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    The relationship between rumination and attention disengagement and the underlying neural mechanism
    LIU Qipeng, ZHAO Xiaoyun, WANG Cuiyan, XU Yiya, WANG Shuyan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (1): 102-111.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00102
    Rumination is a repetitively negative thinking which bring individual’s attention on negative and painful thoughts. Studies have shown that, rumination and impaired attentional disengagement are independent concepts, yet with closed connection. Impaired attentional disengagement can predict individual’s rumination, while impaired attentional disengagement related to rumination may be controlled by consciousness. Meanwhile, the role of rumination type and self-relevance between rumination and impaired attentional disengagement needs further exploration. In addition, training related to impaired attention disengagement significantly improves individuals’ rumination. And the excessive activation of amygdala, dysregulation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for self-related negative information, abnormal activation of right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), structural and functional abnormalities of the brain neural networks associated with attention may be the reasons for the interaction between rumination and impaired attention disengagement.
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    Explanatory mechanism and theoretical model of unethical pro-organizational behavior
    YAN Qiusi, SUI Yang, HAO Xuejing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (2): 338-352.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00338
    Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior (UPB) defines the unethical behaviors of the organization's employees to protect the organization's interests. UPB is difficult to be identified in the organization, but it may bring negative effects to the organization. Due to the pro-organizational and immoral nature, the research of UPB has attracted wide attention from all walks of life. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the origin and definition of UPB. It is also necessary to learn from the interpretation path of "unethical behavior" to theoretically summarize the progress. This progress is made in the research on the cause of UPB from the explanatory mechanisms of rational decision and intuitive judgment to form a theoretical model. On such a basis, future research directions are proposed: the study of Unethical Pro-leader Behavior (UPLB) and Unethical Pro-group Behavior (UPGB); the moderating effect of corporate ownership on UPB in China; and the impact of role stress on UPB.
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    Random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA): Separating the between-subject variation from the within-subject variation
    WEN Congcong, ZHU Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (10): 1773-1782.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01773
    Traditional latent transition analysis (LTA) is usually done using single-level modeling, but can also be viewed as a two-level modeling from a multi-level perspective. In 2020, Muthén and Asparouhov proposed a so-called random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA) model which separates between-subject variation from within-subject variation. By integrating a random intercept factor, latent class transitions are represented on the within level, whereas the between level captures the variability across subjects.
    The random intercept factor f is the most important. If the factor loadings on the random intercept factor are large, this indicates that the item probabilities are large and thus the cases have large differences on these items. From this perspective, RI-LTA can be viewed as absorbing the measurement non-invariance of the model. Due to large item differences, the different latent classes are easy to distinguish. These differences are absorbed by the random intercept factor but are not set to influence the latent class variables. Therefore, the off-diagonal values of the transition probability matrix are larger. In traditional LTA, large differences across classes are not absorbed by the random intercept factor, which leads to smaller off-diagonal but larger diagonal values of the transition probability matrix.
    Performing RI-LTA in Mplus software can be done in three to four steps. First, implementing LCA across different time points; second, implementing traditional LTA and RI-LTA; third, saving the parameter estimates obtained in the second step and using them as population values to do a Monte Carlo simulation study; fourth, in the event of previous knowledge or existing applications, one may include covariates or distal outcomes in the model. Researchers can also perform multiple-group analysis, Markov chain mover-stayer analysis, multi-level RI-LTA, or longitudinal factor analysis to have deeper insight into the data.
    In the current study, a two-wave longitudinal data collection from undergraduates attending in the year 2016 at a research-oriented university was used to demonstrate how to implement RI-LTA in Mplus. The first three steps used were as described in the previous paragraph. For the fourth step, we performed a multiple-group analysis and investigated the interaction effects by including a “type of university enrolment” covariate. Results showed that students of the class labeled “strong intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class tended to switch to “strong intrinsic motivation but low extrinsic motivation” class and “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class at a 33.0% transition probability of staying in the original class with RI-LTA analysis, while these students tended to stay in the original class at a 68.9% staying transition probability with traditional LTA analysis. This indicated that RI-LTA avoided overestimation on the transition probabilities of students staying in the original class and allowed for clearer interpretation of the data. The RI-LTA model was shown to be better than the traditional LTA model in this situation. By including a “type of university enrolment” covariate, the multiple-group analysis indicated that measurement invariance should be established. Most of the regression coefficients of latent classes on covariate were not significant except c1#1 on dummy2, which was significant at a value of -2.364. This indicated that students who were enrolled via the independent admission examinations and endorsed the “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class were fewer than the recommended students We also found that the interaction effects of the covariate and c1 on c2 were not significant. Thus, a more parsimonious measurement invariant multiple-group analysis including a covariate but without interaction effect model should be chosen. Future research could use Monte Carlo simulation studies to investigate the applicability of RI-LTA, for example by manipulating sample sizes, numbers of indicators, latent classes, and time points. Inspired by multi-level modeling, the implementation of multi-level RI-LTA in statistical software should also be explored further.
