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    A Review of the Theory of Planned Behavior
    Duan Wenting;Jiang Guangrong
    null    2008, 16 (02): 315-320.  
    Theory of planned behavior (TPB) is the most famous theory about attitude-behavior in social psychology and has been found to be well supported by empirical evidences. According to TPB, intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. In this paper, various aspects of TPB were introduced, including its derivation, general picture, measurements, new researches and developments. Other issues that remain unresolved and further studies were discussed in the end
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    Processing Efficiency Theory to Attentional Control Theory: New Perspective for Anxiety-performance Relationship in Sport Psychology
    SUN Guoxiao;ZHANG Liwei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2013, 21 (10): 1851-1864.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01851
    Sport psychology literature extensively reveals that competitive anxiety affects athletic performance (Sarason, 1984). However, the specific mechanisms of such negative relationship occurred between anxiety and performance still need to be further examined. Recently, processing efficiency theory and attentional control theory are further studied for attempting to explain the anxiety-performance relationship specifically in the areas of working memory and executive functions. Based on the research findings (Eysenck & Calvo, 1992), there are two theoretical assumptions for the processing efficiency theory: (1) anxiety impairs processing efficiency more than performance effectiveness, and (2) anxiety impairs the central executive system of working memory. Whereas, attentional control theory is a major development of processing efficiency theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007). Accordingly, there are also two theoretical assumptions for attentional control theory: (1) anxiety impairs goal-directed attentional system, (2) anxiety impairs efficiency of inhibition and shifting functions. Evidently, processing efficiency theory and attentional control theory both provide the useful frameworks to explain the specific mechanisms of anxiety-performance relationship, which is an imperative topic in sport psychology. Thus, the main purpose of this presentation is twofold: (1) to review the empirical research studies based on these two theories and (2) to recommend the implications for future research. Hopefully, our presentation would promote to further examine other anxiety-performance theories, improve the consistency of research protocol, take the cognitive perspectives into consideration of our research endeavor, and pay more attention to the effect of state anxiety for the purpose of enriching applied research literature.
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    Food labeling effects in marketing
    YANG Qiaoying, LIU Wumei, ZHANG Dong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1669-1683.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01669
    As a tool to convey food-related information to consumers, food labels can effectively solve the problem of information asymmetry in food consumption. With the popularization of food labels in practice, more and more scholars have begun to pay attention to the impact of different food labels on consumer behavior. However, most of the existing studies focus on a single food label type and its effects, lacking of comparison and discussion on the effects of different food labels and their inherent mechanisms and boundary conditions. Based on this, this paper reviews the research on food labels in the field of marketing, which focuses on how different types of food labels affect individuals' cognition, emotion and behavior. Meanwhile, this paper introduces the regulatory orientation theory to explain the different effects of different food labels, and on this basis, a more integrated food label effect framework is constructed in this paper.
    Through combing the existing literature, the existing research on food labeling has roughly underwent three stages. The first stage began in the early 1980s. The demand for the nutritional value of food led to the attention and research on the nutrition label. The second stage started around 2000. Scholars mainly focus on labels that can convey information about food safety and quality. In the third stage, in the last decade, eco-environmental labels attracted more attention from consumers and scholars. Based on the different levels of information coverage, food labels can be divided into two types: product-level labels and ingredient-level labels. The product-level label refers to the label which is used to explain the overall characteristics and quality information of the food (including date label, health warning label, organic label, natural label, brand information, genetically modified organism label, eco label, and fair trade label). However, the ingredient-level label refers to the label that is used to display the specific nutritional information of the food (including nutrition facts panel, GDA label, low-fat label, health claim, traffic light label, health star rating, calorie menu label, shelf label).
    Further analysis and comparison showed that different types of food labels differ in influencing results, mechanism of action, and boundaries. Specifically, the product-level labels can arouse consumers' perceptions of safety, risk, and morality, and can effectively increase consumers' trust in products. At the same time, after purchasing products with such labels, consumers will show more food waste and repeated purchases. Ingredient-level labels, on the other hand, mainly affects consumers' perceptions of product health, as well as subsequent food choices and food intake. The theory of regulatory orientation helps to explain the different effects of the two types of food labels. The product-level labels more often initiate consumer preventive orientation, while the ingredient-level labels activate consumer promotion orientation. In addition, the two types of food labeling effects are driven by the halo effect, information processing, conceptual metaphor, social identity, attribute inference and other mechanisms. Besides, these effects are moderated by social demographic factors, individual differences, and product characteristics.
