ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 1044-1057.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01044

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


程一智1, 吴寅1, 李红1,2,3()   

  1. 1 深圳大学心理与社会学院, 深圳 518060
    2 深圳市情绪与社会认知科学重点实验室, 深圳 518060
    3 深圳市神经科学研究院, 深圳 518060
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-22 出版日期:2019-06-15 发布日期:2019-04-22
  • 通讯作者: 李红
  • 基金资助:

Dual-learning systems under stress

CHENG Yizhi1, WU Yin1, LI Hong1,2,3()   

  1. 1 College of Psychology and Sociology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
    2 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Affective and Social Cognitive Science, Shenzhen 518060, China
    3 Shenzhen Institute of Neuroscience, Shenzhen 518060, China
  • Received:2018-06-22 Online:2019-06-15 Published:2019-04-22
  • Contact: LI Hong


心理学、神经科学和行为经济学中许多研究一致认为, 人的行为由双重学习系统控制, 分别是反射性系统和反思性系统。前者是自动化的习惯系统, 反应快速, 不需要消耗认知资源, 后者是反应较为缓慢的认知系统, 需要消耗更多认知资源, 但也更加灵活, 可以有效应对外界环境的变化。这两种学习系统并行存在而又相互竞争, 共同影响人的心理和行为。究竟是哪种学习系统对人的特定行为起着主导作用, 又有哪些因素导致该系统对行为的支配, 是近年来普遍受到关注的问题。过去研究者们采用导航学习、概率分类学习或工具性学习及其计算模型, 从行为和大脑层面探讨双重学习系统在急性和慢性应激下的变化。通过回顾和分析这些研究, 我们总结出应激导致个体向习惯行为转变的生理机制, 即去甲肾上腺素和糖皮质激素在杏仁核的参与下与受体结合协同作用于双系统相关的脑区, 并从该角度出发重新梳理和解释毒品成瘾的形成。未来需要重点关注个体基因差异与应激影响学习的关系, 并采用多种研究手段以更好地揭示其背后的神经和内分泌机制。

关键词: 应激, 双重学习系统, 反射性系统, 反思性系统, 毒品成瘾


There is mounting evidence in psychology, neuroscience and behavioral economics to support the notion that human behavior is governed by dual-learning systems, namely, reflective, “cognitive” or reflexive, “habitual” system. The former one is performed automatically, responds quickly and does not consume cognitive resources. The latter one responds slowly and consumes more cognitive resources, but it is also more flexible and sensitive to the changes in the external environment. Both of these learning systems exist in parallel and compete with each other to jointly influence individual's mind and behavior. A widely concerned question in recent years is which system exerts dominant control over specific behavior and what factors determine whether reflective or reflexive system governs behavior. Over the past decades, researchers used navigation learning task, probabilistic classification learning or instrumental learning task and associated computational models to explore the changes of multiple learning systems under acute and chronic stress at both behavioral and neural levels. By reviewing these studies, we summarize the psychophysiological mechanism underlying the stress-induced bias toward habitual behavior, and reinterpret the causal relationship between this shift and drug addiction. Existing research shows that noradrenaline and glucocorticoids act through mineralocorticoid receptors and exert interactive impact on brain regions that subserve dual-learning systems, which is orchestrated by the amygdala. Future studies need to focus on the modulatory role of genetic differences in the effects of stress on learning, and use a variety of technical methods to elucidate its neuroendocrine basis.

Key words: stress, dual-learning systems, reflexive system, reflective system, drug addiction