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    Game-based psychological assessment
    XU Junyi, LI Zhongquan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (3): 394-403.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00394
    Game-Based Psychological Assessment (GBPA) refers to the evaluation of a person's ability, personality, and other psychological characteristics through games or gamified activities. In the early days, it was mainly used to evaluate the effectiveness of education and training, and later extended to assessing psychological characteristics. As a new technology, game-based assessment has advantages in terms of form, process and outcome. Currently, a paradigm based on evidence-centered design has been developed in game-based assessment to design instruments and to conduct empirical studies. This paradigm has been applied to assessing individual differences in cognitive and non-cognitive abilities. However, this technique is still in its infancy. Future research can be further expanded in task design, data mining, and practical application.
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    Food labeling effects in marketing
    YANG Qiaoying, LIU Wumei, ZHANG Dong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1669-1683.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01669
    As a tool to convey food-related information to consumers, food labels can effectively solve the problem of information asymmetry in food consumption. With the popularization of food labels in practice, more and more scholars have begun to pay attention to the impact of different food labels on consumer behavior. However, most of the existing studies focus on a single food label type and its effects, lacking of comparison and discussion on the effects of different food labels and their inherent mechanisms and boundary conditions. Based on this, this paper reviews the research on food labels in the field of marketing, which focuses on how different types of food labels affect individuals' cognition, emotion and behavior. Meanwhile, this paper introduces the regulatory orientation theory to explain the different effects of different food labels, and on this basis, a more integrated food label effect framework is constructed in this paper.
    Through combing the existing literature, the existing research on food labeling has roughly underwent three stages. The first stage began in the early 1980s. The demand for the nutritional value of food led to the attention and research on the nutrition label. The second stage started around 2000. Scholars mainly focus on labels that can convey information about food safety and quality. In the third stage, in the last decade, eco-environmental labels attracted more attention from consumers and scholars. Based on the different levels of information coverage, food labels can be divided into two types: product-level labels and ingredient-level labels. The product-level label refers to the label which is used to explain the overall characteristics and quality information of the food (including date label, health warning label, organic label, natural label, brand information, genetically modified organism label, eco label, and fair trade label). However, the ingredient-level label refers to the label that is used to display the specific nutritional information of the food (including nutrition facts panel, GDA label, low-fat label, health claim, traffic light label, health star rating, calorie menu label, shelf label).
    Further analysis and comparison showed that different types of food labels differ in influencing results, mechanism of action, and boundaries. Specifically, the product-level labels can arouse consumers' perceptions of safety, risk, and morality, and can effectively increase consumers' trust in products. At the same time, after purchasing products with such labels, consumers will show more food waste and repeated purchases. Ingredient-level labels, on the other hand, mainly affects consumers' perceptions of product health, as well as subsequent food choices and food intake. The theory of regulatory orientation helps to explain the different effects of the two types of food labels. The product-level labels more often initiate consumer preventive orientation, while the ingredient-level labels activate consumer promotion orientation. In addition, the two types of food labeling effects are driven by the halo effect, information processing, conceptual metaphor, social identity, attribute inference and other mechanisms. Besides, these effects are moderated by social demographic factors, individual differences, and product characteristics.
