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    A cognition-affective processing framework of psychopathy based on the TriPM model
    CHENG Cheng, GUO Peiyang, YANG Li, WANG Mengya
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1628-1646.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01628
    Abstract129)           
    As an important predictor of violent crime, recidivism, and juvenile delinquency, psychopathy has received extensive attention in clinical psychology and justice research. Recent studies have conceptualized psychopathy as multidimensional constructs, proposed to further understand various phenotypic constructs of psychopathy through the interaction of distinct psychopathic dispositions. The Triarchic Model of Psychopathy (TriPM) conceptualizing psychopathy as three phenotypic structures (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition) with independent etiologic pathways, provides a framework for integrating the previous findings of the assessment, development trajectory, and neurobiological process of psychopathy.
    At first, the TriPM boldness includes the characteristics of stress immunity, low fear, and insensitivity to punishment. It is an adaptive expression of fearlessness genotype, which corresponds to the neurobiological dimension of low threat sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that psychopathic individuals with high affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) or boldness features are expected to exhibit reduced aversive startle potentiation, difficulty in establishing threat-related conditioning, abnormal amygdala volume, and lower levels of amygdala activation in threat context. These findings reflect the core defensive system of psychopathy—based in the amygdala and affiliated structures—is insensitive to threat or punishment cues.
    Second, individuals with high levels of trait disinhibition are characterized by lack of planning and foresight, poor regulation of emotion and impulse, insistence on immediate gratification, and lack of behavioral restraint. They showed reduced P3 and ERN amplitudes in go/no-go tasks and flanker tasks, fail to process and attend to contextual or environmental cues when engaged in a dominant response set (e.g., goal-directed behavior). Give the evidence that individuals with high disinhibition tend to exhibit poor performance in various cognitive tasks, it can be speculated that the impairment of executive function, in particular the impaired ability of attentional modulation, is closely associated with psychopathic disinhibition. Moreover, the motivational system (i.e., reward-seeking) may exacerbate the deficits of executive function in individuals with high disinhibition disposition.
    Finally, as the maladaptive expression of the fearless genotype, meanness describes a constellation of various phenotypic attributes including arrogance, rebelliousness, lack of intimacy, excitement seeking, and empowerment through cruelty. On the one hand, impaired emotional processes will lead to an empathic deficit, which may contribute to the development of psychopathic meanness. Extensive research has shown that abnormalities in physiological structures such as the insula and anterior cingulate cortex in psychopathy are associated with reduced subjective emotional experience and poor ability to recognize other's distress cues. On the other hand, insecure attachment associated with empathic deficit may be an important environmental factor that exacerbates individual meanness disposition.
    By integrating the low threat sensitivity, impaired executive function, and empathic deficit of psychopathy with the boldness, disinhibition, and meanness of the TriPM model, the current study establishes a relatively complete cognition-affective processing framework of psychopathy, provides some useful information for theoretical research and clinical treatment about this personality disorder. However, this framework can not account for all the clinical conditions of psychopathy, as the factors that influence the phenotype of psychopathy are diverse. For example, previous research has demonstrated that gender, race, age, sample type, and psychopathic measures are all important moderators in the study of psychopathy. There are also controversies about the conceptualization of psychopathic variants or subtypes. In addition, the exclusivity of psychopathic phenotypes and their underlying neurobiological processes is still unclear.
    Therefore, future research should consider the influence of these moderators on the explanation of the results. And greater attention should be paid to the underlying etiological pathways among different psychopathic constructs, it is also a verification of the discriminative validity among three dimensions of the TriPM model. Moreover, further exploration of the precursors of adult psychopathic traits will provide important information about the development of psychopathic deviant behavior, which does great help for the early treatment and intervention of this disorder.
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    Understanding mechanisms of prediction error cost in Chinese reading for older adults
    LI Lin, ZHAO Sainan, ZHANG Lijuan, WANG Jingxin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00001
    Abstract128)           
    An important question for research on reading across the lifespan concerns whether mechanisms of cognitive processing undergo only quantitative changes or also qualitative changes with aging. To process written language effectively, readers use their existing knowledge to make predictive inferences about linguistic information. Quite often this will facilitate the processing of newly acquired information but will sometimes incur a processing cost due to predictive error. As Older adults appear to rely more heavily on lexical prediction during reading (Zhao et al., 2019, 2021). However, it is currently unknown whether, like young adults, they experience a processing cost due to predictive error, and whether the magnitude of this cost differs across age adult groups. Accordingly, the present research aims to understand the processing consequence of predictive error in both young and older adults, using methods that can shed light on both the behavioral and neural bases of these effects. This will be achieved using novel co-registration methods that synchronize the recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals with eye movements, so that behavioral and neural indices of language processing can be acquired simultaneously, in real-time, during natural reading. In particular, this approach will enable the analysis of fixated-related potentials (FRPs), which are averaged EEG waveforms time-locked to a fixation on a target word in a sentence during normal reading.
    Study 1 will manipulate whether a target word is predictable from the prior sentence context, using contexts in which the target word is predictable, ones in which it is unpredictable, and neutral contexts containing an unpredictable word. Crucially, comparisons of an unpredictable word in neutral compared to constraining contexts will provide a measure of prediction error, which is the cost incurred when the target word is unpredicted in a constraining context. The study will investigate the behavioral and neural correlates of this prediction error using a combination of eye movement measures and FRPs for target words. Moreover, by investigating age differences in these effects (i.e., for young compared to older adults) the study will reveal whether this prediction error differs across adult age groups.
    Study 2 will test these effects further by examining both the contribution to the prediction error cost of parafoveal information availability and individual differences in visual, cognitive and linguistic abilities. To examine the contribution of these individual differences, we will comprehensively assess the visual, cognitive and linguistic abilities of young and older adult participants prior their taking part in experiments. We will obtain information about participants' educational background, vocabulary knowledge and recent reading experience to match participants in terms of formal educational experience and to obtain indices of linguistic experience. In addition, we will assess processing speed, working memory, and inhibition as measures of cognitive capabilities. The data obtained will be used for the linear mixed-effects modelling of Study 3. Experiment 1 will use the boundary paradigm to investigate age differences in the prediction error cost when parafoveal information is available or not. The aim of this experiment is to establish whether limiting the availability of parafoveal information about an upcoming word differentially impacts lexical prediction by young and older adults. Experiment 2 will use masking text paradigm to investigate the aging effects on prediction error cost under high or low working memory load conditions. The aim of this experiment is to explore the effect of working memory load on prediction processing mechanism of young and older readers. Finally, in Experiment 3, the older adult participants will be divided into good and poor reading skill groups to examine whether there is a difference in the prediction error cost for older participants with good and poor reading skills as compared to skilled young adult readers. This will reveal how reading skills mediates predictive processing by older adults.
    Study 3 will use linear mixed-effects modelling and data-mining methods. All relevant factors will be included in the model analysis as covariates to investigate their effects on the prediction processing of older readers. Moreover, survival analysis and distribution analysis will be adopted to investigate the time course and individual differences of the above-mentioned effects (using data from Study 1 and 2).
    The findings from these studies will provide important insights into the nature of effects of cognitive aging and individual differences in visual, cognitive and linguistic abilities on neural and cognitive indices of word prediction in reading, and will form the basis for future models of these effects in Chinese reading. Moreover, the findings will shed light on the contribution of parafoveal processing, memory load, and reading skill on the predictive abilities of older adult readers.