    On the one hand, combing and commenting on the effects of different food labels can provide reference for food manufacturers to carry out food marketing practices. On the other hand, through the construction of food label research framework in the field of marketing, it can point out the context and direction for marketing scholars to carry out empirical research on food label. Based on the overall framework of food labeling effects constructed in this paper, we propose that further research on the topic of food label can be carried out from following aspects in the future: (1) Expanding the behavioral results of ingredient-level labels; (2) Expanding the behavioral results of product-level labels; (3) Exploring the impact of different food label presentation forms on consumers; (4) Expanding the outer packaging labels and related research; and (5) Exploring the reversal mechanism of the negative effects of food labels.
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    Random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA): Separating the between-subject variation from the within-subject variation
    WEN Congcong, ZHU Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (10): 1773-1782.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01773
    Traditional latent transition analysis (LTA) is usually done using single-level modeling, but can also be viewed as a two-level modeling from a multi-level perspective. In 2020, Muthén and Asparouhov proposed a so-called random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA) model which separates between-subject variation from within-subject variation. By integrating a random intercept factor, latent class transitions are represented on the within level, whereas the between level captures the variability across subjects.
    The random intercept factor f is the most important. If the factor loadings on the random intercept factor are large, this indicates that the item probabilities are large and thus the cases have large differences on these items. From this perspective, RI-LTA can be viewed as absorbing the measurement non-invariance of the model. Due to large item differences, the different latent classes are easy to distinguish. These differences are absorbed by the random intercept factor but are not set to influence the latent class variables. Therefore, the off-diagonal values of the transition probability matrix are larger. In traditional LTA, large differences across classes are not absorbed by the random intercept factor, which leads to smaller off-diagonal but larger diagonal values of the transition probability matrix.
    Performing RI-LTA in Mplus software can be done in three to four steps. First, implementing LCA across different time points; second, implementing traditional LTA and RI-LTA; third, saving the parameter estimates obtained in the second step and using them as population values to do a Monte Carlo simulation study; fourth, in the event of previous knowledge or existing applications, one may include covariates or distal outcomes in the model. Researchers can also perform multiple-group analysis, Markov chain mover-stayer analysis, multi-level RI-LTA, or longitudinal factor analysis to have deeper insight into the data.
    In the current study, a two-wave longitudinal data collection from undergraduates attending in the year 2016 at a research-oriented university was used to demonstrate how to implement RI-LTA in Mplus. The first three steps used were as described in the previous paragraph. For the fourth step, we performed a multiple-group analysis and investigated the interaction effects by including a “type of university enrolment” covariate. Results showed that students of the class labeled “strong intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class tended to switch to “strong intrinsic motivation but low extrinsic motivation” class and “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class at a 33.0% transition probability of staying in the original class with RI-LTA analysis, while these students tended to stay in the original class at a 68.9% staying transition probability with traditional LTA analysis. This indicated that RI-LTA avoided overestimation on the transition probabilities of students staying in the original class and allowed for clearer interpretation of the data. The RI-LTA model was shown to be better than the traditional LTA model in this situation. By including a “type of university enrolment” covariate, the multiple-group analysis indicated that measurement invariance should be established. Most of the regression coefficients of latent classes on covariate were not significant except c1#1 on dummy2, which was significant at a value of -2.364. This indicated that students who were enrolled via the independent admission examinations and endorsed the “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class were fewer than the recommended students We also found that the interaction effects of the covariate and c1 on c2 were not significant. Thus, a more parsimonious measurement invariant multiple-group analysis including a covariate but without interaction effect model should be chosen. Future research could use Monte Carlo simulation studies to investigate the applicability of RI-LTA, for example by manipulating sample sizes, numbers of indicators, latent classes, and time points. Inspired by multi-level modeling, the implementation of multi-level RI-LTA in statistical software should also be explored further.
