ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Leadership Behaviors in the Chinese Context: CEO Leadership Behaviors, Empowering Leadership, and Leader-Member Exchange
    WANG Hui;ZHANG Cui-Lian
    2012, 20 (10):  1519-1530.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01519
    Abstract ( 1045 )   PDF (242KB) ( 2762 )  
    Western studies on leadership behaviors are numerous, while there are relatively few in the Chinese context. Recently, scholars have begun to explore this issue in the Chinese context. This paper reviewed the related studies conducted in the Chinese context from three aspects, including CEO leadership behaviors, empowering leadership behaviors, and leader-member exchange theory, summarizing the emic dimensions, antecedents and outcomes, mediating or moderating roles of the three leadership behaviors, and further discussed the widespread implications ranging from theory development and enhancement to practical application of these studies in the Chinese context. Theoretically, on the one hand, these studies explored the Chinese emic dimensions; on the other hand, they enriched the related leadership studies in the western context. Practically, they served as reflection mirrors and then promoted Chinese leaders to adjust their leadership behaviors, provided practical methods and tools for human resource managers, moreover, enlightened subordinates to pay attention to appropriate methods to build relationship with their supervisors.
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    Conceptual Framework
    Work Engagement Crossover in Teams
    WANG Zhen
    2012, 20 (10):  1531-1537.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01531
    Abstract ( 968 )   PDF (181KB) ( 1916 )  
    Team work engagement is one of the key factors to promote team effectiveness. Using job demand-control theory and multilevel method, this study aims to clarify two questions in team engagement literature. First, this study will examine the mediating role of job resource and emotion contagious between the actor’s engagement and partner’s engagement. Second, this study will investigate the boundary conditions of engagement crossover from multilevel perspective. We expect these findings will help to improve our understanding about the mechnism of work engagement crossover in teams and make contributions to managerial pracitice.
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    A Three-stage Integrative Model of Meta-analysis of Factor Analyses
    FAN Hui-Yong;LIU Dong-Zhi;MA Yu-Hui;YIN Lang
    2012, 20 (10):  1538-1545.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01538
    Abstract ( 1033 )   PDF (260KB) ( 1453 )  
    Meta-analysis of factor analysis (MAFA), also called meta-analytic factor analysis, integrated two methodological traditions namely meta analysis and factor analysis. Research on MAFA could explore some methodolical issues and accelerate the production process of psychological knowledge which will end the theoretical-principle-absence status of the meta analytic factor analysis had existed for several decades. To represent the process of MAFA, the present project put forth a three-stage integrative model under which some scientific questions will be tested using psychometrical methods including Monte Carlo simulation study. The validity of the three-stage integrative model and that of its data-synthesis methods (i.e. the co-occurrence matrix of salient factor loadings, the aggregate correlation matrix, and the pairwise rotation of results to congruence) were the key problems in this project. The project also planned to explore the general rules theoretically and steps of how to conducut MAFA study whose results would help the research community to use MAFA correctly. The possible scientific contribution of the present project is that it will add to the store of meta-analytic and factor analytic traditions, enrich the content of psychological methodology, and establish a solid base to popularize the MAFA.
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    Research Reports
    The Effect of Mental Fatigue and Framing on Risk Decision-making
    WANG Lu-Lu;LI Yong-Juan
    2012, 20 (10):  1546-1550.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01546
    Abstract ( 1359 )   PDF (143KB) ( 3570 )  
    The purpose of the current study was to explore the effect of mental fatigue level and framing on risk decision making. A 2(fatigue, non-fatigue)×2 (gain frame, loss frame) experiment was designed. A total of 36 undergraduate students accepted fatigue inducement simultaneously. Another 93 undergraduate students finished risk decision making task under non-fatigue status. ANCOVA analysis showed that, participants under fatigue status were more risk averse than those in non-fatigue group. The main effect of framing was significant, but the interaction effect of fatigue level and framing was not significant. The implications of the study and possible future research were discussed.