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    Food labeling effects in marketing
    YANG Qiaoying, LIU Wumei, ZHANG Dong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1669-1683.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01669
    Abstract109)           
    As a tool to convey food-related information to consumers, food labels can effectively solve the problem of information asymmetry in food consumption. With the popularization of food labels in practice, more and more scholars have begun to pay attention to the impact of different food labels on consumer behavior. However, most of the existing studies focus on a single food label type and its effects, lacking of comparison and discussion on the effects of different food labels and their inherent mechanisms and boundary conditions. Based on this, this paper reviews the research on food labels in the field of marketing, which focuses on how different types of food labels affect individuals' cognition, emotion and behavior. Meanwhile, this paper introduces the regulatory orientation theory to explain the different effects of different food labels, and on this basis, a more integrated food label effect framework is constructed in this paper.
    Through combing the existing literature, the existing research on food labeling has roughly underwent three stages. The first stage began in the early 1980s. The demand for the nutritional value of food led to the attention and research on the nutrition label. The second stage started around 2000. Scholars mainly focus on labels that can convey information about food safety and quality. In the third stage, in the last decade, eco-environmental labels attracted more attention from consumers and scholars. Based on the different levels of information coverage, food labels can be divided into two types: product-level labels and ingredient-level labels. The product-level label refers to the label which is used to explain the overall characteristics and quality information of the food (including date label, health warning label, organic label, natural label, brand information, genetically modified organism label, eco label, and fair trade label). However, the ingredient-level label refers to the label that is used to display the specific nutritional information of the food (including nutrition facts panel, GDA label, low-fat label, health claim, traffic light label, health star rating, calorie menu label, shelf label).
    Further analysis and comparison showed that different types of food labels differ in influencing results, mechanism of action, and boundaries. Specifically, the product-level labels can arouse consumers' perceptions of safety, risk, and morality, and can effectively increase consumers' trust in products. At the same time, after purchasing products with such labels, consumers will show more food waste and repeated purchases. Ingredient-level labels, on the other hand, mainly affects consumers' perceptions of product health, as well as subsequent food choices and food intake. The theory of regulatory orientation helps to explain the different effects of the two types of food labels. The product-level labels more often initiate consumer preventive orientation, while the ingredient-level labels activate consumer promotion orientation. In addition, the two types of food labeling effects are driven by the halo effect, information processing, conceptual metaphor, social identity, attribute inference and other mechanisms. Besides, these effects are moderated by social demographic factors, individual differences, and product characteristics.
    On the one hand, combing and commenting on the effects of different food labels can provide reference for food manufacturers to carry out food marketing practices. On the other hand, through the construction of food label research framework in the field of marketing, it can point out the context and direction for marketing scholars to carry out empirical research on food label. Based on the overall framework of food labeling effects constructed in this paper, we propose that further research on the topic of food label can be carried out from following aspects in the future: (1) Expanding the behavioral results of ingredient-level labels; (2) Expanding the behavioral results of product-level labels; (3) Exploring the impact of different food label presentation forms on consumers; (4) Expanding the outer packaging labels and related research; and (5) Exploring the reversal mechanism of the negative effects of food labels.
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    Random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA): Separating the between-subject variation from the within-subject variation
    WEN Congcong, ZHU Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (10): 1773-1782.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01773
    Abstract91)           
    Traditional latent transition analysis (LTA) is usually done using single-level modeling, but can also be viewed as a two-level modeling from a multi-level perspective. In 2020, Muthén and Asparouhov proposed a so-called random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA) model which separates between-subject variation from within-subject variation. By integrating a random intercept factor, latent class transitions are represented on the within level, whereas the between level captures the variability across subjects.
    The random intercept factor f is the most important. If the factor loadings on the random intercept factor are large, this indicates that the item probabilities are large and thus the cases have large differences on these items. From this perspective, RI-LTA can be viewed as absorbing the measurement non-invariance of the model. Due to large item differences, the different latent classes are easy to distinguish. These differences are absorbed by the random intercept factor but are not set to influence the latent class variables. Therefore, the off-diagonal values of the transition probability matrix are larger. In traditional LTA, large differences across classes are not absorbed by the random intercept factor, which leads to smaller off-diagonal but larger diagonal values of the transition probability matrix.
    Performing RI-LTA in Mplus software can be done in three to four steps. First, implementing LCA across different time points; second, implementing traditional LTA and RI-LTA; third, saving the parameter estimates obtained in the second step and using them as population values to do a Monte Carlo simulation study; fourth, in the event of previous knowledge or existing applications, one may include covariates or distal outcomes in the model. Researchers can also perform multiple-group analysis, Markov chain mover-stayer analysis, multi-level RI-LTA, or longitudinal factor analysis to have deeper insight into the data.
    In the current study, a two-wave longitudinal data collection from undergraduates attending in the year 2016 at a research-oriented university was used to demonstrate how to implement RI-LTA in Mplus. The first three steps used were as described in the previous paragraph. For the fourth step, we performed a multiple-group analysis and investigated the interaction effects by including a “type of university enrolment” covariate. Results showed that students of the class labeled “strong intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class tended to switch to “strong intrinsic motivation but low extrinsic motivation” class and “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class at a 33.0% transition probability of staying in the original class with RI-LTA analysis, while these students tended to stay in the original class at a 68.9% staying transition probability with traditional LTA analysis. This indicated that RI-LTA avoided overestimation on the transition probabilities of students staying in the original class and allowed for clearer interpretation of the data. The RI-LTA model was shown to be better than the traditional LTA model in this situation. By including a “type of university enrolment” covariate, the multiple-group analysis indicated that measurement invariance should be established. Most of the regression coefficients of latent classes on covariate were not significant except c1#1 on dummy2, which was significant at a value of -2.364. This indicated that students who were enrolled via the independent admission examinations and endorsed the “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class were fewer than the recommended students We also found that the interaction effects of the covariate and c1 on c2 were not significant. Thus, a more parsimonious measurement invariant multiple-group analysis including a covariate but without interaction effect model should be chosen. Future research could use Monte Carlo simulation studies to investigate the applicability of RI-LTA, for example by manipulating sample sizes, numbers of indicators, latent classes, and time points. Inspired by multi-level modeling, the implementation of multi-level RI-LTA in statistical software should also be explored further.
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    Moral injury: A review from the perspective of psychology
    AI Pan, DAI Yan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 168-178.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00168
    Abstract79)           
    Moral injury refers to the long-lasting psychological, biological, spiritual, behavioral and social impact on an individual after the exposure to morally injurious events, which entail “perpetrating, failing to prevent, bearing witness to, or learning about acts that transgress deeply held moral beliefs and expectations” (Litz et al., 2009). Since Litz et al. (2009) redefined this concept from the perspective of psychology, moral injury has attracted extensive attention in the fields of psychology, ethics, psychiatry, and sociology. The present article reviews and summarizes the concept, relevant mechanisms, measurements, and interventions of moral injury and offer recommendations for future research. We first review the background of moral injury. Moral injury can be traced back to survivor guilt, which has long been regarded as one of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, Litz et al.(2009) pointed out that moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder are two different concepts, and Shay(2014) listed the five differences between moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder in detail. Next, we review the mechanisms of moral injury. Under the influence of individual and social factors, potentially morally injurious events that severely violate an individual's moral code can lead to cognitive dissonance and intrapsychic conflict, and eventually produce lasting shame, guilt, and anxiety. In addition, different types of potentially morally injurious events may lead to different types of moral injury, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. Self-oriented events (e.g., committing a crime, failing to prevent a crime, etc.) are more likely to result in negative internal emotions and cognitions (e.g., guilt, shame, inability to forgive oneself), whereas other-oriented events (e.g., witnessing an act of violence, betrayal by a trusted person) are more likely to lead to negative external emotions and cognitions (e.g., anger, loss of trust, inability to forgive).Third, we summarizes the existing moral injury scales, with a focus on the scope of application and each scale's advantages and disadvantages. These scales can be divided into two categories according to their contents, with one group assessing moral injury symptoms alone, and another assessing both the moral injury events and symptoms. Researchers or clinicians can choose these scales according to their practical needs. Moreover, current interventions for moral injury include Cognitive Behavior Therapy, CBT-based Adaptive Disclosure Therapy, CPT-based Spiritually Integrated Cognitive Processing Therapy, etc. While being commonly used in the treatment of PTSD, those therapies are equally effective in treating the core symptoms of moral injury. We concluded this article with limitations of existing research and suggestions for future research. Moral injury events and moral injury outcomes need to be further distinguished, moral injury mechanisms need to be further studied, and the diagnostic criteria of moral injury need to be established. Researchers also need to pay attention to the differences of moral standards in different cultures, expand research on moral injury to more groups, and widen the application of research on moral injury.
