ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (10): 1775-1786.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01775

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


聂爱情(), 李梦思, 潘如   

  1. 浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-02 出版日期:2018-10-15 发布日期:2018-08-27
  • 通讯作者: 聂爱情
  • 基金资助:

How does encoding predict retrieval? Evidence from subsequent memory effects

NIE Aiqing(), LI Mengsi, PAN Ru   

  1. Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China
  • Received:2018-02-02 Online:2018-10-15 Published:2018-08-27
  • Contact: NIE Aiqing


在记忆领域, 编码与提取之间的关系始终备受关注。近37年(1980至今)的研究显示, 随后记住信息与随后遗忘信息在编码阶段关联的神经机制明显不同(该差异被称为相继记忆效应), 表明编码能够从神经机制角度预测提取。过去10年间(2008~2017), 研究者在顺承先前研究的基础上另辟蹊径, 重点从编码任务中加工水平及目标导向对相继记忆效应的影响、提取任务对相继记忆效应的影响、不同年龄群体之间的相继记忆效应异同、情绪项目和情绪背景对相继记忆效应的影响等角度展开研究。本文从上述四方面对相关研究进行了详细梳理, 并从整合研究成果、完善理论模型、挖掘潜在社会因素、探究个体差异和群体差异以及加强应用推广等方面对今后研究进行展望。

关键词: 相继记忆效应, 编码任务, 提取任务, 年龄, 情绪


Within memory research, the relation between encoding and retrieval has been under the spotlight. Research in the past 37 years (1980-present) has demonstrated that there are differences between the neural mechanisms activated by subsequently remembered information and subsequently forgotten information during encoding, which are labeled as subsequent memory effects. Such effects indicate that it’s possible to predict retrieval according to the neural activities during encoding. In the past decade (2008~2017), researchers have opened new paths on subsequent memory effects inspired by previous studies in this field, such as focusing on the influences of processing levels and orientating tasks during encoding, comparing the effects among different retrieval tasks, exploring the similarities and differences among different age groups, and examining the impacts of emotional items and emotional contexts. In this sense, detailed reviews were made from these aspects. Furthermore, we pointed out several possible directions for future studies: (a) integrating previous results, (b) improving theoretical models, (c) exploring more social factors, (d) focusing on individual and group differences, as well as (e) extending applications.

Key words: subsequent memory effects, encoding task, retrieval task, age, emotion