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    Understanding mechanisms of prediction error cost in Chinese reading for older adults
    LI Lin, ZHAO Sainan, ZHANG Lijuan, WANG Jingxin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00001
    An important question for research on reading across the lifespan concerns whether mechanisms of cognitive processing undergo only quantitative changes or also qualitative changes with aging. To process written language effectively, readers use their existing knowledge to make predictive inferences about linguistic information. Quite often this will facilitate the processing of newly acquired information but will sometimes incur a processing cost due to predictive error. As Older adults appear to rely more heavily on lexical prediction during reading (Zhao et al., 2019, 2021). However, it is currently unknown whether, like young adults, they experience a processing cost due to predictive error, and whether the magnitude of this cost differs across age adult groups. Accordingly, the present research aims to understand the processing consequence of predictive error in both young and older adults, using methods that can shed light on both the behavioral and neural bases of these effects. This will be achieved using novel co-registration methods that synchronize the recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals with eye movements, so that behavioral and neural indices of language processing can be acquired simultaneously, in real-time, during natural reading. In particular, this approach will enable the analysis of fixated-related potentials (FRPs), which are averaged EEG waveforms time-locked to a fixation on a target word in a sentence during normal reading.
    Study 1 will manipulate whether a target word is predictable from the prior sentence context, using contexts in which the target word is predictable, ones in which it is unpredictable, and neutral contexts containing an unpredictable word. Crucially, comparisons of an unpredictable word in neutral compared to constraining contexts will provide a measure of prediction error, which is the cost incurred when the target word is unpredicted in a constraining context. The study will investigate the behavioral and neural correlates of this prediction error using a combination of eye movement measures and FRPs for target words. Moreover, by investigating age differences in these effects (i.e., for young compared to older adults) the study will reveal whether this prediction error differs across adult age groups.
    Study 2 will test these effects further by examining both the contribution to the prediction error cost of parafoveal information availability and individual differences in visual, cognitive and linguistic abilities. To examine the contribution of these individual differences, we will comprehensively assess the visual, cognitive and linguistic abilities of young and older adult participants prior their taking part in experiments. We will obtain information about participants' educational background, vocabulary knowledge and recent reading experience to match participants in terms of formal educational experience and to obtain indices of linguistic experience. In addition, we will assess processing speed, working memory, and inhibition as measures of cognitive capabilities. The data obtained will be used for the linear mixed-effects modelling of Study 3. Experiment 1 will use the boundary paradigm to investigate age differences in the prediction error cost when parafoveal information is available or not. The aim of this experiment is to establish whether limiting the availability of parafoveal information about an upcoming word differentially impacts lexical prediction by young and older adults. Experiment 2 will use masking text paradigm to investigate the aging effects on prediction error cost under high or low working memory load conditions. The aim of this experiment is to explore the effect of working memory load on prediction processing mechanism of young and older readers. Finally, in Experiment 3, the older adult participants will be divided into good and poor reading skill groups to examine whether there is a difference in the prediction error cost for older participants with good and poor reading skills as compared to skilled young adult readers. This will reveal how reading skills mediates predictive processing by older adults.
    Study 3 will use linear mixed-effects modelling and data-mining methods. All relevant factors will be included in the model analysis as covariates to investigate their effects on the prediction processing of older readers. Moreover, survival analysis and distribution analysis will be adopted to investigate the time course and individual differences of the above-mentioned effects (using data from Study 1 and 2).
    The findings from these studies will provide important insights into the nature of effects of cognitive aging and individual differences in visual, cognitive and linguistic abilities on neural and cognitive indices of word prediction in reading, and will form the basis for future models of these effects in Chinese reading. Moreover, the findings will shed light on the contribution of parafoveal processing, memory load, and reading skill on the predictive abilities of older adult readers.
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    Motivated Information Processing Model: Theory and Applications
    WU Meng;BAI Xin-Wen
    Advances in Psychological Science    2012, 20 (11): 1889-1898.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01889
    Based on “groups as information processor perspective”, motivated information processing (MIP) model emphasizes that information processing and sharing depends on two types of motivations, epistemic motivation and social motivation, respectively. Epistemic motivation refers to the willingness to expend effort to achieve a thorough, rich, and accurate understanding of the world. It determines the depth of information processing. Social motivation is defined as the individual preference for outcome distributions between oneself and others. It influences which information will be processed. Epistemic motivation and social motivation, alone and in combination, interpret information processing at both individual and team level, and information sharing at team level. MIP model contributes to the industrial/organizational psychology literature by integrating the dual-process theory and groups as information processor perspective, and by providing a new perspective in the fields of negotiation, creativity, and team effectiveness. Limitations and implications for future study of MIP model are discussed.
