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    What is beautiful is good? The role of physical attractiveness in intimate relationships
    Xue LI, Yong ZHENG
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (10): 1743-1757.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01743

    Physical attractiveness plays an important role in the formation and development of intimate relationships. Since individuals with higher ratings of physical attractiveness are perceived as having more socially desirable traits and better genes, they are regarded as having a higher mate value that can facilitate the establishment of intimate relationships. However, because of the dissimilarity in physical attractiveness, the less attractive partner tends to employ a range of mate retention, jealous, insulting, and sexual coercion behaviors. These behaviors contribute to an acceleration of the breakup of intimate relationships. Other studies have suggested that attractive men have a higher probability of not possessing good genes, which would be favorable to intimate relationships and women do not show a stronger preference for attractive men when in the hormonal states associated with high fertility. The viewpoint of “what is beautiful is good” is currently being questioned, the findings of which have been controversial and divergent. As a result, the relevant direct evidence needs to be further consolidated.

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    Eating behavior from the perspective of embodied cognition: Based on the mental simulation approach
    XIONG Suhong, SUN Hongjie, LU Ji, YAO Qi, ZHANG Quancheng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (3): 486-496.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00486

    With the development of the embodied cognition theory, studies on eating behavior have led to some novel and interesting findings based on the mental simulation approach. These findings provide a new perspective on solving overeating and obesity problems, as well as on improving food marketing performance. This article mainly focuses on discussing the effects of mental simulation on eating behavior and the factors which influence mental simulation. Based on the extant literature, first, we discuss the effects of mental simulation on eating behavior. Specifically, we conclude that, while on the one hand, mental simulation can promote eating, on the other hand, it may also inhibit eating. Second, we group factors of mental simulation into two major categories and refer to them as ease factors and motivational factors, and we elaborate on each of them. Third, we discuss the important potential applications on healthy eating behavior as well as on food marketing. Finally, future research issues are outlined.

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    How to buy happiness? The effect of purchase type on happiness
    YU Ying, JING Feng-Jie, YANG Yan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (12): 2133-2140.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.02133

    Some studies demonstrate that there is no significant relationship between purchase and well-being. Other studies, however, demonstrate that purchases can increase well-being depending on ‘how to buy’. For example, several studies have found that consumers derive more happiness from experiential purchase rather than material purchase and that there are boundary conditions. The present review study aims to (1) explore the underlying mechanisms of the ‘purchase type-well-being’-relationship from the perspectives of hedonic adaptation, social benefit, anticipative benefit, and unsymmetrical regret; (2) identify boundary conditions of the main effect from three aspects, namely, personal factors, situational factors, and the types of well-being; and (3) provide an outlook of the probable future research directions of this area.

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    Psychological mechanisms and management strategies of behavioral poverty trap: Based on the dual perspectives of cognition and motivation
    XU Fu-ming, HUANG Long, ZHANG Hui, XIANG Peng, LIU Teng-fei, LI Ya-hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (5): 681-691.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00681

    This project aims to investigate psychological mechanisms of behavioral poverty trap in China, and hence put forward corresponding risk management strategies. For this purpose, we intend to draw on the new research paradigm in poverty study, which is initiated by behavioral economists, and recruit residents who live in extreme poor areas as participants. First, a framework concerning both the cognitive and motivational base of behavioral poverty trap is proposed as empirical and theoretical route of this project. Second, we analyze how cognitive outcomes of poverty psychologically and neurally affect subsequent decision behavior, as well as how both cognitive and motivational outcomes of poverty jointly influence subsequent decision behavior. In addition, the casual effect of psychological outcomes caused by poverty on subsequent decision behavior is empirically examined. Third, we further conduct randomized controlled experiments to understand the influence of cognitive changes caused by poverty on subsequent decision behavior, as well as field intervention studies to test the effect of self-identity changes caused by poverty on subsequent decision behavior. Based on these empirical researches, management strategies for poverty alleviation are discussed.