    On the one hand, combing and commenting on the effects of different food labels can provide reference for food manufacturers to carry out food marketing practices. On the other hand, through the construction of food label research framework in the field of marketing, it can point out the context and direction for marketing scholars to carry out empirical research on food label. Based on the overall framework of food labeling effects constructed in this paper, we propose that further research on the topic of food label can be carried out from following aspects in the future: (1) Expanding the behavioral results of ingredient-level labels; (2) Expanding the behavioral results of product-level labels; (3) Exploring the impact of different food label presentation forms on consumers; (4) Expanding the outer packaging labels and related research; and (5) Exploring the reversal mechanism of the negative effects of food labels.
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    Engineering psychology in the era of artificial intelligence
    XU Wei, GE Liezhong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1409-1425.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01409

    Intelligent technology provides new opportunities for the research and applications of engineering psychology. To this end, a work framework of engineering psychology in the intelligent era is proposed. The framework includes the objectives of engineering psychology research and applications, core problem space, disciplinary philosophy, focus of research and applications, methods and so on. The human-machine relationship in the intelligent era has presented a new form: the human-machine cooperation in the form of human-machine teaming. “Human-centered artificial intelligence” should be the discipline philosophy of engineering psychology in the intelligent era. Aiming at intelligent technology, engineering psychology researchers have recently begun to carry out research work on the theoretical framework and basic issues surrounding the new human-machine relationship, mental construct, shared decision-making between human and machine, and the interaction design for intelligent systems. In order to effectively support the research and development of intelligent systems, new and enhanced methods of engineering psychology are summarized. Finally, specific suggestions are given for addressing the challenges faced by engineering psychology.

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    Nudging in field interventions of anti-poverty based on randomized controlled trials
    XU Fu-ming, HUANG Long, ZHANG Hui
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (11): 1953-1960.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01953
    The eradication of poverty is a top priority for developing countries and the most important goal of the Millennium Development Goals all over the world. Behavioral economists and development economists are employing the randomized control trials and nudge techniques to help the poor get rid of poverty within the globe. The current nudge action that uses randomized control experiments to help poor people overcome behavioral deviations is mainly manifested in helping poor people improve their current material conditions and enhance future security. The research and practice of random control experiments and nudging technologies in China have also effectively helped poor farmers improve their physical and mental health, and economic income. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the external validity test of randomized control experiments and nudging techniques, the similarities and differences among them, and combine with the endogenous power of poverty alleviation to formulate more simple, efficient, and strict poverty alleviation policies and projects.
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    The effect of time and money concepts on consumers' purchase decision and its psychological mechanism
    HE Ruwan, LI Bin, ZHANG Shuying, CUI Xinyue, LEI Li
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1684-1695.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01684
    Time and money are two important resources that affect consumer decision-making differently. Based on the dual-process theory, this paper discusses the effect of time and money concepts on consumers' purchase decisions and its psychological mechanism through reviewing previous literature.
    Specifically, the effect of time and money would be differential in consumers' the purchase decision process such as pre-purchase stage, purchasing stage, and post purchase stage. For pre-purchase decisions stage, the concept of time and money will affect consumers' product search and product evaluation strategy. When consumers search for products, currency of search (time or money) will moderate the effect of magnitude of search costs on people's willingness to search. When the currency is money, lower (vs. higher) search costs will result in higher willingness to search. When the currency is time, this effect of search costs on willingness to search will be relatively weaker. As for consumer's product evaluation, they will adopt an alternative-based evaluation strategy to evaluate product information after they are activated time concept and adopt an attribute-based evaluation strategy to evaluate product information after they are activated money concept. For purchasing decision stage, the impacts of priming time and money on product selection are different. Consumers will make different choices between virtue and vice products, hedonic and utilitarian products, experiential purchases and material purchases, and anthropomorphized products when they are activated time or money concepts. That is, if the time concept is activated, consumers tend to choose a virtue product, hedonic product, experiential purchases and prefer anthropomorphic products with no prominent functional purpose. If money is activated, consumers tend to choose vice products, utilitarian products, material purchases and prefer the anthropomorphic products with prominent functional purpose. For post-purchase decision stage, the concepts of time and money also have different effects on consumers' product attitude and the consistency of product preferences. Time priming leads to a more positive attitude toward products and a higher degree of consistency in preferences than money priming. However, for luxury goods, free goods and high materialists, money priming has a better effect than time priming.