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    The dark side of positive leadership: A review and prospect
    WANG Zhen, LONG Yufan, PENG Jian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (6): 1123-1140.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01123

    Previous leadership research has primarily concentrated on the bright side of positive leadership styles, while paying less attention to their possible dark side. Although the recent years have witnessed an increasing number of these inquiries, there is still a lack of a clear understanding of the dark side of positive leadership. A review of 41 empirical journal articles illustrates the scientific status of this research area. In general, research has illustrated the dark side of behavior-oriented leadership (i.e., transformational, ethical, empowering, inclusive, and benevolent leadership) as well as relationship-oriented leadership (i.e., leader-member exchange) in terms of their negative effects on leaders, followers, and teams. Besides the research that solely examined the negative effect, there is a body of research that investigated the double-edged sword effects and nonlinear effect of positive leadership. Social identity theory, social exchange theory, psychoanalysis theory, social information processing theory, and resource-based theories were primarily used to account for the dark side of positive leadership. Future research should develop an integrated theoretical framework underlying the dark side of positive leadership, extend existing literature by examining the dark side of other leadership styles, and identify the boundary conditions that alleviate these dark side effects. Group differences (e.g., cultures, generation, and gender) should also be considered as boundary conditions of the dark side of positive leadership.

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    Self-esteem and brain: A social neuroscience approach
    YANG Ziyan; LUO Yu; GU Ruolei; LIU Yunzhi; CAI Huajian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2017, 25 (5): 788-798.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00788

    Accumulating research has approached self-esteem from the perspective of social neuroscience. A review of relevant research indicates that: 1) self-esteem is related to brain physiologically with high self-esteem associating with larger hippocampus volume and regional gray matter volume of anterior cingulate cortex; 2) self-esteem is also related to the resting state of default mode network and functional connectivity among some specific brain areas; 3) self-esteem modulates brain activities to threats such that individuals with low self-esteem exhibit stronger neural responses to self-threatening stimuli; 4) self-esteem modulates brain activities during self-evaluation process. Overall, these findings shed light on the neural basis of self-esteem as well as its adaptive functions.

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    The effect of oxytocin on social decision-making
    Xukai ZHANG, Hang YIN, Peng LI, Hong LI
    Advances in Psychological Science    2018, 26 (8): 1438-1449.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01438

    A growing number of studies have recently focused on the functional significance of oxytocin (OT) in human social decision-making. With various experimental paradigms being developed, previous studies have shown that oxytocin (OT)plays an important regulatory role in interpersonal decision-making. In the OT research field, researchers have looked into many aspects of social decision-making, including cooperation and protection, morality, trust, generous behavior. Three possible hypotheses for oxytocin function were proposed to interpret current findings, however, no unified theory has yet been suggested to integrate all the observed phenomena. Future studies should focus on the physiological mechanisms of intranasal OT and receptor gene polymorphisms, take the gender differences into consideration, and establish a more appropriate and testable theoretical model.

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    Embodied Cognition: A New Approach in Cognitive Psychology
    YE Hao-Sheng
    null    2010, 18 (05): 705-710.  
    The embodied cognition approach in cognitive psychology is featured as the emphasis it places on the role the body plays in an organism’s cognitive processes. Its central meanings include the following claims: (1) steps in a cognitive process might emerge from the physical attributes of the body; (2) it tries to account for the content of cognition by appeal to the nature of the body; (3) cognitive processes or states might be extended into the environment in which the cognition takes place. At first, the study of embodied cognition is only a kinds of philosophical thinking. But now, It has already extended to the experimental study of cognitive psychology. However, there are still some burning problems before it.