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    Effects of oxytocin on interpersonal adaptability among insecurely attached individuals
    WANG Tianyu, CHEN Xu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (3): 465-475.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00465

    Oxytocin is known as the "hormone of love" and is closely associated with attachment. Previous studies have proved that oxytocin from different sources has different effects on the interpersonal adaptability of individuals with insecure attachment, mainly shown in the following ways that the lower levels of endogenous oxytocin, the worse the interpersonal adaptibility among insecurely attached individuals; Exogenous oxytocin enhanced the interpersonal adaptability among avoidantly attached individuals, but reduced the interpersonal adaptability among individuals with high anxious attachment scores; A and G Alleles were associated with interpersonal adaptibility among insecurely attached individuals. In addition, attachment theory and the social salience hypothesis are also used to explain the above effects. Defensive exclusion, external contextual factors and individual differences are also play a regulatory role that cannot be ignored. We should compare the differences between the oxytocin receptor gene and the interpersonal adaptability among insecurely attached individuals in the future. Moreover, the effects of oxytocin may have gender differences on interpersonal adaptability among individuals with insecure attachment. However, till now there are few related study focused the above question, thus it deserved to be discussed more in the future. In order to enhance the ecological validity of oxytocin related researches, future researches focused on the effects of oxytocin on the interpersonal adaptability of insecurely attached individuals should be continued studying in the process of interpersonal interaction.

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    The psychological mechanism and prevention strategy of slippery slope
    OU Honglei, SUN Binghai, ZHANG Wenhai, LI Weijian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (4): 650-660.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00650

    The slippery slope effect refers to the degree of the individuals’ immorality to increase gradually over time, namely, the immoral behavior is repetitive and progressive. It widely exists in the behaviors of the individuals and interpersonal interaction, which will affect the normal social interaction between individuals, and even hinder the harmonious development of society. The research methods of the slippery slope effect include experimenter manipulation and spontaneous deception. There are at least three psychological mechanisms: moral disengagement, implicit biases, and self-dehumanization. The ways to intervene in this effect are promoting preventive orientation motivation and shaping positive descriptive social norms. Future studies should further explore the scope of the slippery slope effect and its neural intervention from the perspective of psychological processes and physiological mechanisms.

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    Is catharsis beneficial or harmful? The psychological intervention effect and potential harm of catharsis
    ZHAN Jun, XU Hongfei, REN Jun, LUO Jing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (1): 22-32.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00022

    The theory of catharsis believes that venting can effectively alleviate anger and aggressive impulses. However, a large number of experimental studies about the effects of direct catharsis, indirect catharsis and target catharsis on aggression have revealed the potential harm of catharsis on aggression and its functional mechanism, the catharsis can’t reduce anger but increase aggression through factors such as cognitive processing. Even so, the public still favors this seemingly convenient way of regulating emotion, for example catharsis equipment has become the standard equipment of psychological counseling institutions. This not only suggests people's unilateral cognition of psychological catharsis, but also reflects the lack of scientific and standardized construction of our social psychological service system. Future research should focused on the potential problems and its possible solutions in the current widespread application of catharsis equipment that used as a mean of modern psychological intervention.

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    Mental health literacy: Concept, measurement, intervention and effect
    MING Zhi-jun, CHEN Zhi-yan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00001

    Mental health literacy (MHL) is important for improving mental health. In a narrow sense, it refers to the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management or prevention. In a broad sense, it refers to the comprehensive use of mental health knowledge, skills and attitudes to maintain and promote mental health. MHL is often measured by Vignette case questionnaire, and unidimensional or multi-dimensional scales. Interventions including social campaigns, school education, self-service application and Mental Health First Aid training can effectively improve MHL. Elements of MHL, including psychological health knowledge, mental disorder recognition, emotional regulation, anti-stigma, and help-seeking attitude etc, are positively related to mental health. Future research can be carried out in such aspects as constructing the MHL evaluation system, exploring the mechanism of its influence, expanding the coverage of research, and strengthening empirical intervention research.

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    Brain maturation and improvement in intertemporal choice in Chinese children and adolescents
    HE Qinghua, LI Dandan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (3): 381-389.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00381

    Intertemporal decision-making refers to the phenomena that people always give less weight to future gains and losses than recent gains and losses. Although controversial, Mischel and colleagues had demonstrated that children with higher delay gratification ability had higher academic achievement later in life through the famous “Marshmallow Experiment”. Both delay gratification and inter-temporal choice deal with the decision-making behavior over time. Previous studies had discovered three neural network systems that support intertemporal decision making in the adult brain, but few evidences had been reported in children. These brain network systems were mainly located in the frontal cortex, which developed rapidly in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to provide a comprehensive survey for understanding the dynamic development of inter-temporal decision-making in children and adolescents in mainland China within the critical period of the inter-temporal decision-making by cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Neuroimaging data will also be collected to examine the relationship between intertemporal decision-making development and brain mutation, with a special focus on the prefrontal-striatum neural network. Finally, a model with multimodal neuroimaging and behavioral fusion would be proposed to predict the inter-temporal decision-making ability. These evidences would provide services for parents, schools, as well as the society to cultivate and improve the intertemporal decision-making ability in children and adolescents.

