ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (12): 2696-2707.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02696

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


史汉文, 李雨桐(), 隋雪()   

  1. 辽宁师范大学心理学院, 大连 116029
  • 收稿日期:2022-04-22 出版日期:2022-12-15 发布日期:2022-09-23
  • 通讯作者: 李雨桐,隋雪;
  • 基金资助:

Effects of emotional word types: behavioral and neural evidence for discrimination between emotion-label and emotion-laden words

SHI Hanwen, LI Yutong(), SUI Xue()   

  1. Department of psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
  • Received:2022-04-22 Online:2022-12-15 Published:2022-09-23
  • Contact: LI Yutong,SUI Xue;


情绪标签词直接表达情绪状态, 而情绪负载词本身不表达情绪状态, 但能引发个体的情绪反应。通过对情绪标签词和情绪负载词的相关研究综述发现, 情绪标签词与情绪负载词的加工优势存在不一致的结果; 任务需求、语言类型和词汇特征是导致情绪词类型效应不一致的主要原因; 情绪标签词与情绪负载词的加工差异可以通过语义表征的具身假说、密度假说进行解释。未来研究应深入考察情绪标签词与情绪负载词加工差异的原因; 考察两种词在句子和语篇水平的加工差异; 提供能够直接解释情绪词类型效应的理论假说; 对比中英双语者加工中文和英文情绪标签词和情绪负载词的差异; 采用神经成像技术继续探查情绪信息与语义信息加工的神经机制。

关键词: 情绪标签词, 情绪负载词, 情绪词类型效应


Recently, emotional word type has gathered a growing amount of research and has become a hot topic in the neuroscience of affective language. According to their functions, emotional words can be classified into emotion-label ones and emotion-laden ones. Emotion-label words are direct references to specific emotional states (happy, angry) or processes (worry, angry), and they function as the media either for describing emotions (she is sad) or for expressing emotions (I feel sad). They describe or express specific, single emotional states. Emotionally-laden words do not directly refer to or describe emotional states, however, they can evoke emotional feelings or emotional reactions (e.g., wedding, grave). Such words can be associated with multiple types of emotional meanings. Although both emotion-label words and emotion-loaded words can activate emotions and trigger emotional effects, they do not produce emotional effects in the same way. Although both emotion-label words and emotion-laden words can activate emotions and induce emotional effects, the way they produce emotional effects is not entirely equivalent. Emotion-label words can directly label specific emotions and thus generate emotional effects, while emotion-laden words elicit emotional effects indirectly by connecting related emotion-label words. Our review of the studies on these two types of words observed contradictory ideas about which type is stronger in expressing emotions. Some studies believe that emotion-label words are more powerful in laying emotional effects, while others hold that emotion-laden are stronger. An inconsistency exists among studies of the bilingual perspective. Put it in more detail, while there have been studies detecting advantaged processing of emotion-label words in both languages, some other studies claim that they can only find superior effects of emotion-label words in the dominant language. The results are also different in terms of different tasks. We made a conjecture that these contradictory results are related to three factors: task demands, language types, and lexical features. Two theories help explain the effect of emotional words. Lexical representation acquisition hypothesizes that the differences between emotional word types are due to the different experiential information and emotional experiences that children are exposed to when learning emotion-label words and emotion-laden words. We use this theory to explain the embodied account of semantic representation. The density hypothesis explained concerning lexical properties implies that emotion-label words and emotion-laden words have different storage densities and those dense stimuli will be processed faster than discrete ones. Further research should be conducted in the following four paths. The first one is to examine the cause of the differences between emotion-label words and emotion-laden ones. Secondly, we should examine the processing differences between the two types of emotional words at the sentence and discourse levels. Thirdly, theoretical hypotheses that directly explain the differences in word types are needed. Fourthly, we need a comparison of Chinese and English bilinguals in their procession of Chinese and English emotion-label words and emotion-laden. Finally, we are to investigate the neural mechanisms of processing emotional and semantic information using neuroimaging techniques.

Key words: emotion-label words, emotion-laden words, effects of emotional word types