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    Regular Articles
    Neural Mechanism of Resolving Lexical Ambiguity
    HUANG Fu-Rong;ZHOU Zhi-Jin
    2012, 20 (10):  1551-1559.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01551
    Abstract ( 931 )   PDF (161KB) ( 1267 )  
    One important issue on language is how the brain processes and represents lexical semantics. Previous studies with various paradigms reveal that sentential information can be used to suppress contextually inappropriate meanings in the LH but not in the RH. However, recent studies find RH not only activate a broader semantic field, but also use contextual information to resolute lexical ambiguity. Neuroimaging studies indicate that lexical ambiguous words are mediated by strong brain activations in the left-dominant network of fronto-temporal brain regions. The IFG plays an important role in selecting an appropriate meaning and inhibiting inappropriate meaning from multiple alternatives.
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    Cognitive Mechanism of Handwritten Production
    WANG Cheng;YOU Wen-Ping;ZHANG Qing-Fang
    2012, 20 (10):  1560-1572.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01560
    Abstract ( 1191 )   PDF (303KB) ( 2096 )  
    A handwriting model proposed by van Galen (1991) conceives handwriting as product of a series of hierarchically organized modules which operates in a parallel way. Based on this model, three issues in this domain from a psychological viewpoint are summarized: first, whether or not the handwritten production is mediated by phonological information? Second, what is the relevant functional unit in handwriting process? Third, what is the relationship between cognitive encoding and motor-executive processing in handwriting? On the other hand, the issues on the relationships between speaking and writing, and reading and writing are addressed, because they are inter-related language processes. Furthermore, the neural correlates and related debates of handwriting are concluded. Finally, in order to address the unique contributions of Chinese to handwritten production theory, the unique properties of Chinese are described in detail, and the relevant implications are discussed.
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    Cognitive Control Triggered by Unconscious Information and Its Neutral Mechanism
    JIANG Jun|CHEN An-Tao|ZHANG Wei-Wei|ZHANG Qing-Lin
    2012, 20 (10):  1573-1584.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01573
    Abstract ( 1299 )   PDF (248KB) ( 2338 )  
    Studies on cognitive control triggered by unconscious information provide important methods and procedures to reveal the function and limitation of consciousness. Unconscious cognitive control studies mainly adopt pattern masking and meta-contrast masking to create unconscious condition and measure consciousness by objective means. This paper reviews recent studies on unconscious cognitive control and its neural mechanism from unconscious inhibition control, unconscious conflict control and unconscious error processing. Both behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies have evidenced the existence of unconscious cognitive control and revealed its neural mechanism. These studies expand our understanding of conscious information and lay the foundation for future revelation of conscious origin. Future directions that researches can be done on transition between unconscious cognitive control and conscious cognitive control are also discussed.
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    The Characteristic of Temporal Discounting on Age in Neural and Behavioral Views
    HE Jia-Mei
    2012, 20 (10):  1585-1592.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01585
    Abstract ( 966 )   PDF (145KB) ( 1301 )  
    There are two sessions in the development of temporal discounting on age, the one is the time period between childhood and adulthood and the other one is between adulthood and the old age. The curve of temporal discounting gets flatter as the individuals grow up during the time period from childhood to adulthood, the steepness of the function of temporal discounting decreases and the discounting rate slows down as the age. The development and maturation of human’s brain is the neurobiological fundamental of the development of temporal discounting on this period of age. The enhanced communication between the subcortical and cortical areas and the heightened connection within the differential areas in cortical and subcortical regions are the key factors to the maturation of cognitive capacity when the age of individuals is between childhood and adulthood. The temporal discounting changes during this period as a result of the development and maturation of the prefrontal cortex, limbic system and the remodeling of the brain’s dopaminergic system. The steepness of the function of temporal discounting has slightly difference between adulthood and the old age, the changing of the temporal discounting rate is getting slowly. However, some competing results have been found, the researches of temporal discounting on this period haven’t converged yet. A number of efforts have been made on studying the psychological phenomenon which has strong connection to temporal discounting, such as probability discounting, future orientation and delay of gratification, in order to figure out the psychological mechanism of temporal discounting on age. In future, the difference between trajectory of brain areas and the psychological stage of delayed duration might be the perspectives to figure out the characteristic of temporal discounting on age.
