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    Social Identity Theory and It’s Development
    Zhang Yingrui,  Zuo Bin
    null    2006, 14 (03): 475-480.  
    Social identity theory, developed by Tajfel and Turner et al.,which made new explanations to the group behavior, has become the most influential theory in the field of intergroup relation. The social identity theory developed from the explanations for intergroup behavior, it proposed that group identity is the fundamental cause of intergroup behavior. Recent research provides much evidence for the theory, The social identity theory is important achievement of European psychology localization and has important contributions to the social psychology. At the same time it also waits for further consummates
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    An Introduction of Researches and Theory of Organizational Innovation Climate
    Wang Yanfei, Zhu Yu
    null    2006, 14 (03): 443-449.  
    organizational innovation climate is the perception employees hold about innovation in the organization and it consists of workers’ feelings, attitudes, and behavioral tendencies measured by their perceptions. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some important aspects about the theory and research of organizational innovation climate, presenting the origin of the concept,formation procedure, construct and measurement, summarizes some drawbacks in this field, several interesting directions for future research are raised
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     Anthropomorphism: Antecedents and consequences
    XU Liying, YU Feng, WU Jiahua, HAN Tingting, ZHAO Liang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2017, 25 (11): 1942-1954.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01942
     Anthropomorphism refers to the psychological process or individual difference of imbuing nonhuman agents with humanlike characteristics, motivations, intentions, or mental states. Elicited agent knowledge, effectance motivation, and sociality motivation have been found as the three key determinants of anthropomorphism. Existing research mainly focused on anthropomorphism of nature, super-nature, animals, machines, brands, and products. Previous research found that, anthropomorphizing nature contributed to pro-environment behavior, while anthropomorphism of animals, machines, brands or products had diversified forms and ambiguous consequences. Future research might be mainly conducted in human-robot interaction area, as well as the relationship between anthropomorphism and cuteness.
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    Research Paradigms and Theoretical Models of Social Exclusion
    null    2011, 19 (6): 905-915.  
    Social exclusion is regarded as a common phenomenon which has great influence on individual and society. It also has a variety of paradigms that include rejection paradigm, ostracism paradigm, life alone paradigm, and so on, and models that consist of temporal need-threat model, multimotive model, emotional numbness and self-control failure theory. The effects of social exclusion on basic needs, emotion, and self-esteem are still in the arguments. The developments of paradigm application and ecological validity as well as the explorations on social exclusion origins and results in the future are being ignited, as to the localization are also raised.
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    A Review of the Theory of Planned Behavior
    Duan Wenting;Jiang Guangrong
    null    2008, 16 (02): 315-320.  
    Theory of planned behavior (TPB) is the most famous theory about attitude-behavior in social psychology and has been found to be well supported by empirical evidences. According to TPB, intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. In this paper, various aspects of TPB were introduced, including its derivation, general picture, measurements, new researches and developments. Other issues that remain unresolved and further studies were discussed in the end
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    Processing Efficiency Theory to Attentional Control Theory: New Perspective for Anxiety-performance Relationship in Sport Psychology
    SUN Guoxiao;ZHANG Liwei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2013, 21 (10): 1851-1864.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01851
    Sport psychology literature extensively reveals that competitive anxiety affects athletic performance (Sarason, 1984). However, the specific mechanisms of such negative relationship occurred between anxiety and performance still need to be further examined. Recently, processing efficiency theory and attentional control theory are further studied for attempting to explain the anxiety-performance relationship specifically in the areas of working memory and executive functions. Based on the research findings (Eysenck & Calvo, 1992), there are two theoretical assumptions for the processing efficiency theory: (1) anxiety impairs processing efficiency more than performance effectiveness, and (2) anxiety impairs the central executive system of working memory. Whereas, attentional control theory is a major development of processing efficiency theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007). Accordingly, there are also two theoretical assumptions for attentional control theory: (1) anxiety impairs goal-directed attentional system, (2) anxiety impairs efficiency of inhibition and shifting functions. Evidently, processing efficiency theory and attentional control theory both provide the useful frameworks to explain the specific mechanisms of anxiety-performance relationship, which is an imperative topic in sport psychology. Thus, the main purpose of this presentation is twofold: (1) to review the empirical research studies based on these two theories and (2) to recommend the implications for future research. Hopefully, our presentation would promote to further examine other anxiety-performance theories, improve the consistency of research protocol, take the cognitive perspectives into consideration of our research endeavor, and pay more attention to the effect of state anxiety for the purpose of enriching applied research literature.
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    Creating for Others: An Experimental Study of the Effects of Intrinsic Motivation and Prosocial Motivation on Creativity
    LI Yang; BAI Xinwen
    Advances in Psychological Science    2015, 23 (2): 175-181.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2015.00175

