ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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     Is altruism just other-benefiting? A dual pathway model from an evolutionary perspective
    XIE Xiaofei, WANG Yilu, GU Siyi, LI Wei
    2017, 25 (9):  1441-1455.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01441
    Abstract ( 4114 )   PDF (621KB) ( 4679 )  
     Altruism is beneficial to its recipients and the whole society. By performing altruistic behaviors, individuals altogether enhance their group function and increase the group’s chance of survival in the face of crisis, which further enable the maintenance and development of the human species. However, altruistic behaviors are costly to the actors per se. It seems that altruists are often put at a disadvantage in survival and reproduction, relative to other individuals, especially to those selfish counterparts. A fundamental problem is, if altruistic behaviors inevitably reduce the fitness of altruists, how come these behaviors were spreading from generation to generation? Scholars, from a range of fields, have built intense interests in this problem, and delivered sustained efforts to solve this puzzle over a lengthy period of time. We proposed a dual pathway model based on the review of representative evolutionary explanations for altruism (i.e. multilevel selection theory and competitive altruism) and recent empirical evidence. From the internal side of an individual, altruism evokes a self-incentive process, facilitating a positive interaction between the actors’ psychological reactions and physiological experiences. Such internal benefits are critical to the altruist’s survival under certain circumstances. From the external side, altruism serves as a signal in interpersonal interactions, conveying information about the actors’ positive quality. Altruistic individuals get an easier access to cooperation opportunities, higher status, and more mate choices in the group, and thus can be benefitted from the long term. Taken together, altruists also reap potential fitness gains from their behaviors through internal and external pathways, beyond delivering direct and tangible benefits to others. Consequently, altruism will not disappear in the process of natural selection but will prevail in human beings. Future researchers could devote themselves to examining altruistic behaviors in a broader framework of mind-body relationships. Altruistic behaviors in the public should also be encouraged in order to create a positive spiral circle of altruism on both intra-personal and interpersonal levels.
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    Conceptual Framework
     The dynamic evolution and mechanism of newcomer’s political self-efficacy: An interactionist perspective of organizational socialization
    ZHAO Chen, GAO Zhonghua
    2017, 25 (9):  1456-1468.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01456
    Abstract ( 1374 )   PDF (554KB) ( 2409 )  
     Organizational politics is a common phenomenon in the workplace. Newcomers’ belief in coping with organizational politics effectively is key to their adaptability in the organization and their enhancement of professional competitiveness. Therefore, the dynamic evolution and mechanism of newcomer’s political self-efficacy will be explored based on the interactionist perspective of organizational socialization. First, political self-efficacy will be conceptualized using qualitative method. Following rigorous scale development procedures, measures of political self-efficacy will be developed and its reliability and discrimination validity will be tested. The construct validity of political self-efficacy will be further examined through building its nomological network. Second, a dynamic model will be constructed to reveal how newcomer’s political self-efficacy evolves with the process of their political learning, and how newcomer’s political willing and learning orientation affect this evolving mechanism. Third, a multilevel interaction model will be developed to systematically analyze how newcomer’s political self-efficacy affects job performance through both a fit path and a relationship path over the course of the interactions between the newcomer and his/her leader and peers. In all, the findings will not only extend present theories in the fields of organizational socialization, organization politics and self-efficacy, but also provide theoretical basis and practical guidance for motivating newcomers.
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    Regular Articles
     The influenced factors of bilinguals’ language switching costs
    CHANG Xin, BAI He, WANG Pei
    2017, 25 (9):  1469-1478.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01469
    Abstract ( 2052 )   PDF (391KB) ( 2658 )  
      Inhibitory control, language proficiency, related issues of tasks and working memory are the main factors influencing language switching costs. As to the question “which factor plays a predominate role in mediating the bilingual’s language switching cost, inhibitory control or language proficiency?”, there is a heated debate between Inhibitory Control Model and Language-Specific Selection Model. Therefore, the related studies in the future should further explore whether the age of second language acquisition and language use influence the bilinguals’ inhibitory control, whether language switching cost and task switching cost are similar in nature and the relationship between language switching cost and working memory.
