ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Judgement and Decision Making across Cultures
    Li-Jun JI;Megan KAULIUS
    2013, 21 (3):  381-388.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00381
    Abstract ( 2326 )   PDF (199KB) ( 5236 )  
    This paper reviews research outlining cross-cultural differences in judgement and decision making. As the majority of research in this area is directed on the differences between Asian and Western cultures, this review mainly focuses on the juxtaposition between these two cultures. Specifically, the authors outline the differences in probability judgements and confidence, risk perception, risk taking behaviours, consumer behaviour, and business and economic judgments and decisions. This review reveals that while judgement and decision making differs markedly between Asian and Western cultures, significant differences also exist within these cultures. The paper also suggests directions for future research in the area of cross-cultural judgement and decision making in order to garner a greater understanding of this subject.
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    Conceptual Framework
    The Operation Mechanism of Knowledge Heterogeneity Network Based on Team with Knowledge Heterogeneity
    NI Xudong;XUE Xianfang
    2013, 21 (3):  389-397.  doi: 0.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00389
    Abstract ( 623 )   PDF (232KB) ( 1380 )  
    The knowledge heterogeneity network of team with knowledge heterogeneity is based on the team members' study experience or work experience across organizations. This project aims to explore the interaction mechanism, inovation paths,and two-way dynamic evolvement process. We will combine knowledge management theory, social networks theory and congnition psychology, select typical TMT and R&D team, and use experiment and questionaire methods to research three forms of heterogeneity network, the characters and patterns of knowledge flows. We will also explore multiple innovation pathes based on networks interaction memery system, knowledge conflict, and knowledge structure expanding,and then investigate two-way dynamic evolvement process and network-making and optimization strategy.
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    Regular Articles
    Psychological Effect of Red: Phenomenon and Mechanism Review
    ZHANG Tengxiao;HAN Buxin
    2013, 21 (3):  398-406.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00398
    Abstract ( 1965 )   PDF (171KB) ( 2978 )  
    Red is one of the most common colors in nature and human society. Its psychological effect is getting much more attention after the phenomenon that red sportswear enhanced performance in the Olympic contests was reported. Studies focused on psychological effect of red were reviewed from the perspectives of physiology, behavior, cognition, language, culture, emotion, and attitude. A Context Hypothesis of Red Effect was proposed. The links between red color and psychological meanings determined by heredity and experience are the origins of psychological effect of red. The links induce a particular mental state in a certain context, which influences the individual’s psychology and behavior. The psychological effect of color and its mechanism has been one of the frontiers in the science of color and its application.
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    C1 Modulation Effect and Its Factors
    CHEN Jian;YUAN Jie;WANG Hailing;WANG Yan;FU Shimin
    2013, 21 (3):  407-417.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00407
    Abstract ( 959 )   PDF (245KB) ( 1087 )  
    C1 is the first cortical component of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). C1 modulation effect refers to the phenomenon that attention and other factors could affect the amplitude of C1. Previous studies have mainly observed modulation of the P1 and N1 components due to attention, but not of C1 component, based on which researchers have brought forward the delayed feedback hypothesis. Recent studies, however, have observed conflicting evidence that C1 may be modulated by attention, suggesting that attention may impinge on the early stage of visual information processing. Future research should investigate the impact of attention and perceptual learning on the modulation of C1 component and clarify the roles of perceptual load, attentional load, and other contributory factors as well as their interactions in generating C1 modulation effect.
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    Critical Review on the Theories of Post-error Slowing
    WANG Lijun;XU Lei;WU Shanshan;TAN Jinfeng;CHEN Antao
    2013, 21 (3):  418-428.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00418
    Abstract ( 1192 )   PDF (265KB) ( 1598 )  
    Post-error slowing (PES) describes the prolonged reaction time (RT) in trials subsequent to an error compared to RTs in trials following correct trials. At present, researchers have found three post-error adjustments, namely post-error slowing, post-error improvement in accuracy and post-error reduction of interference, wherein the post-error slowing is the most stable post-error adjustment behavior. Early accounts aiming to explain the phenomenon mainly include conflict monitoring theory, activation inhibition hypothesis, reinforcement learning theory and mismatch theory. Of note, some recent researches developed orienting account and criterion adjustment hypothesis. Further research should pay more attention to different error types, unconscious error processing, individual differences and new analysis technology application so as to fully uncover the nature of PES.