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    The influence of oxytocin, progesterone and estrogen on disgust and its neurophysiological mechanism
    ZHANG Xia, LEI Yi, WANG Fushun
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 85-97.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00085
    Abstract71)           
    Disgust, as an important basic emotion, is commonly recognized as a toxin (pathogens) avoidance mechanism to protect individuals from diseases, and has far-reaching evolutionary implications and specific physiological mechanisms. Hormones are chemical messengers synthesized and secreted by endocrine cells, which affect the physiological activities of individuals by regulating the metabolism of various tissue cells. A large number of studies have found that the generation and expression of disgust involve many different hormones, including oxytocin, progesterone, estrogens, testosterone, corticosteroids, arginine-vasopressin, etc. These various systems of neuroendocrine regulations make individuals rapidly evaluate and integrate the information related to toxins and pathogen cues, and thus producing appropriate disgust and avoidance behaviors. In the current researches, oxytocin, progesterone and estrogens are the most widely studied hormones in the field of disgust. Based on animal and human researches, this article reviews and summarizes some evidence that the three hormones affect the processing of disgust and their neurophysiological mechanism and predicts future research direction.
    Oxytocin is synthesized in the hypothalamus and is widely involved in social cognition and social behaviors, such as attachment. Studies have proved that oxytocin affects the generation and acquisition of disgust based on olfaction and taste, and recognition of disgust expression by regulating the activities of several brain regions such as insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, amygdala, piriform cortex, putamen, and middle frontal gyrus. Among them, oxytocin may participate in disgust learning by modulating the activity of serotonin receptors.
    According to the compensatory prophylaxis hypothesis supported by quantities of animal and human researches, progesterone promotes the individuals' sensitivity of disgust to potentially infectious stimuli, thereby producing avoidance behaviors to reduce the risk of infection. At the same time, progesterone also affects the recognition of disgust expressions, but has no significant effect on the disgust learning of rodents. And amygdala activity is the main brain area affecting the processing of disgust and can be both promoted and inhibited by progesterone in the processing of disgust. Estrogens also play regulatory roles in perception and acquisition of disgust and recognition of facial expression of disgust. The amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus may also be the neural substrates that progesterone affects the processing of disgust, but further research will be necessary before we can draw firm conclusions.
    It is noteworthy that oxytocin, progesterone and estrogens affect the generation and expression of pathogen disgust to varying degrees, except for moral disgust. This may be because pathogen disgust is more closely related to hormones than moral disgust which has a higher cognitive component, and its physiological basis is more evident in evolution. However, this may be due to current questionnaires used to measure moral disgust making the measurement indicators insensitive enough, which causes no significant effects of the three hormones on moral disgust.
    In short, most of the current studies in this field are still confined to describe phenomena and doing correlational research, but know little about its internal mechanisms. Besides, there are still many contradictions in results. Future studies should explore the effects of these hormones on disgust in different sensory channels and consider their moderating roles in different genders by accurately measuring hormone levels and controlling the task difficulties. In addition, researchers can combine neuroimaging technologies with behavioral studies to clarify the neuroendocrine mechanism of these hormones affecting disgust processing.
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    The decision-making process of offering help in the workplace
    YANG Jianfeng, GUO Xiaohong, MING Xiaodong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 15-31.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00015
    Abstract69)           
    This project addresses the limitation of traditional literature on helping decision-making, which excessively focuses on transient "helping behavior." This project considers helping decision-making in the workplace as a social venture investment decision process, which involves a series of steps corresponding to dynamic psychological contracts. This includes preparation, strategic conception, and follow-up adjustment when the help giver and the help seeker sign contracts for help in the workplace. Simultaneously, a crucial task of managers is to create an environment that promotes employees' mutual help in the organization. Furthermore, the project proposes that human resource management practice can create and maintain an appropriate investment environment within the organization. This environment can boost social venture investment decision among staff and encourage them to accept social investment risk in workplace helping decision-making.
    Based on the above ideas, this project will be conducted in two parts, comprising of four studies. In the first part, based on the dynamic psychological contract theory, the interview and case study methods will be used to develop the process model of workplace helping decision-making (Study 1). The workplace helping decision-making process proposedly includes six steps: heeding the dilemma of the help seeker, explaining the help seekers' dilemma, confirming whether and how much responsibility individuals have to assist the help seeker, formulating strategies to assist the help seeker, implementing helping behavior, and adjusting further helping decisions based on the reflection of previous helping results. This project then focus on the last step, which is the main difference between our workplace helping decision-making model and those of previous research. This project will use a daily-diary survey to explore how help givers would reflect the feedback of help seekers and adjust further help based on their reflection (Study 2). In the second part, based on the above proposed six-step model of helping decision-making in the workplace, human resource management practice is regarded as an important environmental factor that influences individuals to conduct social venture investments, such as helping decision-making in the workplace. Using the multi-wave survey method, this project focuses on the influential mechanism of two key variables of human resource management practice on helping decision-making in the workplace: job design (Study 3) and salary management (Study 4). Specifically, Study 3 examines the mediating role of work engagement between job characteristics and workplace helping decision-making, and the moderating mechanism of task interdependence on this mediating process. Study 4 explores the mediating role of team identity between team performance payment and workplace helping decision-making, and the moderating mechanism of organizational identity on the mediating role of team identity.
    Through the above four studies, this project will make the following theoretical and practical contributions. Theoretically, from the dynamic psychological contract perspective, this project regards the workplace helping decision-making process as a social venture investment decision process, thus providing a new theoretical perspective for literatures in the field of help. Thus, this project addresses the limitation of previous literatures focusing on "helping behavior," which is a transient behavior, and instead regards help in the workplace as a decision-making process. Therefore, future researchers could further explore this process and find more effective ways to encourage workplace helping behavior. Moreover, previous studies conventionally applied the psychological contract theory to explain the relationship between organizations and employees. This project is the first to adopt the psychological contract theory to elucidate the relationship between employees in the workplace, thus expanding the boundaries of the psychological contract theory. Regarding practice, this project examines the antecedents of the decision-making process of help in the workplace from different modules of human resource management, which can guide the practice of human resource management and promote employees' mutually helping behavior.