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     The cognitive mechanism and neural basis of aging in language processing
    HE Wen-Guang
    2017, 25 (9):  1479-1491.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01479
    Abstract ( 938 )   PDF (436KB) ( 2655 )  
     Some disorders in cognition were from the aging in language processing. Thus, it’s very important to explore the performance and the mechanism of aging in language processing for slowing the aging in cognition, as well as curing Alzheimer’s disease. In line with comprehension and production, we firstly analyzed the performances of aging in processing lexical, sentence and course. Then, the mechanism of aging in language processing was talked about in respect of working memory. Thirdly, the neural-basis of language processing were dealt with three facets of language: lexical processing, semantic retrieving and syntactic analysis. Finally, 3 key issues about aging in language processing, such as the progressing, the performances and intervening methods, were discussed with aims to pave up for future studies about aging in language processing.
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     The working memory account of the spatial-numerical associations
    DENG Zhijun, WU Huizhong, CHEN Yinghe
    2017, 25 (9):  1492-1502.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01492
    Abstract ( 1685 )   PDF (380KB) ( 1356 )  
     The SNARC (Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes) effect, first reported by Dehaene, Bossini, and Giraux in 1993, means that individuals, when completing basic number processing tasks, typically react faster with their left hands to relatively smaller numbers and faster with their right hands to relatively larger numbers. The SNARC effect has been shown to be stable and robust, but its mechanism is still the subject of debate over the past 20 years. As a Mental Number Line (preexists in long-term memory) account cannot capture the complexity of observations reported in the literature, we aimed to explore the working memory account for the SNARC effect. According to the summarization and analysis of the related literatures, we found that the central executive, phonological subsystems, and the visual subsystems all played important roles in the SNARC effect, and the ordinal position in the sequence in working memory was also a an influential factor of the SNARC effect. However, additional neuroimaging studies are needed to examine the mechanism underlying the SNARC effect.
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     The effect of selective attention in contextual cueing
    ZANG Xuelian, ZHANG Xiaoxiao, JIA Lina, LI Genqiang, LI Hong
    2017, 25 (9):  1503-1511.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01503
    Abstract ( 2133 )   PDF (383KB) ( 2165 )  
     The learning of repeated spatial context expedites human visual search performance, an effect termed as contextual cueing. In the presented review, we investigated the interaction between contextual cueing effects and selective attention based on behavioral, eye movements and the related brain responses to contextual cueing. The review addressed multiple conflicts findings in previous studies which increased the difficulty to understand selective attention mechanism. In order to further disclosure selective attention mechanism of contextual cueing, future study should combine standard contextual cueing paradigm with advanced neuroscience technologies to offer more physiological evidence about the influence of attention on contextual cueing effect.
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     The mechanism of the retrieval practice effect: From encoding, retrieval to integration of both
    WANG Zhixun, ZHANG Jinkun
    2017, 25 (9):  1512-1520.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01512
    Abstract ( 933 )   PDF (357KB) ( 1772 )  
     Retrieval Practice Effect (RPE) means that compared with restudy in the same amount of time, retrieval practice (even without feedback) can effectively help people achieve a better performance in the final memory test. In the early researches, RPE was explained from either encoding or retrieval, and basically those explanations focused on describing RPE in different experimental designs. Recently, researchers integrated encoding and retrieval, the full memory process, to investigate the mechanism of the RPE, and has been supported by more and more research evidences. The article discussed current hypotheses of the RPE, then specifically differentiated the elaborative retrieval hypothesis and the episodic context account, and pointed out the advantage of the latter. Further work could use cognitive neuroscience technique to provide more direct proof for episodic context account. The controversy about the promoting effect of retrieval practice in the short-term and long-term memory remains to be further explained. Meanwhile, the way to put it into use effectively remains to be discovered in practice.
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     Smoking: Promoting or impairing prospective memory?
    REN Zhi, ZOU Xia, ZHONG Shasha, LIU Wei
    2017, 25 (9):  1521-1526.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01521
    Abstract ( 1868 )   PDF (299KB) ( 2072 )  
     Previous studies have investigated the influence of smoking or nicotine intake on prospective memory (PM), and indicated that smoking or nicotine intake can affect PM in two ways. On one hand, nicotine can transiently stimulate the release of neurotransmitters and improve PM by promoting strategic processing in the short term; on the other hand, smoking can damage neurons and cardiac or cerebral blood vessels, decrease the level of cognitive and executive function, and thus impair PM in the long term. Future studies should further clarify the mechanisms of the influence of smoking or nicotine intake on PM on the basis of differentiating PM tasks and the ways of nicotine intake.