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    Embodied Views of Abstract Concepts Representation
    ZHANG Entao;FANG Jie;LIN Wenyi;LUO Junlong
    2013, 21 (3):  429-436.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00429
    Abstract ( 1287 )   PDF (143KB) ( 3362 )  
    Whether people are able to represent abstract concepts through experience of sensory and motor systems? This is a challenge for embodied cognition. From the perspective of the relations between sensorimotor information and representation of abstract concepts, Present paper reviewed some influential theories in embodied cognition and the corresponding important evidences. Reviewing the theories indicates that abstract concepts is grounded in perceptual information, however, how abstract concepts are grounded in perceptual information remains debated. Within Embodied Cognition (EC) approach, some authors emphasize the importance of action or situation for conceptual representation, this supports strong version of EC. Others highlight the role of concrete experience or common structure for cognition, this supports weaker version of EC. Furthermore, we should view conceptual representations as flexible entities, and integrate different views into more mature frame of embodied cognition. Additionally, future work should focus on the relationship between abstract concepts and language, and the difference in abstract concepts representation between normal and special children.
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    The Animacy Effect of Nouns and Its Cognitive Mechanism in Sentence Processing
    HE Wenguang;CHEN Baoguo
    2013, 21 (3):  437-447.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00437
    Abstract ( 1242 )   PDF (207KB) ( 1467 )  
    Animacy effect is a common phenomenon in language comprehension, which mainly refers to that aniamcy nouns play an important role in syntactic and semantic processing, such as sentence choice, voice using, word order construction, argument and relative clauses processing. In the present paper, we mainly discussed three aspects of animacy effect of nouns. First, an extensive and systematic analysis about animacy effect from sentence production and comprehension was made. Second, different models of animacy effect were discussed, which included the specific representation of animacy nouns theory, the accessibility hierarchy of lexical concept theory, the syntactic salience of animacy nouns account and the experience-based language distribution theory. Finally, some reviews were made about the beings, mechanism of animacy effect, as well as the influence from culture and context on animacy effect, then some suggestions about the future direction of this issue were pointed out.
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    A Survey of Simultaneous EEG-fMRI on Sleep
    LEI Xu;LIU Huan;LI Hong
    2013, 21 (3):  448-457.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00448
    Abstract ( 1266 )   PDF (345KB) ( 3130 )  
    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI integrates the complementary advantages of high-temporal-resolution EEG and high-spatial-resolution fMRI. As the traditional electrophysiological method was employed to sleep staging and event potential recording, simultaneous EEG-fMRI provides a non-invasive multimodal measurement of sleep and may clarify the cognition process in different consciousness condition. This review provides the recent development in spontaneous activity and sensory processing during sleep. We discussed some specific topics in sleep investigation, such as hardware, subjective and data process problems. The application of simultaneous EEG-fMRI has profound significance for elucidating the neural mechanism of conscious state conversion, and will provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of the sleep disorders.
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    The Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Depressive Disorder and Its Mechanism
    GUO Xiaoyue;REN Jun;GUO Jianyou
    2013, 21 (3):  458-467.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00458
    Abstract ( 1457 )   PDF (218KB) ( 1853 )  
    A growing body of evidence suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3PUFA) is associated with depressive disorder, and supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are the most common PUFA in the brain, may be of value in the prevention and treatment of depression. The purpose of this article is to review studies in this emerging area, identify and evaluate available evidence of a negative correction between n-3PUFA intake and depression, and propose mechanisms that could explain such relationship. n-3PUFA may play an etiological role in serotonergic transmission, glucose metabolism, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level, and neuronal apoptosis. Future studies are needed to examine the dosage response functions of n-3PUFA, the specific roles of DHA or EPA in different clusters of depressive symptoms, whether DHA or EPA is effective in antidepressant treatments independently or coefficiently, as well as the potential clinical value of n-3PUFA in major depression.