    Scholars of creativity research usually believe that intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity. However, more and more results have challenged and questioned this conclusion. According to the latest motivated information processing model, prosocial motivation can help people think about not only novel but also useful aspects of ideas to improve the whole creativity. This study used 2×2 between-subjects design. Through the manipulation of intrinsic motivation and prosocial motivation, participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions and completed a creative task. ANOVA indicated that there was a significant interaction effect of intrinsic motivation and prosocial motivation on creativity, and only when people had high levels of intrinsic motivation coupled with high levels of prosocial motivation, they would be most creative. This study proved the importance of prosocial motivation in creative process, and opened a new perspective of creativity research.

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    Random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA): Separating the between-subject variation from the within-subject variation
    WEN Congcong, ZHU Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (10): 1773-1782.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01773
    Traditional latent transition analysis (LTA) is usually done using single-level modeling, but can also be viewed as a two-level modeling from a multi-level perspective. In 2020, Muthén and Asparouhov proposed a so-called random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA) model which separates between-subject variation from within-subject variation. By integrating a random intercept factor, latent class transitions are represented on the within level, whereas the between level captures the variability across subjects.
    The random intercept factor f is the most important. If the factor loadings on the random intercept factor are large, this indicates that the item probabilities are large and thus the cases have large differences on these items. From this perspective, RI-LTA can be viewed as absorbing the measurement non-invariance of the model. Due to large item differences, the different latent classes are easy to distinguish. These differences are absorbed by the random intercept factor but are not set to influence the latent class variables. Therefore, the off-diagonal values of the transition probability matrix are larger. In traditional LTA, large differences across classes are not absorbed by the random intercept factor, which leads to smaller off-diagonal but larger diagonal values of the transition probability matrix.
    Performing RI-LTA in Mplus software can be done in three to four steps. First, implementing LCA across different time points; second, implementing traditional LTA and RI-LTA; third, saving the parameter estimates obtained in the second step and using them as population values to do a Monte Carlo simulation study; fourth, in the event of previous knowledge or existing applications, one may include covariates or distal outcomes in the model. Researchers can also perform multiple-group analysis, Markov chain mover-stayer analysis, multi-level RI-LTA, or longitudinal factor analysis to have deeper insight into the data.
    In the current study, a two-wave longitudinal data collection from undergraduates attending in the year 2016 at a research-oriented university was used to demonstrate how to implement RI-LTA in Mplus. The first three steps used were as described in the previous paragraph. For the fourth step, we performed a multiple-group analysis and investigated the interaction effects by including a “type of university enrolment” covariate. Results showed that students of the class labeled “strong intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class tended to switch to “strong intrinsic motivation but low extrinsic motivation” class and “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class at a 33.0% transition probability of staying in the original class with RI-LTA analysis, while these students tended to stay in the original class at a 68.9% staying transition probability with traditional LTA analysis. This indicated that RI-LTA avoided overestimation on the transition probabilities of students staying in the original class and allowed for clearer interpretation of the data. The RI-LTA model was shown to be better than the traditional LTA model in this situation. By including a “type of university enrolment” covariate, the multiple-group analysis indicated that measurement invariance should be established. Most of the regression coefficients of latent classes on covariate were not significant except c1#1 on dummy2, which was significant at a value of -2.364. This indicated that students who were enrolled via the independent admission examinations and endorsed the “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class were fewer than the recommended students We also found that the interaction effects of the covariate and c1 on c2 were not significant. Thus, a more parsimonious measurement invariant multiple-group analysis including a covariate but without interaction effect model should be chosen. Future research could use Monte Carlo simulation studies to investigate the applicability of RI-LTA, for example by manipulating sample sizes, numbers of indicators, latent classes, and time points. Inspired by multi-level modeling, the implementation of multi-level RI-LTA in statistical software should also be explored further.
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    The dark side of positive leadership: A review and prospect
    WANG Zhen, LONG Yufan, PENG Jian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (6): 1123-1140.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01123