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    Feedback-related Negativity and Social Relation Cognition
    YUAN Yuan;LIU Chang;SHEN Wang-Bing
    2012, 20 (10):  1593-1603.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01593
    Abstract ( 1129 )   PDF (177KB) ( 2092 )  
    Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is an important negative potential component related to the outcome evaluation process and peaks approximately 200~300ms after the onset of feedback stimuli. FRN serves as the indicators and tools of social cognition’s visualization, which plays a significant role in social relations cognition. The present study elaborates the role of FRN on social relations of cognition in the perspectives of social relations and social norms, which reflects and characterizes the social relations. The former focuses on describing the functions of FRN on social relationships and social roles playing by independent individuals; the latter mainly introduces the functions of FRN on allocation of fairness and norms of responsibility. Future studies need further investigations to discuss the neurocognitive processes of responsibility sharing conducted by individuals with different interpersonal intimacy levels and the impact of the absolute amount of independent responsibility on outcome evaluation process and social relations’ cognition, by adapting more rigorous experimental designs and research paradigms, combined with other ERP components (e.g. P300).
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    Attentional Bias for Rejection among Individuals with Low Self-Esteem
    LI Hai-Jiang;YANG Juan;YUAN Xiang-Yong;QIN Yi-Gui;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    2012, 20 (10):  1604-1613.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01604
    Abstract ( 1705 )   PDF (233KB) ( 3088 )  
    Previous studies found that low self-esteem participants existed attentional bias toward social rejection cues. In present article, we reviewed evidence regarding paradigm, theoretical explanation and neural mechanism. The paradigms include Stroop task, probe-detection and spatial cueing target, startle probe task, visual monitoring task and attention shifting task and so on. Sociometer theory, relational schema, attentional component and attentional control may explain the attentional bias of low self-esteem participant. At last, recommendations for future research are discussed including the complexity of structure of self-esteem, the processes and neural mechanism of attentional bias, the framework of attention training effect and the indigenous perspective.
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    The Researches of Cross-cultural expression and Recognition on Facial Expression
    WEI Cheng-Yao;ZHAO Dong-Mei
    2012, 20 (10):  1614-1622.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01614
    Abstract ( 1486 )   PDF (156KB) ( 3942 )  
    Cross-cultural researches on facial expression show more evidences of cultural consistency and differences currently. These researches focus on spontaneous facial expressions and recognition, the effect of in-group advantage and on asymmetry of emotional information in upper and lower facial expressions. Researchers use dialect theory, chinese folk model and EMPATH to explain the results of cross-cultural studies on facial expression in different perspectives. In terms of effective factors, display rules, decoding rules and effects of language are very important and controversial. Future researches should do more exploration on the asymmetry of emotional information in upper and lower facial expressions and on effective factors.
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    Genetic and Neurobiological Mechanisms of Non-drug Addictions
    LI Meng-Jiao;Chen Jie;LI Xin-Ying
    2012, 20 (10):  1623-1632.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01623
    Abstract ( 1198 )   PDF (195KB) ( 1804 )  
    Non-drug addictions, which are also referred to as behavioral addictions, or non-substance- related addictions, include disorders such as pathological gambling, internet addiction, shopping addiction, cyber game addiction, sex addiction and binge-eating. These disorders are characterized by craving for certain behaviors, impaired impulse controls, tolerance, withdraw and high relapse rates. High phenomenological similarities and comorbidity between non-drug addictions and drug addictions indicate that these two types of addictions may share some common etiological mechanisms. Family and twin studies revealed moderate to large genetic influence on non-drug addictions, such as binge-eating and pathological gambling in male. Molecular genetic studies found that serotonin (5-HT) system genes, dopamine receptor genes and MAOA genes might be involved in the etiology of non-drug addictions. Furthermore, brain activities of non-drug addicts were different from those of the control groups, especially in the neural pathway for reward, cue processing and impulsive control. Investigating the underlying genetic and neurobiological mechanisms of non-drug addictions has both theoretical and practical implications. Studies from multiple perspectives are needed to illustrate the similarities and heterogeneity of the non-drug addictions and drug addictions.