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    The Self-evaluation Bias in Rating One’s Ability: The Dunning-Kruger Effect
    CHEN Yanjun;SHI Wei;YING Hu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2013, 21 (12): 2204-2213.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.02204

    The Dunning-Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly evaluate their ability in a given task. This is especially true for unskilled individuals, who often overestimate their ability, and sometimes even falsely rate their ability much higher than average. On the other hand, more competent individuals often underestimate themselves. For unskilled performers, the inability to recognize their incompetence is due to the metacognition deficiency, while for the most competent performers, the false-consensus effect makes them unable to perceive their ability precisely. Different explanations for this phenomenon have been given from different perspectives, such as regression to the mean and better-than-average heuristic, nature of the task and motivational factors. Besides, factors like egocentric nature, anchoring and insufficient adjustment heuristic, social feedback, and chronic self-concept may also affect one’s self-evaluation. The future research about Dunning-Kruger effect should focus more on research scope, experimental paradigm, error control, cultural difference, its influence on psychological adaption and performance, and so on.

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    Testosterone and human decision-making
    LIAO Jiajun, LI Hong, WU Yin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (9): 1607-1621.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01607

    Testosterone is one of the steroid hormones (i.e. androgen). Early research has shown that testosterone played a large role in the human aggressive and impulsive behavior. There is increasing interest in the effects of testosterone on human decision-making, including social (i.e. trust, cooperation, altruism, and competition) and economic decision-making (i.e. risk taking). In general, there is a positive association between testosterone level and risk-seeking behavior in economic decision-making. In the social domain, high testosterone levels are associated with more aggressive, dominant, and fairness behavior. Testosterone administration also reduced interpersonal trust. Note that some findings are hard to replicate, and more research is needed to investigate potential moderators. Future research could fruitfully explore the role of testosterone in consumer decision-making, adolescent’s social behavior and clinical application.

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    Empathy interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: Giving full play to strengths or making up for weaknesses?
    HUO Chao, LI Zuoshan, MENG Jing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (5): 849-863.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00849
    The empathy deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may cause their social interaction barriers. Therefore, it’s very important to intervene the empathy ability of individuals with ASD. Some researchers proposed the empathy method of “making up for weaknesses”, indicating a direct intervention for the empathy deficits of individuals with ASD, including the theory of mind (TOM) intervention, the perspective-taking intervention, the intervention of facial expression cognition, and so on. However, others thought although individuals with ASD had empathy deficits, their systematic capability was excellent. Therefore, the empathy ability of individuals with ASD should be improved through their innate advantage of systematic capability, called the empathy method of “giving full play to strengths”, mainly including the lego therapy, the serious games intervention and the island-based intervention based on systemizing theory. All of the methods mentioned above had their own advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the reflection and prospect on the problems existing in the field of empathy interventions for individuals with ASD were put forward.
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    The effect of time and money concepts on consumers' purchase decision and its psychological mechanism
    HE Ruwan, LI Bin, ZHANG Shuying, CUI Xinyue, LEI Li
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1684-1695.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01684
    Time and money are two important resources that affect consumer decision-making differently. Based on the dual-process theory, this paper discusses the effect of time and money concepts on consumers' purchase decisions and its psychological mechanism through reviewing previous literature.
    Specifically, the effect of time and money would be differential in consumers' the purchase decision process such as pre-purchase stage, purchasing stage, and post purchase stage. For pre-purchase decisions stage, the concept of time and money will affect consumers' product search and product evaluation strategy. When consumers search for products, currency of search (time or money) will moderate the effect of magnitude of search costs on people's willingness to search. When the currency is money, lower (vs. higher) search costs will result in higher willingness to search. When the currency is time, this effect of search costs on willingness to search will be relatively weaker. As for consumer's product evaluation, they will adopt an alternative-based evaluation strategy to evaluate product information after they are activated time concept and adopt an attribute-based evaluation strategy to evaluate product information after they are activated money concept. For purchasing decision stage, the impacts of priming time and money on product selection are different. Consumers will make different choices between virtue and vice products, hedonic and utilitarian products, experiential purchases and material purchases, and anthropomorphized products when they are activated time or money concepts. That is, if the time concept is activated, consumers tend to choose a virtue product, hedonic product, experiential purchases and prefer anthropomorphic products with no prominent functional purpose. If money is activated, consumers tend to choose vice products, utilitarian products, material purchases and prefer the anthropomorphic products with prominent functional purpose. For post-purchase decision stage, the concepts of time and money also have different effects on consumers' product attitude and the consistency of product preferences. Time priming leads to a more positive attitude toward products and a higher degree of consistency in preferences than money priming. However, for luxury goods, free goods and high materialists, money priming has a better effect than time priming.
