ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Working Memory Content-based Attentional Capture and Suppression in the Visual Search
    ZHANG Ming;WANG Ai-Jun
    2012, 20 (12):  1899-1907.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01899
    Abstract ( 1342 )   PDF (176KB) ( 2836 )  
    Visual attention is a kind of selection which points at relevant information and restrains irrelevant information. Working memory (WM) plays a role in holding associated information and suppressing unassociated information. This paper is based on systematic reviews of existing literature on guidance of visual attention from WM and combines recent research on event related potential (ERP). From the visual search based on the two points of view of attentional capture and attentional suppression of the content of WM, we summarized the related research of visual working memory (VWM) and visual selective attention. Researchers have mainly been discussing two aspects in this field: (1) the guidance of visual attention from WM; (2) the conditions of the guidance of visual attention from WM. It suggests that no matter the contents of VWM capture or restrain attention, there are top-down and bottom-up two kinds of processing mechanism.
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    Conceptual Framework
    The Mechanism and Variability of Implicit Self-positivity Bias
    ZHONG Yi-Ping;CHEN Yun;ZHANG Shan-Ming;YANG Qing-Song
    2012, 20 (12):  1908-1919.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01908
    Abstract ( 1222 )   PDF (233KB) ( 2435 )  
    For most individuals, information about the self is associated with a positive valence. Individuals attribute positive traits or outcomes to internal, stable and global personal characteristics whereas negative traits or outcomes are identified as unrelated to personal characteristics. This attributional bias is known as the self-positivity bias. Using behavioral experiments and cognitive neuroscience measures, the present project attempted to identify the processing of self-reference and emotional valence, and to confirm the existence of the self-positivity bias in Collectivist Cultures. The aim of the present project was to investigate the self-positivity bias and its variability at an implicit level comparing with an explicit level, to comprehend the brain and neural mechanisms, particularly, to explore the promotion and change of implicit self-positivity bias in depressive individuals. The present project also attempted to reveal the nature and feature of implicit self-positivity bias, to provide evidence to functional processing hierarchy for self-relevant and emotional information. The completion of this project can not only understand the complicated relationship of self and emotion at an implicit level, but also make significant exploration of the neural mechanisms and further unscramble the nature of Chinese people’s self.
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    Comparison of Affective Priming and Semantic Priming
    JIANG Zhong-Qing;XIAO Yan-Li;LIU Ying;YANG Li-Zhu;QU Yu-Hong;TAI Yuan-Yuan;QI Xing;WU Qi;WANG Li;WANG Yan;ZHOU Zhi-Juan
    2012, 20 (12):  1920-1925.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01920
    Abstract ( 1216 )   PDF (168KB) ( 2371 )  
    There is considerable controversy on the order of occurrence and strength of affective priming and semantic priming, and their relationship is independent or interacted is also at odds. The nature of these controversies related to the understanding of the relationship between these two basic systems of the human brain- emotional and cognitive systems. In order to clarify the controversy directly and systematically, present study plan to incorporate the affective priming and the semantic priming paradigms into the same behavioral and ERP experiment, with matching the factors that may affect the priming effect, like information intensity of prime, the degree of association between prime and target, etc.. And, to change the presentation duration of the prime, SOA and experimental tasks systematically, as well as to add in the variables of individual differences like age, gender, disciplines, cognitive style and susceptibility to emotion gradually. Hope that this design reveal the deep-seated processing characteristics of emotional information flow and semantic information flow, then enlighten the development of emotional and cognitive system's function and mechanism of human brain.
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    Research Methods
    About the Paradigm of Visual Attentional Blink
    CHEN Hong;WANG Su-Yan
    2012, 20 (12):  1926-1939.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01926
    Abstract ( 2050 )   PDF (395KB) ( 3907 )  
    Under conditions of rapid serial visual presentation, subjects display a reduced ability to report the second of two targets (Target 2; T2) in a stream of distractors if it appears within 200–500 msec of Target 1 (T1). This effect, known as the attentional blink (AB)。For two decades, this robust attentional phenomenon has been a major topic in attention research,which paradigm can be classified into two broad categories, one RSVP stream and multiple RSVP streams. In this review we attempt to analyze and estimate all versions of two categories of paradigm and point out four experimental factors influenced on the development of the paradigms and five tendency of paradigms.
