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    The dark side of positive leadership: A review and prospect
    WANG Zhen, LONG Yufan, PENG Jian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2019, 27 (6): 1123-1140.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01123

    Previous leadership research has primarily concentrated on the bright side of positive leadership styles, while paying less attention to their possible dark side. Although the recent years have witnessed an increasing number of these inquiries, there is still a lack of a clear understanding of the dark side of positive leadership. A review of 41 empirical journal articles illustrates the scientific status of this research area. In general, research has illustrated the dark side of behavior-oriented leadership (i.e., transformational, ethical, empowering, inclusive, and benevolent leadership) as well as relationship-oriented leadership (i.e., leader-member exchange) in terms of their negative effects on leaders, followers, and teams. Besides the research that solely examined the negative effect, there is a body of research that investigated the double-edged sword effects and nonlinear effect of positive leadership. Social identity theory, social exchange theory, psychoanalysis theory, social information processing theory, and resource-based theories were primarily used to account for the dark side of positive leadership. Future research should develop an integrated theoretical framework underlying the dark side of positive leadership, extend existing literature by examining the dark side of other leadership styles, and identify the boundary conditions that alleviate these dark side effects. Group differences (e.g., cultures, generation, and gender) should also be considered as boundary conditions of the dark side of positive leadership.

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    The Differences of Well-being Between the East and the West: from the View of Self-construal
    GAO Liang;ZHENG Xue;YAN Biao-Bin
    null    2010, 18 (07): 1041-1045.  
    Well-being is oriented by the culture essentially. However, the researches on well-being in the past mainly focused on the commonality, rather than the differences, between Western and Chinese well-being. Cultural differences between individualism and collectivism are represented by the differences on self-construction between East and West. By comparing the differences of self-construal and well-being between East and West, we find significant differences on origin, meaning, connection and time, which are the four dimensions of well-being. Clearly, well-being of Chinese has four characteristics: harmony, worthiness, sociability and futurity. Establishment of four characteristics of the well-being of Chinese will provide a valuable perspective on locallizing the theories and applied research of well-being in China.
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    Double Reference Points in Risky Decision Making
    XIE Xiaofei;LU Jingyi
    Advances in Psychological Science    2014, 22 (4): 571-579.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2014.00571

    According to prospect theory, decision makers’ gain or loss determined by their current states has a profound effect on decisions under risk. In the current paper, the status quo of decision makers is defined as individual reference point, which determines the context as individual gain or loss. Individual reference point is direct, actual, and absolute given that it affects the actual payoffs of decision makers. However, as social comparison theory goes, decision making is also a matter of social comparison. Thus, the status of others is defined as social reference point, which determines social gain or loss. Social reference point is indirect, hypothetical, and relative because it does not influence the actual payoffs of decision makers directly. Risky decision making is affected by social reference point through self-concept, emotion, and cognition. More importantly, both individual and social reference points exist in risky decision making. They have similar impacts on decision makers, both psychologically and behaviorally, thus affecting risky choice jointly. Therefore, the paper proposes the effects of double reference points on risky decision making. However, further research is needed on the mechanisms of double reference points.