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    Mathematical Estimation Capacities of Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities
    HUA Xiao-Teng;SI Ji-Wei;LU Chun
    2012, 20 (10):  1633-1641.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01633
    Abstract ( 968 )   PDF (157KB) ( 1606 )  
    Exploring mathematical estimation of children with mathematics learning disabilities (MD) will help us understanding the cause of MD and finding proper intervention measures. Based on reviewing the concepts of MD and estimation briefly, this article mainly focused on mathematical estimation performance and influential factors of children with MD (especially computational estimation and numerosity estimation), neural basis and relevant intervention researches which have been discussed both home and abroad in recent years. In addition, it emphasized that future researches on mathematical estimation of children with MD should attach importance to the screening of subjects, broadening research extents, and strengthening various recovery programs and so on.
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    Characters, Mechanism, and Intervenes of Ageism
    JIANG Zhao-Ping;ZHOU Zong-Kui
    2012, 20 (10):  1642-1650.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01642
    Abstract ( 1633 )   PDF (168KB) ( 1851 )  
    Ageism attitudes are prevalent all over the world. Children as young as two or three years old have been found to have negative stereotypes of ageing. Family, social influences, media sources, and literature are the most primary agents in providing children with negative information and ideas about older adults. And lacks of intergenerational contact and ageing information are identified as primary reasons for people developing ageism. Ageism impacts individual behavior, acceptance of personal ageing, mental health, living style, and career choice. Discussing ageing, interacting with older adults directly, and acquiring knowledge about ageing are ways to change negative stereotypes of ageing. Quality but not quantity of intergenerational contact is more influential compared of the quantity of intergenerational contact. Researches on ageism have some limitations, such as more cross-sectional researches and less longitudinal researches, more researches on characters and intervenes and less on mechanism, diverse methods and instruments result in inconsistent findings, in directly subjective measures, participants tend to express more positive attitude, and indirect measures of ageism indicate more strongly negative views. The researches on Chinese ageism should be conducted thoroughly.
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    The Health Action Process Approach: Its Development and Future
    GAO Wen;YANG Li-Zhu;LI Xiao-Xi
    2012, 20 (10):  1651-1662.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01651
    Abstract ( 1767 )   PDF (240KB) ( 3931 )  
    Under the development of social cognition models of health behavior, the Heath Action Process Approach (HAPA) was derived by applying Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory to health behavior. In HAPA, health behavior change is viewed as a continuous process including behavior initiation, maintenance and recovery. Intention formation and its transformation into action are explained by outcome expectancy, risk perception, three forms of self-efficacy, and two types of planning. The two phases in HAPA can be used to categorize individuals into three treatment groups, and menu-based interventions are suggested. HAPA has clear theoretical advantages and has sparked a great deal of discussion about the essence of health-behavior-related models. Future studies should investigate more variables of self-regulation, test causal effect models and conduct applied research and intervention in all areas of health behavior.
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    Positive Effect of Positive Psychological Factors to the coping of Chronic Life-threatening Illnesses: Evidence, Controversies and Suggestion
    LI Qiong;HUANG Xi-Ting;YIN Ke-LI
    2012, 20 (10):  1663-1671.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01663
    Abstract ( 965 )   PDF (175KB) ( 1460 )  
    Chronic life-threatening illnesses which are difficult to cure and have longer duration would endanger the life in severe cases and seriously affect the lives of patients and their families. It is well documented that some positive psychological factors, such as benefit finding, post-traumatic growth, sense of coherence, fighting spirit and optimism, had positive effects on treatment of disease through biological, behavioral and social process. The methods of positive psychological intervention including intervention to the attitude or perception of disease and inducing positive psychological factors had positive effect on disease coping. There were two main controversies, one was the scientificity of the methods and the other was the clarity of casual relationship between positive psychological factors and disease coping. According to controversies, further work needs to be done to establish the causal relationship between positive psychological factors and the coping and rehabilitation of diseases by relying mainly on the experimental method and combining with other methods.
