill modulates the spatial and depth effects of parafoveal processing, and also how reading efficiency interacts with spatial extent and depth of pre-processing. The findings of the current project will seek to illuminate currently controversial issues on parafoveal processing, and will be beneficial for examining and extending the current reading models of eye movement control (e.g., E-Z reader model, SWIFT model).

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    The cognitive mechanism of music syntactic processing and the influence of music structure on its processing
    ZHANG Jingjing, LIANG Xiaoyue, CHEN Yidi, CHEN Qingrong
    2020, 28 (6):  883-892.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00883
    Abstract ( 1439 )   HTML ( 36 )  
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    Music and language are the two most important sign systems for human beings. Similar to language, music is also constructed on certain syntactic rules. Although evidence has shown that listeners are sensitive to musical syntax, the underlying cognitive mechanism and its influencing factors are still unknown. Therefore, we intend to further explore the role of prediction and integration in musical syntactic processing, as well as the impact of musical hierarchical and temporal structures on musical syntactic processing. We expect the proposed studies to further reveal the nature of musical syntactic processing, and to provide empirical evidence for the comparison between music and language and the exploration of human general communication mechanism.

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    The causes and consequences of multi-level knowledge hiding behavior: A perspective from status competition
    WANG Zhicheng, ZHAO Shuming, YANG Jie
    2020, 28 (6):  893-903.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00893
    Abstract ( 1631 )   HTML ( 62 )  
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    Knowledge hiding refers to the behavior of individuals in an organization who deliberately conceal or willfully cover up the knowledge that has been requested by colleagues, including delay concealment, playing dumb, and reasonable hiding. Knowledge hiding is not conducive to the generation of knowledge sharing behavior among individuals, and it is a counterproductive behavior in the field of knowledge, which has a serious disruptive effect on the organizational effectiveness. In response to this problem, based on the regulatory focus theory, this paper proposes to explore the psychological mechanism and the boundary condition of knowledge hiding at the individual and team level by exploring the dimension structure of status motive and developing measurement tools from the dynamic perspective to deepen the understanding of the regularity of knowledge hiding and help the organization to deal with knowledge hiding more efficiently.

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    Workplace status: The multifaceted characteristics and dynamic influence mechanism
    WANG Biying, GAO Riguang, SHU Xiajun
    2020, 28 (6):  904-923.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00904
    Abstract ( 1279 )   HTML ( 61 )  
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    Workplace status is a valuable resource for employees, which not only helps individuals gain influence on others, improves their self-cognition and work behaviors, but also promotes organizational effectiveness. However, workplace status has not been given the right “status” in the past research of organizational management. Using 4-wave longitudinal data about workplace status and latent growth model analysis method, this research explores the dynamic influence mechanism of workplace status on employees’ attitudes and behaviors and the formation mechanism of double sides of workplace status over time. This research focuses on the multifaceted characteristics of workplace status, such as dynamic changes and double sides, and also provides rich theoretical basis for guarding against the dark side of workplace status in organizational management practices.

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    How to drive street-level cadres to take charge? A study on measurements, motivations, and antecedents
    GUO Shenghao
    2020, 28 (6):  924-934.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00924
    Abstract ( 1405 )   HTML ( 34 )  
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    That street-level cadres take charge and live up to their responsibility is essential to the function transition and performance of public duties of grass-root government. Against this backdrop, however, some critical questions are pending in the literature. For instance, what are taking charge behaviors and how should we measure them? What are the motivations underlying those behaviors? Are there any contingencies for those behaviors and how to effectively promote them? The present project aims to answer these questions. First, in view of the behavioral public administration perspective, we will clarify the dimensions of taking charge behaviors and develop an assessment tool. Second, we draw on the self-determination theory and investigate a controlled-autonomous motivation spectrum underlying the taking charge behaviors. This approach departs from the previously established altruism perspective and the dichotomy of internal and external motivation. Additionally, this project will extend the literature by delving into taking charge role identity as a key mechanism linking autonomous/controlled motivations to taking charge behaviors and by exploring personal/situational contingencies for the process. In other words, the present project elucidates how and when autonomous/controlled motivations translate into taking charge behaviors. This empirical project has significant implications for assessing, managing and promoting taking charge behaviors of street-level cadres.