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    Public service motivation in the Chinese context: Theory construction and workplace consequences
    WEN Bo, TAO Lei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 239-254.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00239
    Abstract69)           
    Clarifying the consensual notions, measurement properties, and performance-related effects of public service motivation (PSM) in the Chinese context is an essential prerequisite to help China establish a committed public workforce and improve its public management strategies for personnel. Previous research on PSM, albeit copious, has overlooked a massive conceptual divergence between Chinese and Western contexts and therefore undermines its applicability in cross-cultural environments. In addition, our knowledge of how to inspire PSM in employees and its negative performance impacts remains limited. Hence, the purpose of this research is to develop an integrated PSM theory within the Chinese context through investigating its core components, activation mechanisms, and associated outcomes in the workplace. To begin with, we propose that PSM in the Chinese context ought to include three essential components: instrumental, norm-based, and affective motivations. Specifically, the first is the scaffolding that comprises individuals' self-interested reasons for seeking employment in the public sector. It encompasses two subdimensions: political efficacy and an attachment to the governance regime. The former can be characterized as aspirations or predilections towards becoming high-ranking politicians whereas the latter epitomizes allegiance to the system under which one lives and functions. The second is norm-based motives that emphasize the socialized influence of public organizations on civil servants. In China, the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, democratic centralism, a focus on the big picture, and preeminence of the government constitute the primary public values that are firmly held by civil servants. Affective motivation denotes one's impetus for reflecting one's family and social identity. Under collectivism and Confucianism, bringing glory to one's family or ancestors as well as patriotic self-sacrifice are two crucial aspects of civil servants' affective motives. Based on the abovementioned conceptualization, in this study, PSM is conceived as a mixed-motives construct. By virtue of a grounded theory approach primarily consisting of semi-structured interviews and observational fieldwork, we will further identify and refine the core and substantive components of PSM held by front-line public employees, thus laying a solid groundwork for the subsequent development of a PSM measurement scale that is highly relevant to the Chinese context. Second, through the lens of micro-interventions, we will draw on self-efficacy and predisposition-opportunity theories to design a series of behavioral experiments to examine whether and the extent to which beneficiary contacts, self-advocacy, and idea reflections activate PSM among Chinese public sector workers. Finally, we will rely on psychological contract and moral disengagement theories to investigate the underlying mechanisms of both the desirable and undesirable effects of PSM on the attitudes and behaviors of public sector employees. In sum, by developing a localized PSM quantification tool with specific consideration for the Chinese cultural, bureaucratic, and social reality, analyzing the micro-activation mechanisms of PSM, and exploring the mixed effects of PSM on organizational performance at the individual level, this study strives to comprehensively extend the existing PSM literature in the Chinese context. Findings stemming from this study will not only fill an enduring scholarly need for the establishment of locally-adaptive PSM theories but also will generate ample evidence-based policy implications regarding the approaches to increase the work motivation and job performance of Chinese public employees.
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    Cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear acquisition and extinction
    FENG Pan, YANG Ke, FENG Tingyong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 365-374.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00365
    Abstract62)           
    Fear is a biologically adaptive response to environmental threats, and fear learning plays a key role in adaptive function. However, maladaptive fear learning underlies emotional disorders, such as anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Together with the development of cognitive neuroscience and the integration of multidisciplinary research, the study on the cognitive neural mechanism of fear has become a hot topic in the field of emotion. Using the classical fear conditioning paradigm, researchers have identified the brain circuits of fear learning and extinction. Specifically, extensive imaging researches have revealed several key regions involved in fear acquisition, including the amygdala, insula, dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and thalamus. Moreover, the amygdala, hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) served key roles in fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation, and the amygdala, hippocampus, vmPFC, and dACC are required for fear extinction. Cumulative evidence has suggested that oxytocin plays a crucial role in the process of fear acquisition, fear consolidation and fear extinction. Therefore, firstly, we summarized the paradigms of fear acquisition and fear extinction as well as the cognitive neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and fear extinction based on the fingdings of corresponding meta-analyses. Secondly, we focused on the cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear acquisition and fear extinction. Next, we summarized the neurobiological circuits of oxytocin influence on fear emotion processing. Finally, we prospected the future researches on the cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear processing. The present study sheds insights into the cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear processing. Moreover, the present study provides an potential treatment for the fear-related disorders.
    Oxytocin has been shown to facilitate fear acquisition as it affects brain activity in several regions including amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula and hippocampus, as well as the functional connectivity between them. Oxytocin also enhances fear extinction by regulating amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex activity, as well as enhancing the functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Furthermore, oxytocin can regulate the activity of the amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, vmPFC and other fear-related brain regions, thus affecting the processes of fear acquisition and extinction. Specifically, cumulative evidence has indicated that intranasal oxytocin attenuates amygdala (hyper)activity and enhances functional coupling of the amygdala with the vmPFC and hippocampus, resulting in increased top-down control over the fear response. In addition, intranasal oxytocin has also been found to attenuate amygdala—brainstem connectivity and to change activity and connectivity in nodes of the salience network (i.e., insula and dACC). Furthermore, oxytocin administration may enhance social behavior through modulating the hypothalamus—pituitary—adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, which may provide a potential treatment for the fear-related disorders. However, it should be noted that the dose, time and location of oxytocin injection might have different effects on the processes of fear acquisition and extinction.
    Future studies should focus on gender differences, neural network underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear consolidation and reconsolidation and the pathological study examining oxytocin effect on fear emotion processing to better reveal the cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on.
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    The incubation effect of creative thinking
    LI Ziyi, ZHANG Ze, ZHANG Ying, LUO Jin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 291-307.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00291
    Abstract59)           
    Incubation effect refers to the phenomenon that when people are confronted with an unsolvable problem, they temporarily put it aside and switch to complete other irrelevant tasks instead, which is beneficial to the ultimate solution of the original problem. In recent years, researchers have conducted extensive studies on incubation effect of creative thinking and its influences, and put forward many theories to explain incubation effect. The representative theories include “selective forgetting theory”, “spreading activation and cue assimilation theory” and “unconscious work theory”. They explain the mechanism of incubation effect from different perspectives and predict different influences and phenomena respectively. For example, the attention-withdrawal theory supposes that the length of incubation will not influence the incubation effect. And the forgetting-fixation theory recommended a longer break to incubate. Furthermore, some factors are mentioned in many theories, such as the length of incubation and the length of preparation period. So the empirical researches about them can be explained by these related theories. While some factors are only mentioned by a few theories. For example, the function of beneficial cues can only be explained by the opportunistic assimilation theory. However, the research field of incubation effect has begun to combine with mind wandering and sleep. Many of the results of these studies are difficult to be well explained by the above theories, but should be explained in the light of the characteristics of mind wandering and sleep. Until now, related researches of mind wandering and sleep further shed light on the mechanism behind incubation effect. For example, mind wandering increases unconscious associate processing to serve creative problem-solving. Sleep, as a special long period of incubation, may promote problem solving through various mechanisms such as the reconstruction of memory representation and the reactivation of memory. But there is also conflicting evidence as to whether mind wandering and sleep promote the incubation effect. There are many studies that have failed to prove the effect of mind wandering and sleep on creative problem solving. The psychological processes underlying the incubation effect includes at least two cognitive components: the transformation of problem representation and the formation of remote associations. Different brain mechanisms are responsible for these two basic components. During the incubation period, memory systems are regulated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to break the fixation caused by false assumptions. The cooperation of right frontal lobe, temporal lobe and parietal lobe was beneficial to assimilation of beneficial cues. The striatum-hippocampus-prefrontal lobe network continued to catalyze the reconstruction of representations during incubation period. Mind wandering promotes insight through the interaction of the medial temporal lobe, default network and executive network. The research on sleep can reflect the mechanism of long-term incubation in real life, and future research can further investigate the role of different sleep stages and their corresponding brain mechanisms. Future research needs to improve the ecological validity of relevant studies, promote the development of incubation theories, improve reproducibility, explore the positive factors that promote the incubation effect, and pay attention to the relationship between the incubation effect and emotion or other non-cognitive factors.