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    The effects of meditation on attention
    HE Qi, WANG Haiying
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (2): 284-293.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00284

    Regulation of attention is a commonality across the many divergent meditation methods, with attention being the main mechanism of meditation. Recent research has found that meditation can improve sustained attention, executive attention and selective attentional allocation. Cognitive neuroscientific research findings showed that meditation enabled more efficient use of attentional resources, and long-term meditators showed higher mismatch negativity amplitude and lower β power. Meditation enhanced the functional connection of the central executive network and strengthened the activation in the salience network. Focused attention meditation weakened activation of the default-mode network. In addition, the positive effects of meditation on attention were applicable to clinical groups with attention-related disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and formerly depressed patients, as well as health groups of varying ages, such as children and older adults. Further follow-up studies need to be conducted to determine the lasting effects of meditation, as well as studies exploring the interaction between attention and emotion in meditation. Moreover, it is important to design more targeted meditation programs according to the characteristics of the group.

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    Marketization and interpersonal trust decline in China
    XIN Ziqiang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (12): 1951-1966.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01951

    During the process of marketization in China, we have to face a clear fact that interpersonal trust has been declining year after year. Although previous literature has repeatedly revealed the positive effect of trust on economic development, it seldom concerned the role of market economy development in trust changing. By integrating recent micro and macro evidence, it is found that marketization process has served as a role of inhibiting trust in China. Concretely, with the establishment of market economy in China, the impetus attribute of market has been fully developed by encouraging people to seek self-interest maximization and compete with each other, which activates their strong motivation to accumulate wealth on the one hand, whereas which also leads the popularity of homo economicus belief in people, and destructs those trustees’ optimistic expectation of human nature on the other hand. However, the corresponding market rules and social rules are too underdeveloped to protect trustees. As a result, the process of marketization has been eroding the basis of economic development: trust, and leads to the trust decline. Therefore, building rule-based and credit-based market economy is a necessary pathway to prevent trust from declining and rebuild a high-trust society.

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    Effects of secure attachment on empathy and altruistic behavior
    PAN Yangu, XIAO Yao, HU Yu, LIU Guangzeng, Zhiyang LI
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (12): 2077-2083.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.02077

    Altruistic behavior refers to a form of prosocial behavior, of which one’s ultimate goal is to increase other’s welfare. It is not only an important research topic in the field of social psychology but also a necessary element for promoting social harmony and stability. Meanwhile, empathy is the intrinsic motivation for altruistic behavior. Empathy occurs when an observer perceives or imagines someone else’s affect, which triggers the observer to partially feel their emotions. Previous studies indicated that secure attachment style and security priming positively impact individual’s empathy skills and altruistic behavior. According to the attachment theory, emotion regulation and cognitive schema might be the underlying mechanisms to explain how secure attachment influences individual’s empathy and altruistic behavior. Future research is suggested to examine such pathways by further exploring moderators of the relationship between the proximity of givers and receivers in altruistic behavior and the similarity of their attachment styles. Future research is also suggested to investigate the effect of altruistic behavior on secure attachment. It will help to inform intervention development that targets at improving empathy skills and altruistic behavior through secure attachment.

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    Concept, measurements, antecedents and consequences of the effect of emotion on intertemporal choice
    JIANG Yuan-Ping, SUN Hong-Yue
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (9): 1622-1630.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01622

    The effect of emotions on intertemporal choice has gradually become a new research trend in recent years. On the basis of the time of occurrence in the decision-making process, emotions can be classified into three categories: emotions before decision-making, emotions in decision-making, and emotions after decision-making. Currently, most of the studies on emotion and intertemporal choice, especially those on emotions before decision-making, mainly focus on revealing the phenomenon other than the underlying mechanism. Moreover, revealing the underlying mechanism of emotions on intertemporal choice from the cognitive and decision-making processes through the behavioral experiments and neuroimaging technical would help people in understanding the mechanism of intertemporal choice and in making good decisions by taking advantage of emotions. Ultimately, future research must further improve the depth and ecological validity, e.g., exploring the effect of dynamic emotions, daily emotions, or mixed emotions on intertemporal choice, and pay considerable attention to emotional interventions.

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    The impact of team cultural diversity on team innovation
    LI Qian, GONG Shiyang, LI Chaofan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (9): 1521-1539.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01521

    With further economic globalization and fast development of global companies, more firms have teams with diversified cultural backgrounds. Managers expect employees with different cultural backgrounds to contribute their experience, ideas and perspectives to team innovation. Thus, both the academia and the industry are paying great attention on how team cultural diversity would impact team innovation. In this research, based on the “categorization-elaboration” theory perspective, we further clarify the theoretical framework of team cultural diversity, examine the impact of team cultural diversity on team innovation, its underlying mechanism and the boundary conditions from the teams’ internal and external factors respectively. In practice, this study provides companies with guidelines to effectively manage teams with diversified cultures and promote innovation.