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    Regular Articles
    The Brain Basis of Syntactic Processing During Language Comprehension
    FANG Xiao-Ping;LIU You-Yi
    2012, 20 (12):  1940-1951.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01940
    Abstract ( 991 )   PDF (247KB) ( 1998 )  
    Left frontal and temporal brain areas are considered essential for syntactic processing during language comprehension. However, several proposed neural models represent differing views about the mechanisms underlying syntactic processing. Possible reasons for this discrepancy include differences in the manipulation of syntactic processing, the experimental tasks employed, the individual differences of participants, and the differences between languages. Accordingly, to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing and language comprehension, we suggest that studies which include direct comparisons between languages, tasks, and different aspects of syntactic processing are necessary. Further, the combination of the individual-based functional localization approach and the traditional group analysis can reduce the influence of individual differences between participants. Functional connectivity studies may clarify how these brain areas cooperate with each other and provide an informative picture of syntactic processing.
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    The Influence of Working Memory on Time Information Processing
    Bi Cui-Hua;HUANG Xi-Ting
    2012, 20 (12):  1952-1961.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01952
    Abstract ( 1225 )   PDF (250KB) ( 2166 )  
    There is complex relationship which is either bidirectional or unidirectional interference between time estimation and nontemporal information processing. Different results are related to attention and working memory resources required by distinct tasks. The central executive component of working memory is mainly recruited during timing that the more nontemporal task requires central executive resources, the greater bidirectional interferences become. Phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, demanded by different type of distractive tasks are also involved in time estimation. Working memory capacity is an index reflecting personally whole working memory ability, thus timing is affected by other factors-related to working memory capacity such as age, intelligence as well. Timing and working memory rely on the same neural representation such as frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and basal ganglia. The future research should enrich contents of working memory, integrate subsections of temporal processing to explore the time course and neural mechanism of working memory affecting timing, and strive to seek application value in this field.
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    A Profile of Conflict Types in the Color-Word Stroop Task
    TANG Dan-Dan;LIU Pei-Duo;CHEN An-Tao
    2012, 20 (12):  1962-1970.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01962
    Abstract ( 1378 )   PDF (208KB) ( 2489 )  
    In the field of cognitive control, the color-word Stroop task is widely utilized to investigate the internal neural bias of conflict processing. This paper first summarized the stimulus conflict and response conflict involved in the color-word Stroop task as well as two kinds of experiment paradigms usually used to investigate the Stroop interference. Afterward we introduced the neural dynamics of stimulus conflict and response conflict: The event-related potential (ERP) researches proved that the modulation of amplitude of N450 reflected conflict detection, the modulation of amplitude of conflict sustained potential (SP) reflected resolution of response conflict; the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) researches substantiated that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) played important roles in the processes of conflict detection and the implement of cognitive control, respectively. Lastly, in allusion to the issues resulting from the traditional experiment paradigm in the study of stimulus conflict and response conflict, improved methods and new trends of cognitive neurosciences were proposed.
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    ‘Good Right and Bad Left’ or ‘Good Left and Bad Right’: The Relation Between Handedness and Space Affective Valence
    YIN Rong;QU Fang-Bing;YE Hao-Sheng
    2012, 20 (12):  1971-1979.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01971
    Abstract ( 1461 )   PDF (212KB) ( 2342 )  
    Good things and bad things are often associated with the right or the left, which is the affective valence of left space and right space. The studies basing on theories of embodied cognition and body-specificity hypothesis show that right-handers implicitly associate “good” with “right” and the opposite is true for left-handers. The motor experience of dominant hand and nondominant hand shape space valence. Space valence can be reversed as a result of changes in motor experience of dominant hand and nondominant hand. The brain areas that support approach motivation functionally are related to areas that support motor actions of dominant hand. Future research should focus on the relationship between the laterality of motivation and the laterality of manual motor control and determine how influences of cultural and bodily experiences combine to shape space valence.
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    Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement
    LIU Yun-Kun;TAO Sha
    2012, 20 (12):  1980-1990.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01980
    Abstract ( 1531 )   PDF (316KB) ( 1879 )  
    Gender difference in mathematics achievement is of great significance for understanding gender related psychology and social policy making. Previous studies have mainly focused on the group mean differences between males and females on mathematics achievement. However, recent studies reveal greater within-group variability for males and more similarities than differences between males and females on mathematics achievement. Gender differences in mathematics achievement vary substantially in magnitude and direction by scoring systems, the test content, the degree of difficulty and the test organization and format. A variety of psychological, biological and socio-cultural factors may account for gender differences in mathematics achievement. Among them, the effects of age, hormones and brain structure and function, gene and evolution, stereotype threat, societal gender equity, and time have important implications for understanding the gender differences in mathematics achievement. Future research may employ more longitudinal design, pay more attention to those with lower level of math achievement, explore the neural mechanisms for complex mathematical problem solving, and examine gender issues in broader socio-cultural contexts.