    From the perspective of the dual-process theory, the psychological mechanism due to different cognitive processing modes and mindsets that are primed by time and money. Concretely, because of the value of time are more ambiguous, difficult to calculate, difficult to explain, irreplaceable and intangible than money, consumers are more dependent on the experience system to process time and product information heuristically, holistically and affectively and fall into emotional maximization mindset. Because the value of money is more specific, easy to analyze, replaceable and tangible than time, consumers are more dependent on the rational system to process money and product information analytically and fall into value maximization mindset. As a result, due to the difference of time and money concepts, different processing methods and thinking patterns further lead to consumers make different purchase decisions in three aspects: pre-purchase decision (product search and product evaluation strategy), purchasing decision (product selection) and post-purchase decision (product attitude and the consistency of product preferences).
    Future research should further explore the following issues: (1) Elaborating the different effects of priming time and money on purchase decisions. (2) Considering the impact from the tradeoff between time and money on purchase decisions. (3) Further exploring the different influences of priming time and money on the pre-purchase decision. (4) Exploring the neural mechanisms underlying the different effects of time and money on purchase decisions.
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    Moral foreign language effect and its moderating variables: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    ZHU Lin, LIU Jinru, LI Jing, LIU Conghui
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 32-50.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00032
    Individual decisions in the field of moral judgement are often related to "hurting or sacrificing the innocent" and "tolerating immoral behaviors." Previous studies have shown that when presented with the moral decision-making situation within a foreign language context, the individuals will show a stronger utilitarian and a more tolerant moral evaluation tendency compared with the same situation within the native language context. This phenomenon is defined as the moral foreign language effect. The influence of the language context on the moral judgement has been investigated by numerous studies. However, the results were far from consistent. To this end, we used meta-analysis to explore the effect of the language type (native language vs. foreign language) on the individuals' utilitarian tendency in moral judgments, and we analyzed several moderating variables.
    A total of 19 papers were retrieved from literature, with 46 independent samples, 97 effect sizes and 9672 participants that met the inclusion criteria of the meta-analysis. First, we analyzed the effect of the language type (native language vs. foreign language) on the utilitarian tendency in moral judgments using the ‘metafor' R package. Next, the potential moderation effects of several factors were examined, including the moral dilemmas story type (personal moral dilemmas vs. impersonal moral dilemmas vs. daily moral evaluation situations), sex, scoring method (two-point scoring vs. multi-point scoring) and language family type (same vs. different). In addition, we used Bayesian factor estimation for secondary exploration of the results that had a nonsignificant moderating effect.
    Our meta-analysis resulted in the following findings. First, the main effect test indicated that the language type has a significant effect on the utilitarian tendency in moral judgment, with a small but stable moral foreign language effect (g = 0.23). Second, the moderation analysis indicated that the moral foreign language effect was influenced by the story type; there was a small but stable effect of the language type for personal moral dilemmas (g = 0.32), but not for impersonal moral dilemmas (g = 0.11) or daily moral evaluation situations (g = 0.12). The foreign language effect under impersonal moral dilemmas was affected by the scoring method; a significant effect was found under multi-point scoring (g = 0.27), but not under two-point scoring (g = 0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant moderating effect for the sex or language family type. In addition, Bayesian analysis showed only moderate evidence for the absence of moderating effect regarding the factors of sex, scoring methods and language family type. The stability of these conclusions can be further verified in future research.
    In summary, this study used meta-analysis to systematically explore the robustness and influencing factors of foreign language effects in moral judgment and answered the disputes about the stability of the moral foreign language effect. The results showed a small but relatively stable effect of the language type on the utilitarian orientation in moral judgment. We analyzed the moderating effects of multiple variables, including variables that have not been well-considered in previous studies, such as the scoring methods (two-point scoring vs. multi-point scoring). Our work did not only find the moderating effect of the type of moral dilemmas, but it also revealed the potential impact of the scoring method on the effect size. This provides certain enlightenment and guidance for future empirical studies when selecting the experimental materials and statistical methods. Finally, we used a variety of data processing methods to increase the robustness of the results. For example, robust variance estimation (RVE) was used to control the correlations between dependent effect sizes and compare our results with those of traditional meta-analysis, so as to understand how the results of the meta-analysis are influenced by the correlations between multiple dependent effect sizes.