    From the perspective of the dual-process theory, the psychological mechanism due to different cognitive processing modes and mindsets that are primed by time and money. Concretely, because of the value of time are more ambiguous, difficult to calculate, difficult to explain, irreplaceable and intangible than money, consumers are more dependent on the experience system to process time and product information heuristically, holistically and affectively and fall into emotional maximization mindset. Because the value of money is more specific, easy to analyze, replaceable and tangible than time, consumers are more dependent on the rational system to process money and product information analytically and fall into value maximization mindset. As a result, due to the difference of time and money concepts, different processing methods and thinking patterns further lead to consumers make different purchase decisions in three aspects: pre-purchase decision (product search and product evaluation strategy), purchasing decision (product selection) and post-purchase decision (product attitude and the consistency of product preferences).
    Future research should further explore the following issues: (1) Elaborating the different effects of priming time and money on purchase decisions. (2) Considering the impact from the tradeoff between time and money on purchase decisions. (3) Further exploring the different influences of priming time and money on the pre-purchase decision. (4) Exploring the neural mechanisms underlying the different effects of time and money on purchase decisions.
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    Relationship between resilience and well-being in elders: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    YE Jing, ZHANG Xufan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (2): 202-217.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00202
    A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the effect of elders’ resilience and well-being. There were 42 documents and 75 independent samples (N = 12856) in total meet the criteria of meta-analysis. Results revealed significant positive relationships between elders’ resilience and their well-being, satisfaction with life, positive emotions, revealed a significant negative relationship between elders’ resilience and negative emotion. In addition, the relationships between resilience, well-being, satisfaction with life, positive emotions and negative emotion was moderated by resilience measurements, cultural background, literature quality, year of the literature, sample size and age of sample. The results provided not only more accurate estimates for predicting elders’ well-being by resilience, but also insights for future research of successful aging.
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    Controversies in terror management theory research and its implications for research on the psychology of death
    MENG Xianghan, LI Qiang, ZHOU Yanbang, WANG Jin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (3): 492-504.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00492
    Psychology of death remains a complex psychological state of cognition, emotion and behavioral intention in the face of death and death-related events. Currently, the most comprehensive and scientific death psychology research is the Terror Management Theory (TMT). However, TMT has the following controversies: (1) In terms of three basic cognitive aspects of death, the theory presents inconsistent research results on whether death is independent of uncertainty, whether death causes fear, and whether individual survival is a central issue for human beings; (2) On the socio-cultural level, the cultural background of the Terror Management Theory was that there was a general denial of death. However, cross-cultural studies demonstrate that other cultures treat death with attitudes such as acceptance and contempt; (3) Finally, there exist a lot of contradictions in the research results of fear management theory. This indicates that there are important regulatory factors which are not involved in the present study. On this basis, the possible research directions of death psychology can be summarized from the aspects of cognition, behavior, and society. In the future, the death psychology can consider the research attitude that attaches equal importance to science and culture, combine the content and process of death psychology, pay attention to the psychological laws of the group in the face of death as well as carry out the intervention research of physical and mental health under the influence of death psychology.
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    Discriminating the concepts of goal and its influence on decision-making
    HE Jiamei, JIN Lei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (8): 1410-1419.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01410
    Decision-making is the process that individuals evaluate and make a choice among multiple alternatives, in order to maximize their possible benefits. Individuals usually think about and predict what may happen in the future and set reasonable goal to guide their decisions. The goal is not only the reason why the decision-maker makes their choice, but also the ideal result that the decision-maker anticipates to achieve.
    Individual decision making under the guidance of a goal involves two mental processes, such as setting a goal and accomplishing the subsequent decision task. Based on goal's content, motivational function, and other features, previous studies believe that the goal is a future result that individuals anticipate to achieve and it has motivational effects on their cognition and behavior. However, only one future result that individuals intended to achieve was discussed in previous researches. Usually, individuals want to attain multiple goals at the same time, potential conflict of interest among these future results might exist. So, in the first step, individuals have to make a choice among these future results that they wish to achieve at the same time. The one that is chosen would possess motivation power to arouse individuals' cognitive process and behavior. Therefore, goal is the winner of the competition for motivation. On the basis of the evaluation of their desirability and feasibility, specific future results are selected as the goal and endowed with motivation by the decision-maker.