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    Disgust and consumer behavior
    DU Weiqiang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (11): 1929-1938.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01929

    There are differences between disgust and other negative emotions. There are also different types of disgust. This review explores the methods used to induce different types of consumer disgust. Products and services, propaganda, organizational behavior, and unfair distribution can lead to different types of consumer disgust, which can affect consumer behavior such as product evaluation, purchase intention, willingness to pay, delayed decision-making, word of mouth, and product consumption. Future research directions are also discussed.

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    How does literature reading affect readers’ Theory of Mind?
    CHEN Lijuan, XU Xiaodong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (3): 434-442.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00434

    Literature reading can not only improve readers' literary accomplishment, but also affect their psychological and cognitive states. However, although an increasing number of experimental studies have been carried out, the question of whether the literature exposure can improve reader's Theory of Mind (ToM) still remains unsolved. To this end, we review recent experimental studies of the relationship between literary reading and ToM, and analyzes the reasons underlying the inconsistency from the perspective of text genre and individual differences. On this basis, the potential mechanism underlying the influence of literary reading on ToM abilities is proposed: the Mirror Neuron system and the Default Network are possibly to be the crucial neural basis.

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    The psychological and behavior characteristics of social exclusion and its brain mechanisms
    PENG Suhao, TAO Dan, LENG Yue, DENG Huihua
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (9): 1656-1666.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01656

    Social exclusion impairs our basic needs of belongingness and has serious psychological and physiological effect on cognitive processes, emotional well-beings, physiological responses and behaviors. Under the framework of the temporal need-threat model, psychology and behavioral response to social exclusion can be divided into three stages. With the development of social media, new psychological and behavioral characteristics of social exclusion are presented. From the perspective of brain network, some key brain areas of default mode network, salience network and some other brain networks are involved in emotional and cognitive processes at each stage of social exclusion. Future studies should focus on the basis of temporal need-threat model to investigate the brain network of social exclusion and predict the psychological and physiological response patterns after social exclusion.

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    Anxiety in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Mechanism, assessment and treatment
    Chunyan LIU, Gongxiang CHEN
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (10): 1713-1725.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01713

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficits in social communication and restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Anxiety or anxiety disorders are commonly believed to be one of the most common comorbidities in individuals with autism. The relationship between anxiety and autism is unclear. Anxiety in individuals with autism is associated with intolerance of uncertainty, the function and volume of amygdale, emotional regulation strategies and negative thoughts. Assessment instruments have been developed specifically for anxiety in autistic individuals; modified cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of anxiety in individuals with autism has achieved good results. Future research should focus on exploring the cognition and neuro-mechanism of anxiety in individuals with autism, verifying the effectiveness of the specialized assessment measures, as well as studying the treatment effect of modern technologies, such as virtual reality, on the anxiety of individuals with autism.

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    The mechanism that make online content viral
    LIU Wei, LIU Yutong, LI Chunqing, QI Penghu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (4): 638-649.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00638

    Viral marketing refers to the marketing approach through which marketers generate online contents on social networks and attract consumers to share them and make them viral. The paper develops a literature review on the factors that make online contents viral, including content characteristics, psychological motives, emotional responses, situational factors and individual traits. The framework can provide theoretical guidance for brands and We Media to increase sharing rate of their online contents. Future studies should focus on exploring the influential mechanism of specific emotions on sharing intention, identifying more situational factors in the context of Chinese culture, measuring the performance of viral marketing, investigating psychological and behavioral consequences of viral marketing and adopting multiple methods.

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    Task-switching training and plasticity of executive function
    Ziyu WANG, Ziye KONG, Rongjuan ZHU, Xuqun YOU
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (10): 1667-1676.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01667

    The task-switching training is one of the approaches used to improve executive functions. Different paradigms are used to study the effects of training. While, few studies have investigated that the task-switching training could reduce switch cost and improve the performance of other cognitive tasks. On the other hand, the effects could be maintained for a certain period of time. However, some studies did not find significant transfer effect. Therefore, training efficiency is also affected by age, participation’s other executive function components, cognitive flexibility, and strategy. Moreover, task-switching training may improve the ability of set-shifting through three ways: improve the ability to resolve task-setting conflicts, increase the participation of the frontal-parietal network, and establish bottom-up automatic control. Future research should standardize the existing research methods and procedures, consider the task switching training from the unity and diverse perspective. Research also needs to look for more flexible training methods, such as tDCS.

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