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    The debate between inhibition and attribution of egocentric bias in visual perspective taking
    WU Menghui, XIE Jiushu, DENG Zhu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 179-187.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00179
    Visual perspective taking indicates that people understand whether others can see an object or what they have seen. In visual perspective taking, people see things from others' perspectives. Visual perspective taking is the foundation of cognitive development and also the starting point and premise of social interaction. However, ones' information usually interferes with others' perspectives. As a result, people who take others' perspectives would use their perspectives to understand others. This will result in biases in visual perspective taking. These biases are usually induced by ones' information, which is known as the egocentric bias. Egocentric bias plays an important role in unsuccessful social interaction. However, its inner mechanisms are still under debate. Specifically, the inhibitive selection model and fluency misattribution theory hold different statements on the emergence of the egocentric bias. The inhibitive selection model holds that when understanding others' perspectives, participants need to inhibit their perspectives and deal with the conflicts between their perspectives and others' perspectives. This inhibitive selection is related to the executive function, especially the inhibitory control. The fluency misattribution theory holds that when understanding others' perspectives, people tend to erroneously attribute their perspectives to others' perspectives, as their perspectives are more fluency in their minds. These two theories focus on different processes of visual perspective taking and then construct completely different theoretical approaches. The inhibitive selection model mainly focuses on the information inhibition process in the egocentric bias while ignores the information extraction and integration processes. On the contrary, the fluency misattribution theory focuses on the influence of extracting and integrating misinformation in the egocentric bias while ignores the influence of the information inhibition process. Therefore, this divergence in their theoretical approaches also suggests that the above-mentioned theories may not fully reveal the mechanisms of the egocentric bias. The present review will try to integrate the debates between the inhibitive selection model and fluency misattribution theory. Specifically, we first review the paradigms of the level-1 and level-2 visual perspective taking according to the processing level and complexity of visual perspective taking to examine the mechanisms of the egocentric bias. We found that the level-1 visual perspective taking is usually measured by the dot-probe paradigm. The level-2 visual perspective taking is usually measured by the own-body transformation task, director task, and ambiguous number paradigm. Then, we examine what factors may affect inhibitive selection and misattribution to find what factors may affect the egocentric bias. Furthermore, the inhibition-attribution collaboration model is proposed for the first time to bridge the gap between the inhibitive selection model and fluency misattribution theory. The inhibition-attribution collaboration model hypothesizes that the inhibitive selection model, which emphasizes the inhibitory process, and the fluency misattribution theory, which emphasizes the integration process, may not be mutually exclusive. These processes may jointly result in egocentric bias. Specifically, when taking others' perspectives with high uncertainty, people have difficulty in inferring others' views and perspectives correctly. In this case, the inhibitive selection model and fluency misattribution may result in egocentric bias through three processing pathways. Future studies should further test this model using the sophisticated paradigms on special groups of participants to explore how to improve social interaction by reducing egocentric bias.