    Behavior habits, personality traits, and life experience affect individuals' goal setting. For example, high construal level helps decision makers to recognize better their goal and focus their attention on decision scheme that is conducive to the goal's achievement. Among decision-makers with high trait self-control, a temptation has lower subjective value, compared with the goal. Individuals with high trait self-control would have less intention to approach the temptation and might experience fewer conflicts between the goal and the temptation. The asymmetric effect between temptation and goal caused by the successful experience in executing self-control has changed the value of the future results assigned by the decision-maker. The cues related to the temptation can activate the goal while they inhibit the temptation among individuals with high trait self-control.
    The goal can influence decision-making by changing the decision-maker's attitude and selective attention towards decision scheme in accomplishing subsequent decision tasks. In the process of achieving a goal, decision-makers are more likely to overestimate the positive emotions related to the goal. Therefore, positive anticipation would be endowed on the decision scheme that is benefit for the goal. The activated goal can drive selective attention and allocate attention resources to benefit the goal achievement. Moreover, selective attention increases the time duration that the decision-maker pays their attention on its corresponding decision scheme. It further helps the decision maker to improve its subjective value estimation.
    In the future, it is necessary to investigate how an unconscious goal weakens the effect that it has on negative consequences and how to measure the two mental processes directly.
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    Neural mechanism underlying the perception of crowd facial emotions
    HE Weiqi, LI Shuaixia, ZHAO Dongfang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (5): 761-772.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00761
    How to reveal the cognitive neural correlates underlying emotional face processing has always been the popular topic for psychology and social neuroscience. Previous studies mainly used single facial expressions as the stimuli to induce and present emotions, but there is still a lack of attention and the investigation for the crowd emotion. Thus, the present project plans to reveal the neural correlates underlying the processing of crowd emotional faces through the combination of behavioral, ERP, fMRI, and TMS experiments, in which the emotional information (valence and intensity), face direction (frontal, lateral and inverse view), integrity (partial presentation, complete presentation) and spatial frequency (complete, high frequency, low frequency) will be investigated to reveal the temporal dynamics and brain activation patterns of the processing of crowd facial expressions. Finally, our work will be expected to beneficially serve the comprehensive understanding of the nature of the perception and recognition of crowd emotion, which is also of practical significance towards updating social interactions.
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    Empathy interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: Giving full play to strengths or making up for weaknesses?
    HUO Chao, LI Zuoshan, MENG Jing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (5): 849-863.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00849
    The empathy deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may cause their social interaction barriers. Therefore, it’s very important to intervene the empathy ability of individuals with ASD. Some researchers proposed the empathy method of “making up for weaknesses”, indicating a direct intervention for the empathy deficits of individuals with ASD, including the theory of mind (TOM) intervention, the perspective-taking intervention, the intervention of facial expression cognition, and so on. However, others thought although individuals with ASD had empathy deficits, their systematic capability was excellent. Therefore, the empathy ability of individuals with ASD should be improved through their innate advantage of systematic capability, called the empathy method of “giving full play to strengths”, mainly including the lego therapy, the serious games intervention and the island-based intervention based on systemizing theory. All of the methods mentioned above had their own advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the reflection and prospect on the problems existing in the field of empathy interventions for individuals with ASD were put forward.
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    Wisdom in old age
    CHEN Haobin, WANG Fengyan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (5): 885-893.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00885
    Wisdom is a general psychological quality that integrates morality and intelligence. It is learned from life experiences, serves as an important symbol of successful aging, and is the ideal endpoint of human development. Research has shown that self-reported measurements, such as the three-dimensional wisdom scale (3D-WS), self-assessed wisdom scale (SAWS), and the adult self-transcendence inventory (ASTI), and performance measures such as the Berlin wisdom paradigm (BWP) and wise reasoning (WR), perform well in the assessment of older adults’ wisdom. The development of wisdom in old age is influenced by internal factors such as openness, self-reflection, emotion regulation, and personality growth, as well as external factors such as education level, critical life experiences, and the social environment. In older adults, wisdom obtained from life experience improves well-being and life satisfaction, and reduces social alienation, loneliness, and depression. Future research should develop multi-faceted and integrated tools for the evaluation of older adults’ wisdom, to further investigate the predictive factors, effects, and internal mechanisms of wisdom in old age, and to explore the intervention and cultivating strategies of older adults’ wisdom in the community care services.