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     Sex-related differences in the effects of Oxytocin on human social cognition
    YUE Tong, HUANG Xiting, LIU Guangyuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2017, 25 (12): 2157-2167.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.02157
     Several studies have reported sex differences in the effects of oxytocin on many social cognitive activities, including particularly social judgment, social approach/avoidance, social cooperation/competition, and maintenance of relationships. At the neural level, the oxytocin-related sex differences are mainly reflected by the activation pattern of the amygdala and the reward system. Currently, the oxytocin-related sex differences are mainly explained by sex-associated evolutionary traits and hormonal levels, as well as the cumulative effects of sex differences. In the future, a more accurate experimental design is needed to validate the sex differences linked to oxytocin in social cognition. Based on this, a more rational and effective theoretical model will be established, whereby the influence of sex-related factors in clinical application will be further emphasized.
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    Food labeling effects in marketing
    YANG Qiaoying, LIU Wumei, ZHANG Dong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1669-1683.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01669
    As a tool to convey food-related information to consumers, food labels can effectively solve the problem of information asymmetry in food consumption. With the popularization of food labels in practice, more and more scholars have begun to pay attention to the impact of different food labels on consumer behavior. However, most of the existing studies focus on a single food label type and its effects, lacking of comparison and discussion on the effects of different food labels and their inherent mechanisms and boundary conditions. Based on this, this paper reviews the research on food labels in the field of marketing, which focuses on how different types of food labels affect individuals' cognition, emotion and behavior. Meanwhile, this paper introduces the regulatory orientation theory to explain the different effects of different food labels, and on this basis, a more integrated food label effect framework is constructed in this paper.
    Through combing the existing literature, the existing research on food labeling has roughly underwent three stages. The first stage began in the early 1980s. The demand for the nutritional value of food led to the attention and research on the nutrition label. The second stage started around 2000. Scholars mainly focus on labels that can convey information about food safety and quality. In the third stage, in the last decade, eco-environmental labels attracted more attention from consumers and scholars. Based on the different levels of information coverage, food labels can be divided into two types: product-level labels and ingredient-level labels. The product-level label refers to the label which is used to explain the overall characteristics and quality information of the food (including date label, health warning label, organic label, natural label, brand information, genetically modified organism label, eco label, and fair trade label). However, the ingredient-level label refers to the label that is used to display the specific nutritional information of the food (including nutrition facts panel, GDA label, low-fat label, health claim, traffic light label, health star rating, calorie menu label, shelf label).
    Further analysis and comparison showed that different types of food labels differ in influencing results, mechanism of action, and boundaries. Specifically, the product-level labels can arouse consumers' perceptions of safety, risk, and morality, and can effectively increase consumers' trust in products. At the same time, after purchasing products with such labels, consumers will show more food waste and repeated purchases. Ingredient-level labels, on the other hand, mainly affects consumers' perceptions of product health, as well as subsequent food choices and food intake. The theory of regulatory orientation helps to explain the different effects of the two types of food labels. The product-level labels more often initiate consumer preventive orientation, while the ingredient-level labels activate consumer promotion orientation. In addition, the two types of food labeling effects are driven by the halo effect, information processing, conceptual metaphor, social identity, attribute inference and other mechanisms. Besides, these effects are moderated by social demographic factors, individual differences, and product characteristics.
    On the one hand, combing and commenting on the effects of different food labels can provide reference for food manufacturers to carry out food marketing practices. On the other hand, through the construction of food label research framework in the field of marketing, it can point out the context and direction for marketing scholars to carry out empirical research on food label. Based on the overall framework of food labeling effects constructed in this paper, we propose that further research on the topic of food label can be carried out from following aspects in the future: (1) Expanding the behavioral results of ingredient-level labels; (2) Expanding the behavioral results of product-level labels; (3) Exploring the impact of different food label presentation forms on consumers; (4) Expanding the outer packaging labels and related research; and (5) Exploring the reversal mechanism of the negative effects of food labels.
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    Concept, Measurement and Related Variables of Moral Disengagement
    YANG Ji-Ping; WANG Xing-Chao; GAO Ling
    null    2010, 18 (04): 671-678.  
    Moral disengagement is an individual predisposition to evoke cognitions that allow individuals to restructure their actions toappear less harmful, minimize their role in the outcomes of their actions, or attenuate the distress that they cause to others. The concept and measurement were introduced by exploring the past research. Moreover, a great deal of empirical work of antecedents and consequences of moral disengagement had been systematically reviewed. Among all, this paper also proposed the outline of the further research, such as developing more scientific measuring tools for moral disengagement, antecedents, longitudinal research, and intervention research.
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    Self Identity’s New Model: Dual-Cycle Model
    XU Wei; KOU Yu
    null    2010, 18 (05): 725-733.  
    Self identity has been a crucial phenomenon in the study field of developmental psychology since Erikson first proposed the concept. Empirical study concerning self identity has been largely based on Marcia’s identity status model. Further researchers like Luyckx try to integrate identity status model with its criticism and modification, thus propose the theory of self identity’s dual-cycle model. According to dual-cycle model, self identity is a construct comprised of five dimensions: exploration in breadth, exploration in depth, ruminative exploration, commitment making and identification with commitment. The dimensions constitute two cycles: "commitment-formation cycle" and "commitment-evaluation cycle", and the dynamic interaction of the two cycles prompts the process of identity formation and development, thus results in six identity statuses: identity achievement, identity foreclosure, ruminative moratorium, carefree diffusion, diffused diffusion and undifferentiated.
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    Analysis of the Factors Influencing Intervention of Conditioned Fear Memory
    WANG Hong-Bo; AN Xian-Li; LI You-Hong; ZHENG Xi-Geng
    null    2010, 18 (05): 718-724.  
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a kind of anxiety disorders developed from severe traumatic events. The key of treatment for this disorder is to extinguish conditioned fear memory. However, acquired fear memory is hard to be extinguished and extinguished fear memory is liable to recover in certain situations. Therefore, it is of great importance for PTSD theory and clinical practice to highlight the ways that persistently extinguish fear memory. In this review, we discuss two emotional regulation techniques that have been investigated as means to control fear: extinction and reconsolidation. Clinical PTSD treatment may be benefit from these pre–clinical methods which effectively extinguish fear memory.
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    Employee Creativity: Conceptualization, Formation Mechanism and Future Directions
    WANG Xian-Hui; DUAN Jin-Yun; TIAN Xiao-Ming; KONG Yu
    null    2010, 18 (05): 760-768.  