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    What characteristics should the supervisor-subordinate relationship have? The supervisor-subordinate relational schema
    DAI Yufang, ZHANG Xiangqian, ZHENG Wenzhi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 216-229.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00216
    Most research on the relationship between supervisors and subordinates focuses on the actual characteristics of the relationship but lacks discussion on the implicit characteristics or patterns of the relationship. In contrast, the supervisor-subordinate relational schema focuses on the implicit cognition of the supervisor-subordinate relationship. This relational schema helps reveal the interaction process between supervisor and subordinate and advances theory in this area, providing theoretical guidance on how to promote supervisors' and subordinates' positive psychology and behaviors. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this paper defines the supervisor-subordinate relational schema as an individual's implicit cognition of the pattern or characteristics of the relationship between supervisors and subordinates. This cognitive structure can serve as role expectations and evaluative standards to assess the quality of supervisor-subordinate relationships consciously or unconsciously and as an interactive guide for individual behavior. In addition, this paper lists the measurement of the supervisor-subordinate relational schema and distinguishes the supervisor-subordinate relational schema from the related concepts. Both the supervisor-subordinate relational schema and the implicit theories of relationships belong to the domain-specific relational schemas, but the supervisor-subordinate relational schema focuses on the supervisor-subordinate relationship, while the implicit theories of relationships focus on the romantic relationship. The followership schema and the supervisor-subordinate relational schema are both schema structures. However, the cognitive object of the followership schema is followers (individual-level), while the cognitive object of the supervisor-subordinate relational schema is the supervisor-subordinate relationship (dyad-level). Relational self, relational identity, and the supervisor-subordinate relational schema all relate to relational cognition, but the definition objects are quite different. Relational self and relational identity define "Self" by relational cognition, while the supervisor-subordinate relational schema defines "Relationship." Individual traditionality and modernity, attachment style, leadership behavior, and cultural factors can predict the supervisor-subordinate relational schema. This relational schema can influence a leader's attitude and behavior and subordinates' loyalty, job performance, extra-role behavior, leader evaluation (ethical leadership), and supervisor-subordinate relationship evaluation. Meanwhile, the social-cognitive model of transference, pan familism, social learning theory can explain the antecedent influence to the supervisor-subordinate relational schema. Information processing theory is the leading theory to explain the consequences of the supervisor-subordinate relational schema. Future research is encouraged to identify the predictive factors of the supervisor-subordinate relational schema, expand its consequences, and explore its mediating mechanism.
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    Training On Working Memory: A Valuable Research Field
    ZHAO Xin; ZHOU Ren-Lai
    null    2010, 18 (05): 711-717.  
    The researchers adopted different working memory training methods to practice different groups. The results showed that working memory ability could be raised by training. The individual reading ability and intelligence level could be enhanced according to practice. The training could change brain activity and it had certain action for relieving special children clinical symptom. It gave a challenge to primary cognitive theory and relevant theoretical mode; moreover it provided effective assistance for education and clinical treatment. The research opened up a new trend in working memory. The further research should be devoted to improve training contents\evaluation and explore a working memory training system for clinical treatment.
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    The View of Embodied Emotion: A New Perspective on Emotion Study
    LIU Ya;WANG Zhen-Hong;KONG Feng
    null    2011, 19 (1): 50-59.  
    The view of embodied emotion has considerable theoretical hypotheses and research evidence. From peripheral theory of emotion to facial feedback hypotheses and somatic marker hypothesis, then to the view of embodied emotion, they all agree that emotion is embodied. The view of embodied emotion argues that emotion is embodied in persons’ bodies, including persons’ brains. The body anatomy, body activities, and the perceptual and motor experience of the body determine how we process emotional information. A series of studies concerning behavioral and brain mechanisms of the view of embodied emotion all have supported that emotional information process is embodied. Currently, we can use the hypothesis of mirror neuron system (MNS), the theory of embodied simulation or perceptual symbol system (PSS) account to explain various phenomenons of the embodied emotion. As a new theoretical notion, the view of embodied emotion provides a new perspective on emotion study.
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    Combination of Eye Movement and ERP Methods in Language Cognition: Theory, Method, and Application
    CHEN Qing-Rong1; WANG Meng-Juan1; LIU Hui-Ning2; TAN Ding-Liang1; DENG Zhu1; XU Xiao-Dong3, 4
    null    2011, 19 (2): 264-273.  
    Both eye movements (EM) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have excellent temporal resolution and are therefore ideal for capturing the millisecond-by-millisecond time course of language comprehension or production processes. Given that either of these two measures has its advantages as well as limitations over the other, it will be a promising way to study language cognition by using simultaneous ERPs and EM techniques. On basis of literature reviews in this filed, this paper made a comparison between these two methods and pointed out the necessities of using these two techniques simultaneously in language cognition, such as word recognition, parafoveal-on-foveal effects and syntactic agreement processing. Additionally, the authors introduced three ways of combing EM with ERPs: EM separately combined with ERPs, EM combined with EOG analysis and EM simultaneously combined with ERPs. Following these, the authors gave an introduction based on previous investigations on how to combine EM and ERPs in language cognition. Finally, the authors raised some questions and limitations about combination EM with ERPs, which should be paid more attention in future studies.
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