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    Neural Mechanism and Neurobiological Basis of Harm Avoidance
    RAN Guangming;ZHANG Qi;ZHAO Le;MA Jianling;CHEN Xu;PAN Yangu;MA Jing
    2013, 21 (3):  468-479.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00468
    Abstract ( 1143 )   PDF (331KB) ( 1245 )  
    Harm avoidance is a type of trait anxiety which is de?ned as a tendency to respond intensely to aversive stimuli signals and to learn to passively avoid punishment. The tendency is associated with ruminating about future outcomes and being careful in uncertain situations as well as facing a higher risk for affective disorders. The neural network involving in harm avoidance includes the network including the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe and the anterior cingulate cortex; the junction between cortex and amygdala and the structural connectivity in white matter pathways. Not only one polymorphism but also the interaction of different polymorphisms can have influence on the harm avoidance. The future research should focus on the association of neural mechanism with neurobiological basis of harm avoidance and the interaction of multiple polymorphisms, inspect the moderating effect of other factors and the relation among the subscale of harm avoidance as well as research other receptor subtypes of serotonin and rehabilitation work of it.
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    Children’s Social Epistemology: Children’s Selective Trust in Informants
    YUAN Ming;DENG Zhu;JI Pei
    2013, 21 (3):  480-486.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00480
    Abstract ( 1199 )   PDF (113KB) ( 1794 )  
    Much of our knowledge is transmitted through what other people tell us. Children from the age of four recognise the differences in how trustworthy people are at providing information. Generally, children use the following cues to evaluate the credibility of the informants and to decide who to trust: familiarity, the informants’ past accuracy, and the feedback from other social agents. In future research, it will be important to investigate children’s selective trust in informants’ testimony in other areas, to manipulate other characteristics of the informants, and to examine the potential cultural variations.
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    The Aging Mechanism on Off-topic Verbosity
    YIN Shufei;PENG Huamao
    2013, 21 (3):  487-494.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00487
    Abstract ( 829 )   PDF (196KB) ( 1041 )  
    In everyday life, the speech of older people is more off-topic and verbose compared with young adults. The phenomenon is referred as the aging of off-topic verbosity (OTV). Pragmatic change hypothesis suggests that the change of communicative goals among the elders results in the increase of OTV. This hypothesis could explain the OTV induced by autobiographical topics, but not interpret that induced by non-autobiographical topics which does not involve change of communicative goals. Inhibition deficit theory proposes that OTV is closely related to the age-related decline in inhibiting irrelevant information, providing explanations for OTV on both autobiographical and non-autobiographical topics. However, this theory does not clearly clarify the ageing mechanism on OTV. Future research need focus on the underlying aging mechanism of OTV, so as to provide more effective intervention to resolve the social communication dilemma in older adults.
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    Review and Prospect of Aging Stereotype
    HE Qingli;YU Lin;MA Jianling
    2013, 21 (3):  495-505.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00495
    Abstract ( 1463 )   PDF (163KB) ( 2300 )  
    The aging stereotype, which refers to the perception and the expectation pointing to old individuals, can significantly affect holder's physiological and cognition functions as well as behavior performances. Existing researches mainly focus on the potential mechanism, mediators and influence factors of aging stereotype. It is assumed that aging stereotype is formed through the process of internalization; Stereotype Threat Theory and Self-Stereotyping are the two main theories in explaining the aging stereotype effects. Inhibition ability, context situation as well as cultural differences are among the main factors influence the aging stereotype; Aging self-perception and stereotypic expectancy are the mediators of the aging stereotype. Future research should focus on the effect of different level of consciousness, context situation, individual characteristics on aging stereotypes and the effect of characteristics of aging stereotype on different age group. Potential mediators, intervention and cross-cultural study should also included.
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    The Delaying Effect of Activities Engagement on the Cognitive Impairment
    HE Chenglin;CHEN Chuanfeng
    2013, 21 (3):  506-516.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00506
    Abstract ( 750 )   PDF (244KB) ( 1105 )  
    Although a great importance has been attached to the pathological mechanisms and risk factors of cognitive impairment in the past decades, the effective solutions to treat or prevent cognitive impairment have not been found so far. So more and more studies focus especially on the protective factors of cognitive impairment. Previous studies have found that activities engagement have a positive effect on cognitive impairment, which maybe is an important protective factor of cognitive impairment. However, the impact mechanism of activities engagement on the cognitive impairment and the interaction between different activities engagement are still unknown. The relationship between cognitive impairment and different activities engagements or their interactions should be further studied, and the common factors of the activities engagement in the protective effect of cognitive impairment need to be addressed.