    Employee creativity is the generation of new and potentially valuable ideas concerning new products, services, manufacturing methods, and administrative processes. The direct outcomes that employee creativity and team creativity bring are organizational innovation. Based on the early research framework and the cognitive evaluation theory, the paper emphasized that those such as job characteristics, personal characteristics and organizational supportive climate would affect employee’s inner creative motivation and creativity. Later on, a general analysis of all factors that can accelerate or inhibit employee creativity was conducted, combining with the perspective of the identification of individual creativity and team creativity, creative self-efficacy model and social network theory. Based on that, an integrative model was built, and future studies were discussed as well.
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    Training On Working Memory: A Valuable Research Field
    ZHAO Xin; ZHOU Ren-Lai
    null    2010, 18 (05): 711-717.  
    The researchers adopted different working memory training methods to practice different groups. The results showed that working memory ability could be raised by training. The individual reading ability and intelligence level could be enhanced according to practice. The training could change brain activity and it had certain action for relieving special children clinical symptom. It gave a challenge to primary cognitive theory and relevant theoretical mode; moreover it provided effective assistance for education and clinical treatment. The research opened up a new trend in working memory. The further research should be devoted to improve training contents\evaluation and explore a working memory training system for clinical treatment.
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    On the Concept, Predictors and Theory Models
    of Ethnic-Racial Socialization
    YIN Ke-Li;YIN Shao-Qing;HUANG Xi-Ting
    null    2010, 18 (11): 1800-1807.  
    Ethnic-racial socialization is a central component of parenting in ethnic-minority families in the USA, and it is used to refer the process through which parents transmit information regarding ethnicity and race to their children to help them accustom to society. Age and gender of children, as well as experience of discrimination of both parents and children, can all affect what and when parents choose to impart such information. So far creation of operation models of ethnic-racial socialization has successfully helped integrate into one category different aspects of related research, such as ethnic identity, self-esteem and youth outcome. This represents an important tendency in the academic agenda of ethnic-racial socialization.
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    Narrative Style, Self-perspective and Self-development
    WANG Xin-Jian;ZHU Yan-Li
    null    2010, 18 (12): 1858-1863.  
    Narrative approach research on self assumed that individual constructed and developed self through telling life-story and retrieving autobiographical memory. Recent study explored the factors that influence narrative and its meaning on self-development. Relative results showed that such factors as coherent positive narrative, narrative style, and personality traits were correlated with life-story and self-development. A series of experiments proved that different narrative person and self perspective on autobiographical memory have different effect on emotion, behavior, and body. On the basis of those studies, researchers conducted clinical intervention and carried out fundamental researches including neural mechanisms. It proposed that future research should expand research materials and explore influence factors, such as cross-culture study of narrative style and self perspective.
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    The Psychological Mechanism of Counterproductive Work Behavior in the Workplace
    LIN Ling; TANG Han-Ying; MA Hong-Yu
    null    2010, 18 (01): 151-161.  
    Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) is an intentional behavior of the organization members, hurts colleagues or organizations’ legitimate interests. This research takes a more comprehensive review of the newly research evolvement on the conception, classification and theory explanation of Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in the Workplace. Based on studying those existing theory and empirical research, we bring forward the mechanism model of how Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) takes effect (cause, mediator & moderator), which follows the logic of “environmental stimulate → cognitive processing →negative emotion reaction → Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB)”. “Cognitive processing” and “negative emotion reaction” are two key points on the mechanism model, concretely representing individual’s attribution process and negative emotion reaction under the environmental stressor. Based on this model, we integrate newly empirical research about Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB), carry through pertinence evaluation and provide useful expectation for future research.
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    The Application of Case Formulation in Psychological Clinic
    HU Yan-Ping; CUI Li-Xia
    null    2010, 18 (02): 322-330.  
    With the development of psychological therapy, case formulation as an important part of the psychotherapy has gradually become the clinical focus. The presented case formulation, which is based on certain psychotherapy theory, makes clinical assumption about the aetiological and maintaining factors, and provides blueprint to the establishment of treatment plans. According to the clinical researches of western countries, case formulation is effective in promoting the therapist and client’s understandings toward the symptom and improving the therapeutic effect. The case formulation is based on the cognitive and behavior therapy, and then used to illustrate the application of case formulation in clinical treatment of anxiety and depression.
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    A Review of Networking Behavior
    WU Jing-Shan;WANG Cai-Kang
    null    2010, 18 (06): 1011-1017.  
    Networking behavior refers to a wide array of behaviors, taken by individuals to develop and maintain informal relationships with others who possess the (potential) benefit to their work or career. Research indicated that demographic background, personality differences (e.g. work motivation) and environmental factors (e.g. career safety) were significant predictors of networking behavior; it also suggested that networking behavior brought profits both to individual (e.g. career success) and organization (e.g. organizational performance). Future research on networking behavior should work further on improving its measurement, expanding related research, developing training courses, and assessing its costs and profits.
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    Affective Forecasting Biases and Related Studies
    LIU Cong-Hui;ZHANG Yao-Hua;YU Guo-Liang
    null    2010, 18 (08): 1246-1255.  
    Affective forecasting refers to the prediction of one’s emotional state in the future. This kind of prediction is affected by various kinds of cognitive biases, i.e. immune neglect, focalism and empathy gap. This article integrated the causes of these cognitive biases from the point of view of cognitive-experiential self theory and mental simulation, introduced individual differences and interventions of affective forecasting biases. In the end, the possible trends for the future research focus on psychology-behavior mechanism, evolutionary and brain mechanism of affective forecasting.
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    Application of Diffusion Tensor Image in the Cognitive Neuroscience of Language
    YUE Qiu-Hai;SHU Hua
    null    2010, 18 (09): 1369-1376.  
    The achievement of human language function is not only based on the brain regions in frontal and temporal cortex which are activated by language tasks, but also based on the anatomical connectivity of white matter fibers between these regions. With the development of technique of neural image, the diffusion tensor magnetic resonance image has been playing more and more important role in the research of the neural mechanism of language. We can apply diffusion tensor image to study the neural mechanism of language via combining diffusion tensor image with other approaches such as behavioral method, functional localization, functional connectivity and whole brain network analysis. Moreover the valid anatomical evidences for the neural substrate of language provided by diffusion tensor image will increase our understanding the relationship of brain and language.
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    Shared Mental Models and Transactive Memory Systems: Antinomy or Synergy? —— From Knowledge Management Perspective