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    Regular Articles
    The multidimensional spatial representation of time: Dissociations on its ontogenetic origin and activation mechanism
    HE Tingyu, DING Yi, LI Haokun, CHENG Xiaorong, FAN Zhao, DING Xianfeng
    2020, 28 (6):  935-944.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00935
    Abstract ( 1583 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    A growing body of evidence suggested that time can be represented separately either on the lateral, sagittal or vertical axis. However, how these mental time lines originate and be activated remains controversial. Recent evidence supports that the lateral mental time line mainly originates from sensorimotor experience associated with reading/writing habits, and the activation may be a low-level sensorimotor mechanism. In contrast, the sagittal/vertical mental time line mainly originates from spatial metaphor in language, and the activation may be a high-level semantic mechanism. The future study should focus more on the diversity of origins, the gene basis, the neural mechanism and the analogy between mental time lines and mental number lines.

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    The influences of prestimulus alpha oscillation on visual perception
    ZHONG Chupeng, QU Zhe, DING Yulong
    2020, 28 (6):  945-958.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00945
    Abstract ( 1124 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    Human perception to near-threshold visual stimuli is not always reliable. To investigate variability of visual perception and its neural mechanism, some researchers focus on the influences of prestimulus ongoing alpha oscillations (8~13 Hz) on visual perception. Recently, studies found that decrease of prestimulus alpha power associated with improvement of observers’ detection rate, but no such effect on perception accuracy was found. In addition, phase of prestimulus alpha was reported to predict whether an observer can detect the following visual stimulus or not. Thus, power of prestimulus alpha is considered to reflect the excitability of visual cortex; decrease of alpha power indicates increase of cortical excitability, which results in higher detection rate of near-threshold stimuli. Nevertheless, phase of prestimulus alpha might play a role in regulating the time of excitation and inhibition of the cortex, and the different brain states (excitation or inhibition) at stimulus onset would lead to different perceptions of the stimulus.

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    Feedback-related negativity and addiction
    CHEN Lele, HUANG Rong, JIA Shiwei
    2020, 28 (6):  959-968.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00959
    Abstract ( 1321 )   HTML ( 44 )  
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    Feedback-related negativity (FRN) refers to the electroencephalogram component induced by feedback processing which reflects the individual's sensitivity to reward. Addiction can be broadly classified into substance addiction and behavior addiction. Both types of addicted individuals show pathological patterns in feedback processing. Comparing with the ordinary feedback (such as money), the FRN amplitude induced by feedback of addiction substance significantly increased in individuals with substance addiction. In the control study with non-addicted subjects, substance addicts also showed abnormal patterns relating to addiction when processing monetary feedback stimuli. Similar FRN irregularities were also observed in individuals with behavioral addiction. However, the classification of addiction disorders in most previous studies is not specific enough, and the characteristics of different subtypes of addiction disorders should be further taken into consideration in future studies. Moreover, addicted individuals are often accompanied by other mental disorders (such as depression, anxiety). Further studies should distinguish the influences of comorbid factors and reveal the unique reward processing mechanisms underlying addiction.

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    Effects of visual language on reading among people who are deaf and hard of hearing and the underlying mechanisms
    ZHAO Ying, WU Xinchun, XIE Ruibo, FENG Jie, SUN Peng, CHEN Hongjun
    2020, 28 (6):  969-977.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00969
    Abstract ( 1122 )   HTML ( 46 )  
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    The auditory channel is disabled for people who are deaf and hard of hearing, so they have to rely heavily on visual language — lip-reading and sign language — to develop their reading ability. Lip-reading can help deaf and hard-of-hearing people to form phonological representation, develop vocabulary knowledge, and promote word reading and reading comprehension. Oral and written language processing activates sign language, which affects all levels of reading ability for people who are deaf and hard of hearing. Future research should explore the role of reading skills such as phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in the effect of visual language on reading ability, and develop a theoretical model that explains the mechanisms underlying reading acquisition by visual language for Chinese people who are deaf and hard of hearing.