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    The formation of fear of failure and its influence on entrepreneurial behavior
    HAO Xi-ling, LIU Yi-ran, DU Jing-jing, ZHENG Fang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1551-1560.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01551
    Abstract59)           
    Entrepreneurship is an emotional journey that is companied with fear of failure. Fear of failure can be both an enemy and a friend. It has a dark side of discouraging entrepreneurs from carrying out entrepreneurial activities, and a bright side of motivating them to move forward. Despite mounting research on entrepreneurs' fear of failure, most studies focus on its inhibitory effect on entrepreneurial entry. Few studies pay attention to the facilitating role of fear of failure and how does it influence the key behaviors in the whole process of entrepreneurship. Based on the research gap, the study focuses on the following three research questions. (1) What induces entrepreneurs' fear of failure? (2) How does fear of failure affect entrepreneurial behavior? (3) What are the boundary conditions of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior? Following the core logic of Affective Events Theory, the study constructs the theoretical framework of 'entrepreneurial event * entrepreneur -- fear of failure -- entrepreneurial behavior', and tries to explore this complex concept together with the insights from practice.
    This study aims to achieve four research goals. First, we explore the dimensions and contents of fear of failure in entrepreneurship context. From Cognitive Appraisal Theory, fear of failure is an emotional state results from the appraisal of the threats and possibility of failure in a specific situation. We thus capture this concept from two dimensions: sources of threats and ways of appraisal.
    Second, we investigate the different antecedents of fear of failure and explore how does it evolve in the process of entrepreneurship. According to the assumption of Classical Stress Theory, emotion is shaped simultaneously by the objective event and individuals' subjective interpretation. We thus focus on two important factors to address the antecedents, i.e. entrepreneurial events such as loss-relevant event and low-capability-relevant event, and characteristics of entrepreneurs, such as entrepreneurs' passion and ways of regulatory focus. In terms of entrepreneurial events, we propose that loss-relevant event and low-capability-relevant event positively affect fear of failure. In terms of entrepreneurs' characteristics, we propose obsessive passion and prevention focus induce fear of failure, while harmonious passion and promotion focus inhibit fear of failure.
    Last but not least, we clarify how fear of failure relates to key entrepreneurial behavior. Existing studies had insufficient attention on the functional role of fear of failure. Endeavoring to start filling in this gap, this paper expounds three different effects of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior: incentive, inhibition and repression, looking at both the bright side and dark side of fear of failure. We further disentangle the boundary conditions of the relationship between fear of failure and entrepreneurial behaviors. In the micro level, when entrepreneurs get emotional support, the incentive effect of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior would be reinforced. When entrepreneurs get functional support, the inhibition and repression effect of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior would be mitigated. In the macro level, when the institutional environment is friendly and the cultural environment is more failure tolerant, the incentive effect of failure fear on entrepreneurial behavior will be increased and the inhibitory effect of failure fear on entrepreneurial behavior will be reduced.
    This study contributes to an emerging strand of literature on “entrepreneurial fear of failure” by looking deeply into the dimensions of this concept. It also offers novel perspective to understand entrepreneurial behavior and entrepreneurial psychology by taking account into the functional role of fear of failure. The present research not only expands the application scope and applicable situation of fear of failure, but also enriches the Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion, Affective Events Theory and Classical Stress Theory. It also tries to shed light on practice by accumulating knowledge on entrepreneurial education and offer suggestions for policy makers on managing entrepreneurial failure.
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    The impact of trust in technology and trust in leadership on the adoption of new technology from employee's perspective
    XU Yi, LIU Yixuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (10): 1711-1723.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01711
    Abstract54)           
    In today's knowledge-based economy, new technology adoption is crucial for companies to increase their core competitiveness. The success of new technology diffusion in enterprises depends on employees' trust in new technologies to overcome risks and uncertainties surrounding new technology. Although many scholars recognize the positive role of trust in the adoption of new technology, the extant literature lacks empirical evidence and theoretical underpinning. To fill the gap, we aim to explore how trust in technology and leadership affects employees' decision to adopt new technology through four different studies. Further, we introduce perceived risk and technology self-efficacy as mediators to explore the underlying mechanisms.
    In study 1, we validate the measurement of trust in technology with functionality, reliability, and helpfulness as three antecedent factors. The positive effects of trust in technology and trust in leadership on employees' new technology adoption are examined through an experiment. In study 2, we collect employees' data within organizations. Perceived risk and technology usefulness are added into the model to explain the relationship between trust in technology, trust in leadership, and new technology adoption from the employees' perspective. In study 3, we first refine the measurement of technology self-efficacy. Then, through an experiment, we manipulate the trust in technology (High, Low, Control) and measure employees' technology self-efficacy and new technology adoption. We propose that trust in technology can increase technological self-efficacy and further facilitate employees' new technology adoption. In study 4, we examine the contextual effects of industries' backgrounds and organizational cultures. We suggest that in high-tech industries, trust in technology could have a greater effect on employees' adoption of new technology. In addition, organizational culture could moderate the effects of trust. In particular, collectivistic organizational culture could moderate the effects of trust in leadership, while individualistic organizational culture could moderate the effects of trust in technology.
    Overall, the current research constructs a theoretical model and extends our understanding of employees' adoption of new technology. First, it investigates factors that affect new technology adoption from the employees' perspective with consideration of both individual and contextual factors. We propose employees' technological self-efficacy as individual differences and organizational culture and industry background as contextual factors that equally matters. Second, the current study clearly identifies trust in new technological adoption processes in organizations, as both trust in technology and trust in leadership. We further analyze the effects of the two types of trust and the underlying mechanisms. This enriches the literature of the influence of trust and its mechanism in new technology adoption. Third, we suggest that technological self-efficacy can explain the mechanism of trust in technology, which could lay the foundation for future research of trust in technology. Lastly, this study has managerial implications. Based on our findings, effective management strategies can be implemented to support new technologies integration.
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    Less is more: A theoretical interpretation of minimalism in consumption
    CHEN Siyun, WEI Haiying, XIONG Jiwei, RAN Yaxuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 2043-2061.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02043
    Abstract54)           
    Minimalism refers to a lifestyle that ?seeks satisfaction in a non-material world by reducing consumption. Given the increasing popularity of minimalistic consumption (i.e., voluntary simplicity), it is necessary to understand minimalism more comprehensively. First, we provide a ?categorization scheme related voluntary simplicity, including its conception, dimensions, and measurements. Characterized by a minimal, simple, and responsible lifestyle, minimalism can be defined as the degree to which consumers select a lifestyle to minimalize their consumption and to take control of their life. The practice of simplified living typically entails ?minimizing possessions, consuming less, and valuing personal growth.
    Then, factors that influence minimalistic consumption are presented. The reasons for individuals to adopt simplifying behaviors are manifold. That is, motivations for engaging minimalistic consumption are multifaceted and complicated, including both internal (i.e., personal, financial, lifestyle) and external (i.e., economic, social, environmental) motivations. In addition to consumers who curtail their consumption due to financial restraints, there are consumers who consciously consume, although they are financially well off. The rejection of the concept that one's success is determined by his/her material goods (i.e., materialism) has prompted ?interest in minimalistic consumption. In addition, some simplifiers (i.e., minimalistic consumers) are driven by motives of environmental sustainability. That is, when consumers give greater consideration to the natural environment and ecological system, they may engage in voluntary simplicity to live both well and sustainably. Furthermore, people can lead an independent and self-determined life through minimalistic consumption; therefore, a desire to achieve an autonomous life is an important antecedent of minimalistic consumption. Moreover, philosophical motivation (i.e., religious belief) is another factor driving minimalism in consumption.