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    Employability: Definition, Structure and Empirical Findings
    XIE Yizhong;CHEN Jing;ZHU Lin
    2013, 21 (3):  517-529.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00517
    Abstract ( 1444 )   PDF (194KB) ( 2135 )  
    With the changing connotations of employability, researchers are increasingly focusing on individual characteristics and their interactions with situational factors to explore the internal structures of employability and trying to develop multi-dimensional tests and use multi-source assessments in studies more than before. Although, a number of western empirical researches with employability as antecedents, consequences, mediators or moderators have achieved fruitful results, there are still many controversies and limitations in theory. It is necessary to explore the localization content structures and measurements of employability in China, as well as its special forming, developing and functioning mechanism in the boundaryless career era.
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    The Moderating Effect of Self-Uncertainty on Procedural Justice Effect
    LIANG Juan;MA Hongyu;GAO Ji
    2013, 21 (3):  530-538.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00530
    Abstract ( 919 )   PDF (160KB) ( 1640 )  
    Self-uncertainty refers to the feeling of doubt from individual’s inner, and refers to the implicit subjective feelings and explicit reactions which are produced by the sense of doubt and instability about oneself. Self-reporting and scenarios manipulation are 2 main research methods of self-uncertainty. Since De Cremer and Sedikides’ empirical study proved that self-uncertainty can moderate the procedural justice effect, researchers have been developing this field by decomposing the self-uncertainty into the uncertainty emotion about self uncertainty, standing uncertainty and belongingness uncertainty, and by discussing the procedural justice cognitive mechanism. Further researches can also develop this field by investigating the self-uncertainty moderating effect in the Chinese background, by analyzing the interaction between self-uncertainty trait and state, and by researching the combination of self-uncertainty and other related variables, such as self-affirmation, newcomers and information uncertainty.
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    New Perspectives in Job Demand-Resource Model Research: Based on The Analysis of Psychosocial Safety Climate
    ZHOU Fan;LIU Dawei
    2013, 21 (3):  539-547.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00539
    Abstract ( 1444 )   PDF (206KB) ( 2672 )  
    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) refers to shared perceptions regarding policies, procedures and practices for the protection of worker psychological health and safety. Reviewing related studies, the theory construction, measurement, validation of PSC, and the mechanism of PSC in the Job Demand-Resource Model (JD-R Model) is systematically clarified, and the theoretical and managerial implications of this new model is discussed. It also puts forwards such future research directions as the perfection of PSC theory and measurement, hierarchical match of resources with occupational demands, the consideration of external and individual factors, and conduction of native research.
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    Critical Review of Psychological Studies on Hope
    LIU Mengchao;HUANG Xiting
    2013, 21 (3):  548-560.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00548
    Abstract ( 2224 )   PDF (320KB) ( 4697 )  
    After summarizing hope theory proposed by Snyder, hope was then compared and contrasted with optimism, personal growth initiative, self-confidence and future orientation. Methods for measuring hope were also described. Hope was consistently related to academic achievement, human resources management, psychological and physical health, and it might have some influence on substance abuse treatment. Some evidence as well as ideas came up in recent years, which were different from Snyder. Future research should lay emphasis on problems such as the concept, cultural differences, neurobiology of hope and its applications.
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    Research Methods
    The Application of Social Relations Model in Family Study
    GUO Suran;WU Xinchun
    2013, 21 (3):  561-570.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00561
    Abstract ( 981 )   PDF (166KB) ( 1671 )  
    Social relations model was introduced to the family study in 1984, and applied in multiple family relations study. Round-robin design is adopted in family researches with social relations model; individual effect, relational effect and family effect could be evaluated, and individual and relational reciprocal effects, inter-generational and intra-generation reciprocal effects, and the similarity between family members could also be evaluated by social relations model. Data in social relation model is analyzed by single family effect size or by structural equation modeling. Four points should be paid attention to in the future study with social relations model, that are, reflecting more complex of family relations, analyzing data from the three-person group, finding validity indexes of effect and processing missing values.
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