    XUE Hui-Juan

    null    2010, 18 (10): 1559-1566.  
    Shared Mental Models and Transactive Memory Systems are newly developed research areas closely related to team cognition management. Shared Mental Models are shared knowledge structures and represents about the key elements in the team that allow individuals to interact with their environment, while Transactive Memory Systems are collective memory systems for encoding, storing, retrieving, and communicating team knowledge. Based on the concepts of both of them, this paper analyzes the relation between them, and then provides the moderators in the impacts of Shared Mental Model and Transactive Memory Systems. The paper broadens our understanding of how to improve team knowledge management from team cognition perspective.
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    An Introduction to Contextual Action Theory of Career and
    Action-Project Method
    QU Ke-Jia;Richard A. Young;ZOU Hong;YU Yi-Bing
    null    2010, 18 (10): 1567-1573.  

    Contextual Action Theory of Career has been a new theory emerging in career field. Action theory addresses human intentional, goal-directed action, project, and career, as well as conceptualizes actions as reflecting everyday experiences and as being socially directed. Action-Project Method is a qualitative method based on Contextual Action Theory, which collects complete data of human action from external behavior, internal process and social meaning. Contextual Action Theory of Career provides a new way to conceptualize career actions, related processes, and their social meaning.

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    Thinking and Acting in Anticipation: A Review of Research on Proactive Behavior
    Chia Huei WU;Sharon K. PARKER
    Advances in Psychological Science    2013, 21 (4): 679-700.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00679
    Being proactive involves self-initiated, future-focused, and change-orientated behaviors. Such proactivity has been recognized as a positive way of behaving that can lead to the increased performance and effectiveness of individuals and organizations, especially when employees operate in contexts of unpredictable and changing demands. Because of its well-documented benefits, the antecedents and mechanisms of proactive behavior have been widely examined in an effort to identify how to promote such behavior in organizations. In this article, the authors first review various ways of conceptualizing proactivity, which includes an individual differences perspective, a behavior perspective, and a process perspective. A behavior perspective is mainly adopted in this article as this perspective is dominant in literature. Next, three mechanisms representing “can do”, “reason to” and “energized to” processes that can trigger proactive behavior are introduced. A review on antecedents of proactive behavior, including dispositional factors, situational factors and their interactions, is followed. The authors also summarize consequences that proactive behavior can bring, including job attitudes and performance. In addition to providing reviews, as the second part, the authors introduce their recent research that considers expanded dispositional predictors of proactive behavior (i.e., need for cognition, attachment style) as well as how these predictors interact with the situation. To conclude, the authors summarize what is well established in the literature, as well as what warrants further inquiry.
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