    Moving forward, the potential impacts of minimalistic behavior are shown. Minimalism has a positive influence on individual, societal and environmental wellbeing. Adopting low consumption helps expand mental space, resulting in a feeling of lightness, relaxation, and clarity. A minimalistic lifestyle facilitates individuals' positive emotions while reducing their negative emotions such as depression. Consumers can also reduce their dependence on the market offerings by curtailing the overall consumption, in search of a simpler but happier life. Additionally, minimalistic practices offer ?several wellbeing benefits such as meaning and happiness. In addition, a minimalistic lifestyle can improve harmony in communities, as it can help build more connections with others in society. By sharing skills, donating to charities or giving back to the community, simplifiers can experience a sense of community and closeness to others, thus enhancing communal well-being. More importantly, most literature notes that this lifestyle is positively associated with environmental and ecological wellbeing. With a strong ecological awareness, consumers tend to protect the environment through a variety of practices, such as decreasing carbon emissions, ?avoiding excess packaging, and preserving resources and habitats. Collectively, we categorize antecedents of minimalistic consumption into four types (i.e., demographic, psychological, situational, religious factors). We also summarize the effects of minimalistic consumption in the previous research, such as enhancing happiness and sense of meaning.
    In order to understand voluntary simplicity, four theories (i.e., theory of basic values, self-determination theory; hierarchical theory of needs; ?self-regulation theory) were introduced. By combining these theories, we shed a novel light on understanding the forming process of minimalistic consumption. Specifically, in self-observation stages, individuals generate self-directed values. Based on these values, consumers make judgments whether their needs are satisfied. Lastly, in the self-reaction phase, consumers adopt the results of these judgments, and they evaluate achieve autonomy, competence and relevance from the self-determination theory. Given the important role of minimalistic consumption in the contemporary marketplace, it is essential for both marketers and scholars to know more details in simplifying practices. Several directions (e.g., developing valid measurements, taking cultural differences into account, identifying boundary conditions) for future research are discussed.
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    Antisocial punishment in the game
    CHEN Jing, ZHANG Rong, YUAN Jiaqi, SHE Shengxiang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 436-448.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00436
    Abstract54)           
    Punishment has two sides, the “prosocial” side (altruistic punishment) and the “antisocial” side (antisocial punishment). Antisocial punishment is widespread in human society and seriously undermines cooperation, but it is ignored by researchers because it is difficult to observe and quantify, and does not have a positive effect similar to altruistic punishment. In this article, we systematically reviewed, analyzed, and evaluated the literature in this field; and put forward research prospects and theoretical hypotheses based on the concept and research paradigms of anti-social punishment, influencing factors, and theory hypotheses of production mechanism.
    First of all, combined with the diversified performance of anti-social punishment in the field of non-economic games, the classical concept of anti-social punishment is extended, and defined as: the phenomenon that the game participants implements economic punishment(with monetary cost), negative evaluation, or exclusion and suppression on others who exhibit high contributions or cooperation of prosocial behavior.
    Moreover, we sorted out the corresponding research paradigms and influencing factors; as a complex social behavior, antisocial punishment is affected by a variety of individual and environmental factors. Individual factors include both physical and psychological aspects. Testosterone, social cognition, subjective willingness, the role of the intuitive system, working memory, mental illness, and Dark Triad personality traits all have an impact on antisocial punishment. There are three main aspects in environmental factors, including task contextual factors (i.e., cost-to-impact ratio, information availability, and situational competitiveness), group factors (i.e., differences between internal and external groups, group decision-making, and individual decision-making, etc.), and sociocultural and developmental factors (i.e., social culture and social development level).
    Furthermore, five hypotheses of the production mechanism of antisocial punishment were summarized as follows: (i) the aggression hypothesis regards antisocial punishment as an aggressive behavior, which is derived from malicious motivation or internal negative traits of an individual; (ii) the revenge hypothesis holds that antisocial punishment is a behavioral response based on tit-for-tat strategy, which occurs when individuals themselves are punished by others; (iii) the social comparison hypothesis suggests that antisocial punishment is a defense against threats to reputation and self-concept; (iv) deviant group norm hypothesis holds that antisocial punishment is the maintenance of group norms; (v) the evolutionary strategy hypothesis, based on the perspective of evolutionary psychology, holds that antisocial punishment is a dominant strategy beneficial to individuals and groups, and a way to gain advantages. All the above hypotheses are partial and incomplete claims. By combining the social information processing theories with the dual-process theories of decision-making, we further proposed the dual-process model of antisocial punishment. We deem that antisocial punishment is the result of an individual's further processing and interpretation of social cues, interpersonal interaction, and emotional experience, which is based on one's own internal factors; for different individuals and situations, the deliberative processing system and affective processing system are activated respectively to further dominate decision-making behavior.
    Finally, the research prospects were put forward from five aspects. (i) Further clarify the concept and measurement indicators. (ii) Further innovate research methods, such as developing real-life decision scenario simulation tasks with more ecological validity, and developing implicit association tests. (iii) Expand studies of influencing factors. Specifically, further explore the impacts of demographic variables, interpersonal factors, and Chinese native culture on antisocial punishment. (iv) Further clarify the mechanism of antisocial punishment from the level of neuroscience, construct the psychological model to explain the mechanism of antisocial punishment and verify its effectiveness. (v) Conduct targeted intervention research.
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    The effect of attachment on the process of emotional regulation
    HUANG Yufei, SHI Pan, CHEN Xu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 77-84.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00077
    Abstract53)           
    Previous studies based on attachment theory have proved the influence of attachment on emotion regulation. These influences can be manifested in many aspects, such as the choice of emotion regulation strategies, the effect of emotion regulation, and some cognitive processing related to emotion regulation. However, these studies ignore the complexity and diversity of emotion regulation as a process, and therefore cannot answer how attachment can affect emotion regulation. The extended process model divides emotion regulation into three stages, and clearly describes the process of emotion regulation and the relationship between various factors in the process. Combining the extended process model and the attachment theory to look back to previous studies is helpful to find out the relationship among these studies and expand new research directions. From the perspective of the extended process model, it can be found that there are individual differences related to attachment in all the three stages of emotional regulation. Specifically, in the recognition stage, the influence of attachment on emotion regulation is mainly reflected in the cognitive processing related to emotions. Both higher attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are related to lower emotion recognition ability. At the same time, higher attachment avoidance is related to lower emotion recognition ability, and higher attachment anxiety is related to lower emotion regulation self-efficacy. In the selection stage, individuals with different attachment styles have different preferences for the choice of emotion regulation strategies. Most studies have found that individuals with secure attachment prefer to use highly adaptable and efficient strategies (such as cognitive reappraisal), and individuals with insecure attachment styles prefer to use strategies which are less adaptable and efficient(such as hypo-regulation or hyper-regulation). In the implementation stage, most studies have found that both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are significantly positively correlated with emotion regulation difficulties or disorders, but in some studies, high attachment avoidance individuals may not have problem with emotion regulation. In general, many factors are influenced by attachment in the process of emotion regulation, and the extended process model provides a theoretical framework for describing the sequence and causal relationship between these factors. However, there are still many key issues that have not yet been resolved. Future research can be expanded from the following aspects: The influence of attachment on emotional regulation should be explored while paying attention to the impact of environmental factors; New experimental paradigms need to be designed to confirm the continuity of the three stages and explore the reasons why attachment could affect emotional regulation. It is necessary to explore the influence of attachment on the emotion regulation flexibility. In addition, future intervention studies should design more targeted interventions to improve the emotion regulation of insecurely attached individuals.