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    Mate Copying: An Adaptive Sexual Selection Strategy
    ZHUANG Jin-Ying;XU Jing;ZHANG Sen;YU Fei
    2012, 20 (10):  1672-1678.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01672
    Abstract ( 1804 )   PDF (182KB) ( 3286 )  
    Mate Copying (or Mate Choice Copying) describes a strategy of mate choice. In this review, we demonstrate the basic concepts and the research paradigms of mate copying and show how the related factors work in this process. Such recent achievements and developing trend in this field are summarized as the gender effect (compared with men, women are more likely to use mate copying in mate choice), and other factors, which have impact on mate copying, like physical attractiveness, age, sexual strategy and sexual experience, etc. Further implications are discussed that the process of generalization of mate copying is one of the reasons causing the in-group congruent and inter-group incongruent effects on mate preferences. Finally, we conclude that mate copying is an adaptive social-learning-based strategy on sexual selection.
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    The Effect of Unbalanced Sex Ratio on Human Behavior
    XING Cai;ZHANG Xi;NIU Jian-Lin
    2012, 20 (10):  1679-1689.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01679
    Abstract ( 1567 )   PDF (238KB) ( 3046 )  
    The ratio of males to females in a population has been shown to influence behavior in both animals and humans. Building on theories in evolutionary psychology and empirical studies in relevant fields, we summarize the effects of sex ratio on human behavior in six categories: sex selection, mating, marriage, parental investment, aggressive behavior, and economic behavior. This topic may be especially relevant to the Chinese context, due to the growing tendency for males to outnumber females in Chinese society. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of how and why sex ratio influences individuals’ psychology and behavior, especially among Chinese population, has the potential to shed light on a number of important social issues.
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    The Consistence and Separation of Relationship Between consumers’ Attitude Satisfaction and Behavioral Loyalty
    WANG Cai-Yu
    2012, 20 (10):  1690-1699.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01690
    Abstract ( 1256 )   PDF (225KB) ( 2910 )  
    Attitude satisfaction refers to the difference function between the perceivable effect and expectations to products of the consumers, in which behavioral loyalty is measured by the frequency of repeated purchase. In this paper, the relationship between them was divided into two categories: one was the consistency, such as low satisfaction with low loyalty, high satisfaction with high loyalty; the other kind was the inconsistency, as low satisfaction with high loyalty, or high satisfaction with low loyalty. The researcher further introduced the related research, including linear and constraint relation. In the end, the paper suggested that future researches should focus on the value and society property of consumers’ attitude satisfaction, and the consistency of the structure, in order to improve the predictive power of consumers’ attitude satisfaction on their behavior loyalty.
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    MBTI: New Development and Application
    GU Xue-Ying;HU Shi
    2012, 20 (10):  1700-1708.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01700
    Abstract ( 3084 )   PDF (221KB) ( 7778 )  
    MBTI is an instrument designed to assess personality type. It is jointly developed by Katherine Briggs and Isabel Myers. In recent years, along with the advancement of its theory, MBTI has gone through three developmental stages. Based on our systematic review of the development of the theory and findings of applied research, we have found that the MBTI has evolved from examining inter-type differences, to examining intra-type differences, and then to examining individual differences. Future research should focus on investigating personality types among people employed in various occupations to establish a Chinese MBTI database, deepening the research on MBTI instrument, carrying out longitudinal and cross-cultural studies, and conducting more applied research on the use of MBTI in the field.
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