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    Lasso regression: From explanation to prediction
    ZHANG Lijin, WEI Xiayan, LU Jiaqi, PAN Junhao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (10): 1777-1788.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01777
    Regression analysis, a method to evaluate the relationship between variables, is widely used in psychological studies. However, due to its highly focus on the interpretation of sample data, the traditional ordinary least squares regression has several drawbacks, such as over-fitting problem and limitation on dealing with multicollinearity, which may undermine the generalizability of the model. With the rapid development of methodology research, a shift from focusing on interpretation of the regression coefficients to improving the prediction of the model has emerged and become more and more important. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) regression has been emerged to better compensate for the limitations of traditional methods. By introducing a penalty term in the model and shrinking the regression coefficients to zero, Lasso regression can achieve a higher accuracy of model prediction and model generalizability with the cost of a certain estimation bias. Besides, Lasso regression can also effectively deal with the multicollinearity problem. Therefore, it is helpful for the construction and improvement of psychological theory.
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    Self-compassion: Its mechanisms and related interventions
    JIN Guomin, LIU Xiaoshi, LI Dan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (5): 824-832.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00824

    Self‐compassion refers to the ability to express sympathy or compassion to oneself when faced with failures, inadequacies or suffering. Self-compassion has been found to have a profound impact on individuals' physical and psychological health. In view of its mechanisms, self-compassion can exert positive impacts on individuals by reducing one’s maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and promoting adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Additionally, self-compassion can also maintain ones’ homeostasis by regulating the biological markers of the stress response, which in turn, facilitates their adjustment. The major interventions related to self-compassion include Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program and Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT). More studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of self-compassion, expand its investigation by using various measurement and research methods, and use more rigorous interventional designs to evaluate the effects of self-compassion interventions under the Chinese cultural background.

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    Dropout in psychotherapy
    HE Jiao, BAI Baoyu, XIA Mian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (7): 1187-1198.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01187

    Dropout in psychotherapy refers to the phenomenon of the client discontinuing psychotherapy prior to recovering from the problems or distress that led him or her to seek help. Although researchers have come to a consensus as to the connotation of dropout, there are a variety of operational definitions of dropout, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Dropout is a widespread problem in clinic practice. However, the dropout percentages, which are strongly influenced by operational definitions of dropout and types of study designs, vary widely across studies. There are limitations for the traditional static predictors of dropout, so researchers gradually place greater importance to the process-oriented predictors of dropout (e.g., therapeutic alliance), which provide a good deal of insight into dropout. In order to reduce dropout from therapy, researchers suggest clinicians offer proper pre-therapy preparation for clients, assess important variables throughout the course of therapy, and tailor strategies according to situation. Future research should improve the operational definitions of dropout and further research also should be conducted in natural treatment settings. At the same time, predictors should be explored thoroughly and more. And more attention should be paid to the effects of critical events outside therapy as well as the cultural background of clients.

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    Ego Depletion Impedes Rational Decision Making: Mechanisms and Boundary Conditions
    Online available: 03 September 2020

    The bottom-up effect of followers’ proactive work behavior: An implicit followership perspective
    PENG Jian, CAO Bingbing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (6): 967-977.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00967
    Proactive work behaviors, which are crucial for the long-term development of organizations, have become a hot topic in the organizational behavior research field. However, prior studies have indicated that followers’ proactive work behaviors may exert a mixed-blessing effect on their leaders, such that these behaviors sometimes trigger leaders’ positive evaluation but sometimes evoke leaders’ negative treatment. To reconcile these conflicting findings, this theoretical paper draws upon implicit followership theory to develop a model of the bottom-up effect of followers' proactive work behavior. This model proposes that whether proactive followers evoke their leaders’ positive or negative reaction depends on leaders’ implicit followership. This paper first discussed the definition and dimension of leaders’ proactive implicit followership and then illustrated how the congruence level between followers’ proactive work behavior and leaders’ proactive implicit followership shapes leaders’ reactions and identified the mediating role of core emotions (e.g., happiness, tension, disappointment, and satisfaction). This paper provides a theoretical framework for future research to conduct empirical investigations on proactive work behavior.
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