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     Working memory training in mental disorders
    PAN Dong-ni, LI Xue-bing
    2017, 25 (9):  1527-1543.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01527
    Abstract ( 1955 )   PDF (506KB) ( 2489 )  
      In recent years, working memory deficit has been found to be associated with various types of mental disorders, which prompted researchers to examine whether working memory training can be used as an intervention for psychiatric patients. Indeed, it has been found that working memory training increases near-transfer effects, far-transfer effects, and direct clinical benefits in patients with ADHD, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorder, addiction disorder, and autism, by directly enhancing working memory capacity or indirectly increasing other training related abilities. Moreover, due to the nature of mental disorders, an effective training program should take into account three aspects: general components, symptom/disorder-specific components (e.g., emotion working memory training), as well as auxiliary components (e.g., motivation, strategy, and slow wave sleep). Future studies should focus on developing tailored training paradigms and training procedures for psychiatric patients with different types and/or stages of disorders, and moving towards a personalized training procedure. Developing effective evaluation tools are also essential to understand the mechanisms of working memory training on improving symptoms and well-being of patients.
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     Proactive personality: Mechanisms and future directions
    ZHANG Ying, YANG Fu
    2017, 25 (9):  1544-1551.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01544
    Abstract ( 5100 )   PDF (331KB) ( 4210 )  
     Proactive personality, a special trait, refers to a disposition toward taking personal initiatives to influence one’s environment. Employees with high proactive personality are more likely to identify and seek opportunities, and stick to their goals. By systematically reviewing and integrating the existing literature on proactive personality, this study summarizes proactive personality’s origin and concept, measurements, consequences, mediating mechanisms and moderating mechanisms, and the moderating effects of Chinese indigenous culture. We identify the trends of future research and point out that future research should focus on improving concept, developing new measurement that fits to cultural and economic background, and expanding research levels and consequences.
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     Narcissism and social networking sites use
    YANG Xiujuan, ZHOU Zongkui, LIU Qingqi, NIU Gengfeng
    2017, 25 (9):  1552-1564.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01552
    Abstract ( 3062 )   PDF (458KB) ( 5232 )  
     Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by inflated self-concept and desire for others’ continuous attention and admiration. Narcissists are fond of social networking sites (SNSs) because SNSs encourage different types of self-promoting behaviors. Previous studies have found that narcissism could significantly predict SNSs use behaviors (i.e. the self-selection effect), including overall use of SNSs, use behaviors on different social networking platforms, different types of use behaviors (active usage vs. passive usage), and specific forms of use behaviors (selfies, status update, social feedback, and privacy control). SNSs use behaviors could also promote individuals’ narcissism (i.e. the media effect). Therefore, narcissism and SNSs use may interact and mutually reinforce each other (i.e. the reinforcing spirals model). In addition, the association between narcissism and SNSs use behaviors can be affected by gender, age and generation gap as well as culture. Future studies should further address the issues like the definition and measurement of narcissism and SNSs use. The direction of the two interacting constructs and research methods in this area should also be explored and improved by future research.
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     HENG Shupeng; ZHOU Zongkui; SUN Lijun
    HENG Shupeng, ZHOU Zongkui, SUN Lijun
    2017, 25 (9):  1565-1578.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01565
    Abstract ( 2584 )   PDF (471KB) ( 3107 )  
     Avatar identification is conceptualized as a temporary shift in players’ self-perception by adopting aspects of the identity of a video game avatar, which consists of temporary loss of self-awareness and heightened emotional and cognitive connections with an avatar, and provides us with a new perspective for understanding the avatar effect. In previous studies, the main testing models of avatar identification consist of the three-dimension and four-dimension structure. Its neural mechanism have preliminary been revealed. As to its antecedents, previous studies have mainly investigated games’ characteristics and individual factors. In terms of outcome variables, existing researches have mainly focused on the effects of avatar identification on game experience (flow state, self-presence and enjoyment), game addiction, aggressive behavior and self identity. On the basis of literature review, we point out that future research should make a thorough inquiry on the concept and structure, develop more effective measuring tools, broaden study methods and variables, and strengthen application research.