    Previous leadership research has primarily concentrated on the bright side of positive leadership styles, while paying less attention to their possible dark side. Although the recent years have witnessed an increasing number of these inquiries, there is still a lack of a clear understanding of the dark side of positive leadership. A review of 41 empirical journal articles illustrates the scientific status of this research area. In general, research has illustrated the dark side of behavior-oriented leadership (i.e., transformational, ethical, empowering, inclusive, and benevolent leadership) as well as relationship-oriented leadership (i.e., leader-member exchange) in terms of their negative effects on leaders, followers, and teams. Besides the research that solely examined the negative effect, there is a body of research that investigated the double-edged sword effects and nonlinear effect of positive leadership. Social identity theory, social exchange theory, psychoanalysis theory, social information processing theory, and resource-based theories were primarily used to account for the dark side of positive leadership. Future research should develop an integrated theoretical framework underlying the dark side of positive leadership, extend existing literature by examining the dark side of other leadership styles, and identify the boundary conditions that alleviate these dark side effects. Group differences (e.g., cultures, generation, and gender) should also be considered as boundary conditions of the dark side of positive leadership.

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    Face Imagery Enhances Event-Related Potentials to Ambiguous Visual Stimuli
    陆灵犀; 李量
    Advances in Psychological Science    2016, 24 (Suppl.): 19-.  

    PURPOSE: The neural mechanism underlying face processing involves both bottom-up sensory processing of a face stimulus and top-down modulation. Face stimuli can elicit specific event-related potentials (ERPs), including N170, vertex positive potential (VPP), and P2, which are based on different bottom-up and top-down interactions at different processing levels. The specific top-down face processing without bottom-up contamination remains largely unknown. Particularly, it is unclear what neural responses manifest the top-down face-specific modulation while bottom-up inputs of physical features of faces are eliminated.
    METHODS: This study was to examine the ERP components that are specifically modulated by the face imagery when random ambiguous visual stimuli are presented. Sixteen participants received two blocks of ambiguous stimuli, in which they were instructed to imagine either faces or houses upon looking at the ambiguous stimuli. The waveforms of VPP at the fronto-central sites, and N170 and P2 at the occipito-temporal sites were measured and analyzed.
    RESULTS: Both VPP and P2 responses were enhanced by the face imagery compared to the non-face (house) imagery, and N170 disappeared when eliminating the physical face features.
    CONCLUSIONS: Ambiguous-stimulus-induced VPP and P2, but not N170, can be modulated by the top-down face-imagery processing when bottom-up face-signal inputs are eliminated.