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    Do positive stereotypes have a negative impact?
    WANG Zhen, GUAN Jian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1657-1668.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01657
    Abstract52)           
    Positive stereotypes are defined as positive traits describing social groups. Previous research on stereotypes has mainly focused on negative stereotypes while overlooking positive stereotypes, especially their negative effects. Here, we will discuss positive and negative effects of positive stereotypes from racial, gender and aging stereotypes and conditions for their emergence and further future research
    The positive effects of positive stereotypes are mainly evinced through the stereotype boost. For example, activation of positive racial stereotypes, positive gender stereotypes and positive aging stereotypes has a positive effect on targets' minds and behaviors. The negative effects of positive stereotypes on targets' behaviors and cognition are caused by the choking under pressure effect and compensation effect of social cognition, respectively. For example, targets with positive racial stereotypes have negative attitudes and evaluations towards the stereotyper. Targets are prone to underperform in stereotyped domains in positive gender stereotypes situation. As for positive aging stereotypes, the mental and psychical health of targets can be adversely affected. Generally, positive stereotypes still induce negative effect similar to negative stereotypes in certain conditions, although having the positive side.
    The effects (positive or negative) of positive stereotypes depend on the following four moderators: (1) Activation of positive stereotypes. Compared with the subtle activation of positive stereotypes, blatantly activating positive stereotypes easily cause the “choking under pressure” of targets and their sense of being depersonalized, finally resulting in a negative impact. (2) Accuracy of expressing positive stereotypes. Compared with accurately expressing positive stereotypes, the one who states positive stereotypes in an extreme way tends to generate the feeling of untruth, resulting in conflicted response of targets. (3) Individuals who state positive stereotypes. Compared with an ingroup member, positive stereotypes stated by an outgroup member easily cause the prejudice by targets, which then result in targets' negative attitudes and evaluations towards the stereotyper. (4) Culture context of positive stereotypes. Compared with collectivistic culture, positive stereotypes in individualistic culture are prone to have a sense of being depersonalized and be thread.
    Further research on positive stereotypes can be discussed from the following aspects: (1) Exploration of effects of positive stereotypes in collectivistic culture. For example, China is the representative country of collectivistic cultures which emphasize “fundamental connectedness of human beings to each other”, and positive stereotypes as positive beliefs about members of social groups based on the category membership. Therefore, the Chinese feel less depersonalized when the stereotyper describe them in ways related positive stereotypes. (2) Exploration of positive stereotypes from research fields and targets, such as fields of sexual orientation and academic discipline. Academic discipline stereotypes deem that science students are superior to arts students in science, and arts students are superior to science students in arts. As a result, male science students may underperform on the science test and female arts students may underperform on the arts test when priming their major and gender identities simultaneously, due to the feeling of untruth present when activating two positive stereotypes. In addition, researchers can explore positive stereotypes of children as there are no stereotype awareness of children under 7 ages. That is one of the prerequisites for positive stereotypes having influence on targets. (3) Exploration of interventions of negative effects reduced by positive stereotypes. By far there is no research on the interventions of negative effects of positive stereotypes. However, it is not hard to assume that would be difficult to reduce the negative effects of positive stereotypes because of the complimentary nature of positive stereotypes. (4) Exploration of positive effects of negative stereotypes. Based on our knowledge, only two studies have found that negative stereotypes have positive consequences. Once more empirical evidence to support the findings can be confirmed, this would play a significant role in the domain of stereotype research, especially for the interventions of negative effects of stereotypes.
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    The teaching and learning brains: Interpersonal neuroscience in educational research
    CHENG Xiaojun, LIU Meihuan, PAN Yafeng, LI Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 1993-2001.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01993
    Abstract51)           
    One significant challenge that currently limits the development of educational neuroscience is the way to neurophysiologically characterize interpersonal interactions and dynamics of pedagogical activities. Addressing this challenge in the literature, we aim to provide a perspective on the research emerging in the nexus between the fields of interpersonal neuroscience (i.e., the measurement of two or more individuals' brain activity and the analysis of their inter-dependency), teaching and learning. Our review will highlight important recent developments and target outstanding questions that have so far not been addressed, and offer a novel synthesized framework for a better understanding of both the transmission of information between individual brains, and how such interactions shape memories and behavior. The interpersonal neuroscience focuses on the associations among two or more people when they perform the same cognitive activity. There are two different types of scanning in interpersonal neuroscience research: sequential scanning and hyperscanning. In a sequential scanning protocol, a stimulus is first shown to a subject A (e.g., a teacher), whose responses are recorded and later presented to another subject B (e.g., a student). The responses from subject B are also recorded and compared with those of subject A. Research using sequential scanning examines the group's processing mode of information and the transmission of such information between people. The concurrent scanning (also known as “hyperscanning”) captures the brain activity of interacting individuals simultaneously. In hyperscanning studies, a student acquires information by interacting with another individual (another student or a teacher). Related studies focus on the interaction patterns of multiple individuals in naturalistic situations. Compared with sequential scanning, hyperscanning is thought to have higher ecological validity and can be applied in real-time one-to-one and one-to-many teaching scenarios.++=Recent years have witnessed fruitful applications of interpersonal neuroscience in the field of education. It has been demonstrated that teaching activities can induce the synchronization of brain activity (i.e., interpersonal brain synchronization, IBS) between interacting individuals (such as teacher-student dyads and student-student dyads) with different task scenarios and materials. IBS may reflect the quantity and quality of teacher-student/student-student interaction. The characteristics of IBS in the teaching process are closely associated with the dynamic nature of the teaching process and the teacher-student relationship. Also, the inter-student correlation of brain activity can reflect their cognitive states (such as engagement and attention, etc.) during the learning process. Therefore, the interpersonal neuroscience perspective can help researchers better understand the teaching process. Interpersonal neuroscience can provide valuable insights for monitoring the teaching process, predicting the teaching effect, and capturing the factors that may affect the teaching activities.
    The research findings of interpersonal neuroscience in the field of education have important implications for teaching activities and research. The related neural indices can help teachers select teaching materials, establish and maintain a good teacher-student relationship, and attach importance to the role of interaction in teaching activities. According to the current findings of the application of interpersonal neuroscience in education, the correlation or synchronization between brain activity can be used as a predictor of attention engagement and learning outcomes. Future research is needed to improve the quality of online courses by applying the methods of interpersonal neuroscience to monitor the interactive learning characteristics of students with different learning ability levels, improve the quality of teaching activities of skills, track the dynamic changes of students' engagement in online course learning and evaluate the quality of online courses. We believe that our perspective will have a broad impact in fields, such as psychology, pedagogics, and neuroscience, in particular those targeting social behavior and teaching/learning settings. Our perspective will also be of interest to researchers working across species and in the clinic.