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    The effects of loving-kindness and compassion meditation on altruistic behavior and its cognitive neural mechanisms
    JIN Guomin, LI Dan
    2020, 28 (6):  978-986.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00978
    Abstract ( 2457 )   HTML ( 116 )  
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    Loving-kindness and compassion meditation is a type of meditation practice that aims to cultivate the unconditional kindness and compassion for oneself and others. Specifically, interventions related to such meditation practice mainly include Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM) and Compassion Meditation (CM). A large number of studies have demonstrated that LKM and CM can promote practitioners’ altruistic behaviors. By reviewing its mechanisms, LKM and CM seem to influence practitioners’ altruistic behaviors by enhancing their empathetic responses to others’ distress, promoting emotion regulation, and improving prosocial motivation. Future research would benefit from selecting more ecologically valid measurements of altruistic behaviors, further exploring the dynamic neural processes of how LKM and CM influence on altruistic behaviors, and applying the practice of LKM and CM to clinical populations.

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    Age differences in intertemporal choice and the mechanism underlying them
    YANG Quan, YIN Shufei, HU Xing
    2020, 28 (6):  987-993.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00987
    Abstract ( 1491 )   HTML ( 43 )  
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    As the situation of population aging becomes increasingly severe, the intertemporal choice of older adults has attracted increasing attention. However, previous studies on age-related intertemporal choice have reached inconsistent conclusions. Some studies have found that older adults are more willing to wait for future gains than the young, while others suggest that older adults have the same choice preference as the young or are even more eager for short-term gains. This review attempts to explore the effects of age differences on intertemporal choice from the perspective of the processing of time representation and value representation of the elderly. It further elaborates on the impact of cognitive, motivational and emotional factors on this processing so as to clarify the discrepancies in current studies of age-related changes in intertemporal choice.

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    The “watching-eyes effect” in cooperative behavior: Potential mechanisms and limiting factors
    WU Qin, CUI Liying
    2020, 28 (6):  994-1003.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00994
    Abstract ( 2214 )   HTML ( 98 )  
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    The watching-eyes effect is a phenomenon where an individual’s behavior changes in response to images depicting eyes. Multiple experiments have shown that this effect occurs during cooperative behavior. Several psychological processes can explain the watching-eyes effect, including reputation, the rule mechanism, reward and punishment, as well as various cognitive mechanisms. Additionally, some factors seem to limit the effect, including presence of others, task type, individual public consciousness, group identity, and cue (i.e., eyes image) presentation method. Currently, the stability of the watching-eyes effect remains controversial. Thus, future studies should examine individual or intergroup differences that could potentially influence stability. Notable variables include gender, culture, brain physiology, and social- application value.

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    Differential responses of employees to corporate social responsibility: An interpretation based on attribution theory
    YAN Aimin, LI Yali, XIE Julan, LI Ying
    2020, 28 (6):  1004-1014.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01004
    Abstract ( 1500 )   HTML ( 51 )  
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    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) attributions refer to the process through which individuals make subjective judgments regarding a company’s motivations for implementing CSR practices. CSR attributions are crucial for CSR practices to have their intended positive effects. We review the literature on CSR attributions in order to summarize the individual, leadership, and organizational factors influencing CSR attributions. In addition, from the perspectives of social exchange and social identity theories, the influence mechanisms of CSR attributions on employee attitudes and behaviors are discussed. We provide suggestions for future research including: (1) Clarify the unique antecedents and outcomes of different corporate social responsibility attributions; (2) Draw on attribution theory to explore the mechanisms through which CSR attributions are formed; (3) Explore how multiple factors influence CSR attributions at the same time; (4) Investigate how attributions influence CSR fairness heuristics; (5) Conduct localized research on CSR attributions in the Chinese context.

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    The effect of packaging elements on consumers and the underlying mechanisms in marketing
    LIU Wumei, MA Zengguang, YE Furong
    2020, 28 (6):  1015-1028.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01015
    Abstract ( 2088 )   HTML ( 112 )  
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    Packing elements operate to shape the way consumers perceive the environmental stimuli, which can significantly impact their decision-making. We can also categorize packaging elements into verbal and nonverbal package elements. Provided that much attention has been paid to uncovering the effect of nonverbal package elements, the two different types of elements actually affect distinct consumer outcomes. In general, nonverbal package elements are mainly responsible for consumers’ perceptions and emotional preferences, whereas verbal package elements are mainly responsible for consumers’ behavioral responses. Furthermore, the aforementioned effects of the two types of package elements are intervened by various mechanisms including neurophysiology, cognitive processing, transfer of self-control and multisensory interaction. On the other hand, characteristics of environments, products and individuals may alter the effects. Future studies can extend this literature by investigating the effects of these two types of elements on consumers’ awkward feelings, selection of transparent packaging and product appraisals.

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