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    A new type of mental health assessment using artificial intelligence technique
    JIANG Liming, TIAN Xuetao, REN Ping, LUO Fang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 157-167.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00157
    The application of artificial intelligence and big data mining technology in the field of mental health has promoted the development of intelligent mental health assessment. Intelligent mental health assessment entails the application of artificial intelligence technology in acquiring and analyzing data and modeling the relationship between behavioral features and mental health problems. Intelligent mental health assessment has broadened the forms of data and the analysis methods of traditional mental health assessment, enabling researchers to obtain multi-modal data based on more simulated situations and achieve more efficient and accurate assessments.
    At present, researchers mainly carry out mental health assessments based on social media data, smart device data, video game data, and wearable device data to explore various features related to mental health and build predictive models. Social media data mainly refer to the text content posted by users on social media, which is widely used in psychological assessment. Researchers have explored text features related to mental health. Foreign researchers mainly predict users' mental health conditions based on the contents posted on platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. Domestic researchers mostly rely on Weibo and other platforms to conduct related research. Smartphones and other devices record individual daily behavioral data, including application software use, communication, location movement (based on GPS), etc. These behavioral data provided effective information for predicting the psychological characteristics of individuals. Besides, with the widespread use of smartphones and other mobile devices, collecting audio and video data has become more convenient. Researchers can extract features such as actions, voices, and expressions to achieve an immediate and automatic evaluation of participants' mental health. Video game data refers to the log data of the player during the game. It contains a wealth of behavioral performance information of the individual in the virtual environment. Researchers can evaluate the individual's abilities and psychological characteristics based on the data. Game-based assessment is mainly used to assess individual abilities and cognitive impairment. However, there are few studies on mental health assessment based on games, only some assessments of the positive personality. Mental health problems are often accompanied by obvious physiological reactions. Researchers use wearable devices to collect physiological indicators such as brain electricity, eye movements, heart rate, and skin temperature for mental health monitoring. Researchers use EEG data and eye movement data to identify mental health problems related to emotions and attention. Indicators of skin temperature and heart rate reflect the individual's mood and stress state and therefore have the potential to predict the level of individual mental health.
    The future research directions of intelligent mental health assessment mainly include five aspects. First, previous research on intelligent mental health assessment has often used data-driven methods to explore features and construct predicting models, which is hard to explain the complex relationship between behavioral indicators and latent mental health state. Therefore, further improvement of pertinence and refinement is demanded. Researchers should design tasks based on psychological theories, carry out meaningful feature extraction, and gradually refine from rough dichotomous diagnosis to continuous and typed diagnosis. Second, unsupervised data mining is difficult to ensure the validity and interpretability of assessment. To carry out effective assessment and reduce errors in the new simulated environment, the task design of intelligent mental health assessment should be designed based on the evidence center. Third, the current intelligent mental health assessment mainly uses the indicators in the computer field, and the relevant research considering the reliability and validity is very rare. Researchers should select prediction models based on specific tasks and test the generalization and stability of prediction models in different datasets and scenarios. Fourth, different data sources and features have unique advantages. Researchers could obtain multi-modal data for modeling and analysis with the application of the advanced technology of artificial intelligence. Finally, privacy protection and ethical issues are essential for intelligent mental health assessment. Subjects should be notified before data acquisition and use.
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    Testosterone and human decision-making
    LIAO Jiajun, LI Hong, WU Yin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (9): 1607-1621.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01607

    Testosterone is one of the steroid hormones (i.e. androgen). Early research has shown that testosterone played a large role in the human aggressive and impulsive behavior. There is increasing interest in the effects of testosterone on human decision-making, including social (i.e. trust, cooperation, altruism, and competition) and economic decision-making (i.e. risk taking). In general, there is a positive association between testosterone level and risk-seeking behavior in economic decision-making. In the social domain, high testosterone levels are associated with more aggressive, dominant, and fairness behavior. Testosterone administration also reduced interpersonal trust. Note that some findings are hard to replicate, and more research is needed to investigate potential moderators. Future research could fruitfully explore the role of testosterone in consumer decision-making, adolescent’s social behavior and clinical application.

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    The relationship between rumination and attention disengagement and the underlying neural mechanism
    LIU Qipeng, ZHAO Xiaoyun, WANG Cuiyan, XU Yiya, WANG Shuyan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (1): 102-111.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00102
    Rumination is a repetitively negative thinking which bring individual’s attention on negative and painful thoughts. Studies have shown that, rumination and impaired attentional disengagement are independent concepts, yet with closed connection. Impaired attentional disengagement can predict individual’s rumination, while impaired attentional disengagement related to rumination may be controlled by consciousness. Meanwhile, the role of rumination type and self-relevance between rumination and impaired attentional disengagement needs further exploration. In addition, training related to impaired attention disengagement significantly improves individuals’ rumination. And the excessive activation of amygdala, dysregulation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for self-related negative information, abnormal activation of right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), structural and functional abnormalities of the brain neural networks associated with attention may be the reasons for the interaction between rumination and impaired attention disengagement.
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    Nudging in field interventions of anti-poverty based on randomized controlled trials
    XU Fu-ming, HUANG Long, ZHANG Hui
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (11): 1953-1960.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01953
    The eradication of poverty is a top priority for developing countries and the most important goal of the Millennium Development Goals all over the world. Behavioral economists and development economists are employing the randomized control trials and nudge techniques to help the poor get rid of poverty within the globe. The current nudge action that uses randomized control experiments to help poor people overcome behavioral deviations is mainly manifested in helping poor people improve their current material conditions and enhance future security. The research and practice of random control experiments and nudging technologies in China have also effectively helped poor farmers improve their physical and mental health, and economic income. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the external validity test of randomized control experiments and nudging techniques, the similarities and differences among them, and combine with the endogenous power of poverty alleviation to formulate more simple, efficient, and strict poverty alleviation policies and projects.
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    Pointing Gestures: Evidence from Animal Communication System
    LI Heng
    Advances in Psychological Science    2014, 22 (9): 1496-1503.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2014.01496