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    Social Competence: Concepts and Theoretical Models
    ZHANG Jing;TIAN Lu-Mei;ZHANG Wen-Xin
    2012, 20 (12):  1991-2000.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01991
    Abstract ( 2190 )   PDF (246KB) ( 2943 )  
    Despite of the long-standing tradition of research, researchers disagree with each other on the nature of social competence, and hence a unified definition of the social competence has not been reached even until present. At least three approaches to defining social competence can be discerned in literature, including the skill-approach, the outcome-approach and the integrated approach, respectively. Based upon these conceptualizations, especially the integrated approach, several theoretical models of social competence have been proposed in extant literature, including the component models, the process models, the prism model and so on. This paper first reviewed these major conceptualizations and related theoretical models, and then proposed an integrative view of social competence. Possible cultural differences in social competence from this integrative view are also discussed.
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    The Genetic Underpinning of Proactive and Reactive Aggression
    CAO Cong;WANG Mei-Ping;ZHANG Wen-Xin;CHEN Guang-Hui
    2012, 20 (12):  2001-2010.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.02001
    Abstract ( 1421 )   PDF (217KB) ( 1842 )  
    Aggressive behavior can be divided into two subtypes of proactive aggression and reactive aggression according to the intention. Recently, a number of studies have discussed the importance of genetic and environmental influences on reactive and proactive aggression, and indicated that the two subtypes of aggression have different genetic and environmental underpinnings. Most existing studies have examined the genetic underpinning of two subtypes of aggression by twin design of quantitative behavioral genetics, while future research should focus on such issues as identifying candidate genes, the interaction between gene and environment and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
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    Neurobiological Underpinnings of Empathy
    PAN Yan-Gu;LIU Yan-Ling;MA Jian-Ling;RAN Guang-Ming;LEI Hao
    2012, 20 (12):  2011-2021.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.02011
    Abstract ( 1515 )   PDF (217KB) ( 3727 )  
    Empathy occurs when an observer perceives or imagines someone else’s affect and this triggers a response such that the observer partially feels what the target is feeling. It includes two independent elements: emotional empathy and cognitive empathy. Neural network of emotional empathy includes AI, ACC and MNS. The main brain region of cognitive empathy is vmPFC. Neural network of empathy matures gradually in the individual development and it is regulated by cognitive appraisal. Oxytocin and gene polymorphism of oxytocin receptor relate to empathy closely. Future researches need to focus on the function of somatosensory cortex on pain empathy, neural network difference between empathy and personal emotions, facilitation of oxytocin on defective individual’s empathy ability, relationship between gene polymorphism and neural network of empathy by using imaging genetic technology and improvement of ecological validity of empathy research paradigm.
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    Functional-somatic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents
    WANG Xin-Jian;ZHANG Bin
    2012, 20 (12):  2022-2032.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.02022
    Abstract ( 960 )   PDF (191KB) ( 1319 )  
    Functional Somatic Symptoms, defined as physical symptoms of unknown pathology, are common in children and adolescents. In addition to their high prevalence, FSS are associated with comorbid psychiatric symptoms, particularly anxiety and depression. Functional abdominal pain, head pain and fatigue are the most common symptoms reported by both community and epidemiological children population. FSS was influenced by multiple risk factors, such as culture, age, gender, family environment and physiological vulnerability. Psychological models were proposed from various theoretical perspectives. Psychological treatments, especially Cognitive- behavior therapy and relaxation and biofeedback intervention were evaluated to be effective for FSS in children.
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    Are the Internet Addicts’ Brain Different from the Normal Users’?
    HE Jin-Bo;HONG Wei-Qi;BAO Yuan-Chun;LEI Yu-Ju
    2012, 20 (12):  2033-2041.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.02033
    Abstract ( 1643 )   PDF (191KB) ( 2872 )  
    Studies on whether the brain of internet addicts are different from the normal users’ would contribute to defining, diagnosis and treatment of internet addiction. In recent years, cognitive neuroscience studies have suggested that, compared with normal users, internet addicts’ brain have four main abnormalities: a. frontal lobe and cingulated gyrus are atrophic and degradative, resulting in inability to control their internet use. b. Hippocampus is dysfunctional, resulting in the decline of cognitive ability, especially working memory. c. Compensation of the reward center is enhanced, which is probably related to dysfunction of dopaminergic system. d. Posterior limb of internal capsule of people with internet addiction becomes more dense and active, which may be related to the fact that IAD subjects spent too much time on computer games and their repetitive actions such as mouse clicking and keyboard typing. These studies, at least, indicate that there are abnormalities in function of addicts’ brain, which are similar to substance addicts’. However, further researches are still needed to make sure whether these abnormalities are caused by internet addiction and whether these abnormalities are structural or chronic.