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     Individual strengths-based job crafting
    TIAN Xizhou, LIU Meiling
    2017, 25 (9):  1579-1596.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01579
    Abstract ( 1460 )   PDF (606KB) ( 2280 )  
     Using strengths enables us to feel fulfilled, authentic and efficient; and crafting jobs makes our work full of meaning, identity and sense of calling. Integrating strength theory and researches on job crafting, career success and calling, we can find: (1) Strengths-based job crafting (SJC) is a new construct in positive organizational behavior, which has both theoretical and practical contributions to strength theory and job crafting research; (2) SJC has positive impacts on personal career success, sense of calling and organizational performance; (3) The factors that affect SJC include personal, organizational factors as well as cultural values. Future studies should further examine the measure scale, mechanisms of SJC both in empirical way and Chinese context.
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     How do female employees conduct gender identity-based impression management?
    WANG Haizhen, MEI Xiaofeng, WEI Xuhua
    2017, 25 (9):  1597-1606.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01597
    Abstract ( 1027 )   PDF (477KB) ( 2435 )  
     Female employees' gender identity-based impression management refers to the process of female employees influencing others in order to reverse the prejudiced views of their gender identity. Gender identity-based impression management includes social recategorization strategy and positive distinctiveness strategy. The former intends to reduce the stereotypical connections with a female identity, and the latter aims at stressing the positive meaning of the female identity. Both strategies produce distinctive effects on evaluation, career development and personal well-being of females. We summarize that variables reflecting workplace gender preference or stereotype strength moderate the effects of the aforementioned strategies. Future research should continue to explore how to reduce the impact of gender discrimination against female employees from the perspectives of gender identity-based impression management and organizational interventions, especially within the Chinese culture.
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     The emotion mechanism of advice taking
    ZHU Yuelong, ZHANG Kaihua, DUAN Jinyun
    2017, 25 (9):  1607-1613.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01607
    Abstract ( 1658 )   PDF (417KB) ( 2344 )  
     Guided mainly by providing decision makers with advice adaptable to their emotional characteristics, the emotion research on advice taking explores specific emotion and cognitive assessment of emotion, based on analyzing the emotion valance development and the emotion influences on cognition strategies respectively. Combining with the previous research and drawing lessons from Affect Infusion Model, Emotion As Social Information Model, Appraisal-Tendency Framework, the paper analyzes and elaborates the emotion source and the mechanism associating with the emotional impact on the advice taking. Besides, the research hotspot-anger mood is taken as an example to further explain. Future research can try to explore the direct effect of emotion on advice taking, the relationship and role of integral and incidental emotion, as well as the combination of new emotional theory to enrich the study of advice taking field.
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     The detriments and improvement of automation trust and dependence to aviation safety
    WANG Xinye, LI Yuan, CHANG Ming, YOU Xuqun
    2017, 25 (9):  1614-1622.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01614
    Abstract ( 1302 )   PDF (453KB) ( 1390 )  
     Currently, automation systems have been widely applied in airlines. However, the introduction of complex automation systems has already triggered new error models, which make the human factors related aviation safety issues prominent. Affected by many factors, users can’t always achieve the adjusted level of trust, when they interact with automation systems. There are various safety incidents in aviation, which induced by unadjusted automation trust and dependence. But, it should be noted that the display design and training of human-centered automation can turn the unadjusted automation trust and dependence to the adjusted state.
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    Research Methods
     Applying psychometric models in learning progressions studies: Theory, method and breakthrough
    GAO Yizhu, CHEN Fu, XIN Tao, ZHAN Peida, JIANG Yu
    2017, 25 (9):  1623-1630.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01623
    Abstract ( 1853 )   PDF (390KB) ( 2512 )  
      Learning progressions are descriptions of students’ increasingly sophisticated ways of thinking about or understanding a topic during a period. It’s an iterative process to build learning progressions, beginning with hypothetical learning progressions and then validated by empirical approaches. Psychometric models, such as item response models, multidimensional item response models and cognitive diagnosis models, combine learning progressions with the function of assessing students. These models provide evidence for validating learning progressions and also make diagnosis about students. In addition, learning progressions have provided new perspectives for vertical scaling and adaptive learning. But we should be aware of some questions, such as differential item functioning.
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