    Pointing gestures are usually defined as the manual movements pointing to an object or location. Whether Pointing gestures are unique to human communication system is a question of intense psychological research. A comprehensive review of the main theories and related debates suggests that animals may not only have the ability to use pointing gestures, but also can interpret the social cognitive intentionality behind pointing gestures. We conclude that future researches on pointing gestures should integrate psychology, linguistics, biology and other multidisciplinary integration. We also offer suggestions for overcoming the drawbacks of research samples, experiment task and research method.

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    Motivated Information Processing Model: Theory and Applications
    WU Meng;BAI Xin-Wen
    Advances in Psychological Science    2012, 20 (11): 1889-1898.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01889
    Based on “groups as information processor perspective”, motivated information processing (MIP) model emphasizes that information processing and sharing depends on two types of motivations, epistemic motivation and social motivation, respectively. Epistemic motivation refers to the willingness to expend effort to achieve a thorough, rich, and accurate understanding of the world. It determines the depth of information processing. Social motivation is defined as the individual preference for outcome distributions between oneself and others. It influences which information will be processed. Epistemic motivation and social motivation, alone and in combination, interpret information processing at both individual and team level, and information sharing at team level. MIP model contributes to the industrial/organizational psychology literature by integrating the dual-process theory and groups as information processor perspective, and by providing a new perspective in the fields of negotiation, creativity, and team effectiveness. Limitations and implications for future study of MIP model are discussed.
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    A Review of Fear of Failure Researches
    Sun Xiaoling;Wang Ling
    null    2007, 15 (04): 637-641.  
    Fear of failure (FF) has drawn more and more attention as an avoidance motivation or as a negative emotion in recent years. The paper introduced the evolution of FF concept and structures, the FF measure tools which changed from unidimensional to multidimensional, the development and prevention of FF based on psychodynamic theory and the intervention using new multidimensional measure tool. Proposed issues for further studies include determining whether fear of failure has cross-cultural or cross-contextual differences and finding the realistic significance of FF researches in China
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    Statistical Remedies for Common Method Biases
    Zhou Hao,Long Lirong
    null    2004, 12 (06): 942-942~950.  
    The problem of common method biases has being given more and more attention in the field of psychology, but there is little research about it in China, and the effects of common method bias are not well controlled. Generally, there are two ways of controlling common method biases, procedural remedies and statistical remedies. In this paper, statistical remedies for common method biases are provided, such as factor analysis, partial correlation, latent method factor, structural equation model, and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed separately. Finally, suggestions of how to choose these remedies are given.
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    The View of Embodied Emotion: A New Perspective on Emotion Study
    LIU Ya;WANG Zhen-Hong;KONG Feng
    null    2011, 19 (1): 50-59.  
    The view of embodied emotion has considerable theoretical hypotheses and research evidence. From peripheral theory of emotion to facial feedback hypotheses and somatic marker hypothesis, then to the view of embodied emotion, they all agree that emotion is embodied. The view of embodied emotion argues that emotion is embodied in persons’ bodies, including persons’ brains. The body anatomy, body activities, and the perceptual and motor experience of the body determine how we process emotional information. A series of studies concerning behavioral and brain mechanisms of the view of embodied emotion all have supported that emotional information process is embodied. Currently, we can use the hypothesis of mirror neuron system (MNS), the theory of embodied simulation or perceptual symbol system (PSS) account to explain various phenomenons of the embodied emotion. As a new theoretical notion, the view of embodied emotion provides a new perspective on emotion study.
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    A Review on the Studies of Social Value Orientation in Western Countries
    WU Bao-Pei;KOU Yu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2008, 16 (06): 987-992.  
    Social value orientation is a relatively stable personality trait, which indicates preferences for particular patterns of outcome distributed to the self and others. Researches on social value orientation in western countries presented a theoretical development from the two-dimensional model to the integrative model. These researches proved the influence of social value orientation on individuals’ behavior choice and social cognition, both in experimental labs and in real life. Interpersonal orientation propositions, the latest theoretical progress in this domain,are discussed. Situational factors and egalitarian orientation should also be highlighted in later empirical studies
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