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    Assimilation Model in Psychotherapy
    LU Yan-Hua;JIANG Guang-Rong
    2012, 20 (12):  2042-2051.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.02042
    Abstract ( 1109 )   PDF (181KB) ( 1508 )  
    Assimilation model is a theoretical model concerning the change process of psychotherapy. It incorporates the ideas from different theorists, establishing an integrated framework to explain the general change process of psychotherapy. According to the assimilation model, the change process of psychotherapy undergoes eight predictable stages. The presence of the eight stages and their developmental process has been empirically supported by a series of studies. The existing findings also show the differences in the patterns of assimilation process among different therapists and in the effect of different type of therapy on the clients at differing assimilation stages. In addition, prior researchers have made attempt to refine their studies by expanding their interest to the specific markers and substages of the assimilation process, to different mental disorders, and treatments, and to some other new research fields (e.g. pharmacotherapy, loss in immigration). Future studies may focus on a) cross-cultural examination on the cultural adaptability of the model; b) the examination of the potential hypothesis of the model on the linear process of change, and c) the voices.
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    The Impact of Candidates’ Ability to Indentify Criteria on Personnel Selection
    XU Nuo;XU Jian-Ping;LIU Qian
    2012, 20 (12):  2052-2060.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.02052
    Abstract ( 878 )   PDF (209KB) ( 1337 )  
    The ability to identify criteria (ATIC) is defined as a person’s ability to correctly identify the performance criteria in an evaluative situation. There are two ways of measuring ATIC currently, candidates self-report and rater scoring. Many researches have found that ATIC has a positive effect on candidates’ performance, it explains the selection’s criterion validity and influences the construct validity. When the criteria is exposed to candidates, the selection’s transparency is enhanced and the impact of ATIC’s individual differences is removed, resulting in the decrease of the selection’s criterion validity, while the effect on candidates’ performance and the construct validity is uncertain. Future research should frame ATIC in the broader literature, improve its measurement, and explore ATIC’s role in other selections and the effect of changing ATIC on personnel selections.
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    The Two-Dimensional Stress Management Model in Positive Organizational Behavior
    ZHANG Shu-Min
    2012, 20 (12):  2061-2068.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.02061
    Abstract ( 1088 )   PDF (239KB) ( 2424 )  
    The emergence of positive organizational behavior provides a new mode for the traditional, preventive stress management model. All stressors are essentially neutral to individuals. Those stressors that are positively assessed by individual as positive and helpful to sustain or enhance their subjective happiness would trigger positive stress response and become eustress. A holistic stress mode is suggested that focuses simultaneously on the prevention and elimination of negative stress or distress and, on the savoring and eliciting of eustress.
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    Behavioral Characteristics, Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Nonconscious Goal Pursuit
    XIE Ji-Hong;LIU Hua-Shan
    2012, 20 (12):  2069-2078.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.02069
    Abstract ( 1098 )   PDF (219KB) ( 2374 )  
    Nonconscious goal pursuit refers to the process that the individual automatically pursuits a goal activated by environmental clues, and being entirely unaware of the guide effect of the goal to his behaviors. There are three typical characteristics of this process: flexibility, inhibition and persistence. Nonconscious goal pursuit is achieved through nonconscious preparation of actions, automatic assessment of goal value and following efforts. The influential factors of nonconscious goal pursuit include positive emotions, implicit attitudes and interpersonal relationships. Future research should deeply explore the influencing factors of nonconscious goal pursuit, improve the mechanism and analyze the impact of nonconscious goal pursuit on individuals’ mind and behaviors, meanwhile, improve the ecological validities of results and promote the studies of application.
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    Perspective-taking: Concept, Manipulation and Its Impact on Intergroup Relations
    ZHAO Xian;LIU Li;ZHANG Xiao-Xiao;XIANG Zhen-Dong;FU Hong-Ling
    2012, 20 (12):  2079-2088.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.02079
    Abstract ( 1490 )   PDF (191KB) ( 2141 )  
    Perspective-taking is the psychological process of contemplating and inferring other’ perspective. Perspective-taking could positively or negatively affect intergroup relation in certain conditions. Studies in this field can be categorized into static and dynamic approaches by whether experiment involves real intergroup interaction or not. In static approach, perspective-taking could bring positive change to intergroup relation, and such influence can be mediated by self-other merging or perceived injustice. In dynamic approach, perspective-taking can invoke reactive egoism and evaluation concern, which in turn, deteriorate intergroup relation. Future research should focus on the role of perspective-taking in real life intervention, perspective-taking in intergroup conflict context, and moderators between perspective-taking and intergroup relation.
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