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    The effect of organizational (in)justice on organizational retaliation behavior and the underlying mechanisms
    LIU Depeng, GAO Xiangyu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (12): 2260-2271.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.02260
    Abstract49)           
    Organizational retaliatory behaviors, defined as employees’ retaliatory behaviors towards the organization and its agents due to unjust treatment toward employees, are a prevalent phenomenon in workplaces. Important progress have been achieved in the existing literature. First, researchers have established the concept and distinguish it from similar concepts. Furthermore, the scales that are respectively suitable for western and Chinese contexts are developed. Second, perception of injustice is identified as the most important antecedent of organizational retaliatory behaviors. Scholars have explored the main and interaction effects of different justice dimensions on organizational retaliatory behaviors from various theoretical perspectives. What is more, several studies have begun to explore the potential negative consequences of organizational retaliatory behaviors. Third, scholars in China have paid attention to this topic and reviewed some literature in this area.
    Although fruitful progress has been achieved in the past years, there are still some research gaps in the existing literature. First of all, few studies have reviewed existing 20-year literature on organizational retaliatory behaviors systematically. It not only hinders the discourse among existing literature but also prevents the development of future research. Second, current literature mainly focuses on the concepts and the antecedents of organizational retaliatory behaviors. However, the mechanisms that explain the effect of perception of injustice and organizational retaliatory behavior are relatively ignored. It is timely to review the existing literature and propose a new framework to integrate various perspectives given the salience of this topic and the above gaps.
    We categorize existing research on organizational retaliatory behaviors into four quadrants according to two dimensions. One of the dimensions is the complexity of justice types (one type or interaction of different types), and the other is the subject of injustice perception (receiver and observer). We fill the gaps mentioned above by categorizing, comparing, and integrating the underlying theories and mechanisms in each quadrant. Specifically, we summarize self-control theory, emotion-related theory, social exchange theory, and recent resource theory from the receiver’s perspective. On the other hand, we integrate cognitive and emotional mechanisms from the observer’s perspective. We also compare research from these two perspectives. The authors also propose future research directions by integrating various theories and mechanisms and calling for research from an observer perspective.
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    The temporary knowledge workers' autonomous motivation: Relationship-oriented human resource management construction and its mechanism
    LIU Xiaolang, LIU Shanshi, ZHAO Yu, QIN Chuanyan, LU Wenzhu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1534-1550.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01534
    Abstract48)           
    The rapidly changing technology environment makes “talent sharing” as a key way to acquire the required skilled and knowledge workers for organizations. Research on human resources management in sharing economy is an emerging field. Enterprises are facing great challenges for management on temporary knowledge workers. Due to the externality of identity and the weak relationship base with co-workers, the basic needs of competence and relatedness of temporary knowledge worker' are hindered, resulting in insufficient autonomous motivation, which in turn affect performance. Specifically, the challenges faced by temporary knowledge workers management are: First, temporary knowledge workers lack relationships basis with other team members due to the externality of identities, which in turn limits their professional influence, then their autonomous motivation are insufficient and in the results of low quality cooperation; Second, the relatedness needs of employees are difficult to satisfy due to the periphery identity (compared to the core employees of the organization), which hinders the formation of autonomous motivation, and then affects the workplace experience and cooperation performance. These two major challenges focus on how to deal with the insufficient autonomous motivation of temporary knowledge workers.
    In the literatures, professional influence of contract experts (DiBenigno, 2020) and the establishment of workplace identity of non-core employees (Bolinger et al., 2018) both depend on the workplace relationship building. Therefore, this paper from the perspective of motivation management, explores human resource management practices and its role in the mechanisms for temporary knowledge workers combined with relational coordination theory and self-determination theory. For temporary knowledge workers who are embedded in team work, the research explores the relationship-oriented human resource management constructs based on the relational coordination theory. The self-determination theory is used to explore how the relationship-oriented HRP improve performance of temporary knowledge employees. We verify the path from the source (relation-oriented HRP; high quality relationship), the formulation (satisfaction of competence need and relatedness need), and results autonomous motivation (knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behaviors and job satisfaction). This research will: (1) exploring the composition of practices of relationship-oriented human resource management for temporary knowledge workers, by identifying the relationship-oriented human resource management practices and develop corresponding measurement tool; and (2) verifying the impact of relationship-oriented human resource management practices on performance. We will verify that the relationship-oriented human resource management practice influences the employees' autonomous motivation (satisfaction of competence needs and relatedness needs) by establishing high-quality role relationship, and then improve the cooperation attitude (willingness to share knowledge) and behaviors (knowledge sharing behavior).
    Research on the content and utility of relationship-oriented HRP is helpful for a deeper understanding on the management of temporary knowledge worker and give implication for management practice in sharing economy. First of all, this research will promote the understanding of relationship-oriented human resource management under the background of “talent sharing” time. Secondly, we explored the effect of the relationship-oriented human resource management from the autonomous motivation perspective, which beyond the "resource path" and "exchange relationship" of relationship human resource management research in previous studies. Finally, the research brings the high-performance human resource management in a new context and give enlightenment for workplace diversity management.
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    Children's gestures and the relationship with learning
    WANG Hui, LI Guangzheng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1617-1627.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01617
    Abstract47)           
    Gestures are hand movements which are generated during communication or cognitive process and don't act on the object directly. It has the mixed characteristics of concreteness and abstractness. On a continuum from action to abstraction, gestures are more abstract than action but still less abstract than verbal language. Gestures have the power not only to reflect the individual's cognitive level, but also to change the individual's cognitive level, and as a result, thus facilitating the learning of new knowledge. The classification of gestures is mainly divided from the perspectives of the source of gestures, the content of gestures, the intention of gestures, the matching between gestures and speech. According to the source of gestures, gestures can be divided into producing gestures and observing gestures. In terms of the content of gestures, the classic classification is McNeill's (1992) elaboration on gesture's classification, which divides gestures into four types: iconic gestures, deictic gestures, beat gestures and metaphoric gestures. The previous researches on children's gestures mainly employ two experimental paradigms: laboratory experimental method and scenario experimental method. Between them, most of the studies use the laboratory experimental method, while a small number of studies use scenario experimental method, which is mostly used for the study of infant's gestures development. In the aspect of the development of gestures, deictic gestures, iconic gestures, beat gestures and metaphoric gestures spontaneously occur at different time points in the process of children's growth. Deictic gestures appear earliest and usually appear at around 12 months old, while metaphoric gestures appear the latest and usually appear after the children enter primary school. The developmental trends of different types of gestures are also distinguish. It is important to note that the advantage effect of gestures may occur earlier than the children's spontaneous occurrence of gestures. Therefore, encouraging young children to use gestures may promote the development of gestures' spontaneous occurrence. What's more, encouraging particular types of gestures can even introduce new ideas into children's repertoire. Both producing gestures and observing gestures can facilitate children's vocabulary learning, speech expression, mathematical problem-solving, spatial learning and memory. That is to say, the self-producing gestures group perform better on the task than the non-producing gestures group, and the observing other people's gestures group perform better on the task than the non-observing gestures group. However, the influence of gestures on speech comprehension has not reached a consistent conclusion, mainly because speech comprehension is affected by many factors, it needs to be considered in consideration of factors such as the type of gestures, difficulty level of tasks, and children's age. In the process of children's cognitive development, adults should pay attention to the phenomenon of “gesture-speech mismatches” which can give teachers and parents insight into the children's cutting-edge thoughts, and actively guide the “implicit thoughts” expressed by gestures, so as to facilitate positive results of children's learning and acquisition of new knowledge. Future research should continue to explore the following aspects. Firstly, factors such as culture and socio-economic status can be considered to investigate whether the occurrence time and developmental trends of gestures could be affected by these factors. The second is to compare the advantage effect of producing gestures and observing gestures in various learning fields. The third is to pay attention to the use of gestures among special children. The last is to focus on the advantage effect of gestures in the classroom teaching and family education.
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