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    A cognition-affective processing framework of psychopathy based on the TriPM model
    CHENG Cheng, GUO Peiyang, YANG Li, WANG Mengya
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1628-1646.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01628
    As an important predictor of violent crime, recidivism, and juvenile delinquency, psychopathy has received extensive attention in clinical psychology and justice research. Recent studies have conceptualized psychopathy as multidimensional constructs, proposed to further understand various phenotypic constructs of psychopathy through the interaction of distinct psychopathic dispositions. The Triarchic Model of Psychopathy (TriPM) conceptualizing psychopathy as three phenotypic structures (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition) with independent etiologic pathways, provides a framework for integrating the previous findings of the assessment, development trajectory, and neurobiological process of psychopathy.
    At first, the TriPM boldness includes the characteristics of stress immunity, low fear, and insensitivity to punishment. It is an adaptive expression of fearlessness genotype, which corresponds to the neurobiological dimension of low threat sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that psychopathic individuals with high affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) or boldness features are expected to exhibit reduced aversive startle potentiation, difficulty in establishing threat-related conditioning, abnormal amygdala volume, and lower levels of amygdala activation in threat context. These findings reflect the core defensive system of psychopathy—based in the amygdala and affiliated structures—is insensitive to threat or punishment cues.
    Second, individuals with high levels of trait disinhibition are characterized by lack of planning and foresight, poor regulation of emotion and impulse, insistence on immediate gratification, and lack of behavioral restraint. They showed reduced P3 and ERN amplitudes in go/no-go tasks and flanker tasks, fail to process and attend to contextual or environmental cues when engaged in a dominant response set (e.g., goal-directed behavior). Give the evidence that individuals with high disinhibition tend to exhibit poor performance in various cognitive tasks, it can be speculated that the impairment of executive function, in particular the impaired ability of attentional modulation, is closely associated with psychopathic disinhibition. Moreover, the motivational system (i.e., reward-seeking) may exacerbate the deficits of executive function in individuals with high disinhibition disposition.
    Finally, as the maladaptive expression of the fearless genotype, meanness describes a constellation of various phenotypic attributes including arrogance, rebelliousness, lack of intimacy, excitement seeking, and empowerment through cruelty. On the one hand, impaired emotional processes will lead to an empathic deficit, which may contribute to the development of psychopathic meanness. Extensive research has shown that abnormalities in physiological structures such as the insula and anterior cingulate cortex in psychopathy are associated with reduced subjective emotional experience and poor ability to recognize other's distress cues. On the other hand, insecure attachment associated with empathic deficit may be an important environmental factor that exacerbates individual meanness disposition.
    By integrating the low threat sensitivity, impaired executive function, and empathic deficit of psychopathy with the boldness, disinhibition, and meanness of the TriPM model, the current study establishes a relatively complete cognition-affective processing framework of psychopathy, provides some useful information for theoretical research and clinical treatment about this personality disorder. However, this framework can not account for all the clinical conditions of psychopathy, as the factors that influence the phenotype of psychopathy are diverse. For example, previous research has demonstrated that gender, race, age, sample type, and psychopathic measures are all important moderators in the study of psychopathy. There are also controversies about the conceptualization of psychopathic variants or subtypes. In addition, the exclusivity of psychopathic phenotypes and their underlying neurobiological processes is still unclear.
    Therefore, future research should consider the influence of these moderators on the explanation of the results. And greater attention should be paid to the underlying etiological pathways among different psychopathic constructs, it is also a verification of the discriminative validity among three dimensions of the TriPM model. Moreover, further exploration of the precursors of adult psychopathic traits will provide important information about the development of psychopathic deviant behavior, which does great help for the early treatment and intervention of this disorder.
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    Understanding mechanisms of prediction error cost in Chinese reading for older adults
    LI Lin, ZHAO Sainan, ZHANG Lijuan, WANG Jingxin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00001
    An important question for research on reading across the lifespan concerns whether mechanisms of cognitive processing undergo only quantitative changes or also qualitative changes with aging. To process written language effectively, readers use their existing knowledge to make predictive inferences about linguistic information. Quite often this will facilitate the processing of newly acquired information but will sometimes incur a processing cost due to predictive error. As Older adults appear to rely more heavily on lexical prediction during reading (Zhao et al., 2019, 2021). However, it is currently unknown whether, like young adults, they experience a processing cost due to predictive error, and whether the magnitude of this cost differs across age adult groups. Accordingly, the present research aims to understand the processing consequence of predictive error in both young and older adults, using methods that can shed light on both the behavioral and neural bases of these effects. This will be achieved using novel co-registration methods that synchronize the recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals with eye movements, so that behavioral and neural indices of language processing can be acquired simultaneously, in real-time, during natural reading. In particular, this approach will enable the analysis of fixated-related potentials (FRPs), which are averaged EEG waveforms time-locked to a fixation on a target word in a sentence during normal reading.
    Study 1 will manipulate whether a target word is predictable from the prior sentence context, using contexts in which the target word is predictable, ones in which it is unpredictable, and neutral contexts containing an unpredictable word. Crucially, comparisons of an unpredictable word in neutral compared to constraining contexts will provide a measure of prediction error, which is the cost incurred when the target word is unpredicted in a constraining context. The study will investigate the behavioral and neural correlates of this prediction error using a combination of eye movement measures and FRPs for target words. Moreover, by investigating age differences in these effects (i.e., for young compared to older adults) the study will reveal whether this prediction error differs across adult age groups.
    Study 2 will test these effects further by examining both the contribution to the prediction error cost of parafoveal information availability and individual differences in visual, cognitive and linguistic abilities. To examine the contribution of these individual differences, we will comprehensively assess the visual, cognitive and linguistic abilities of young and older adult participants prior their taking part in experiments. We will obtain information about participants' educational background, vocabulary knowledge and recent reading experience to match participants in terms of formal educational experience and to obtain indices of linguistic experience. In addition, we will assess processing speed, working memory, and inhibition as measures of cognitive capabilities. The data obtained will be used for the linear mixed-effects modelling of Study 3. Experiment 1 will use the boundary paradigm to investigate age differences in the prediction error cost when parafoveal information is available or not. The aim of this experiment is to establish whether limiting the availability of parafoveal information about an upcoming word differentially impacts lexical prediction by young and older adults. Experiment 2 will use masking text paradigm to investigate the aging effects on prediction error cost under high or low working memory load conditions. The aim of this experiment is to explore the effect of working memory load on prediction processing mechanism of young and older readers. Finally, in Experiment 3, the older adult participants will be divided into good and poor reading skill groups to examine whether there is a difference in the prediction error cost for older participants with good and poor reading skills as compared to skilled young adult readers. This will reveal how reading skills mediates predictive processing by older adults.
    Study 3 will use linear mixed-effects modelling and data-mining methods. All relevant factors will be included in the model analysis as covariates to investigate their effects on the prediction processing of older readers. Moreover, survival analysis and distribution analysis will be adopted to investigate the time course and individual differences of the above-mentioned effects (using data from Study 1 and 2).
    The findings from these studies will provide important insights into the nature of effects of cognitive aging and individual differences in visual, cognitive and linguistic abilities on neural and cognitive indices of word prediction in reading, and will form the basis for future models of these effects in Chinese reading. Moreover, the findings will shed light on the contribution of parafoveal processing, memory load, and reading skill on the predictive abilities of older adult readers.
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    “Advantages and disadvantages” of individual proactive behavior in organizations
    LI Lingling, HUANG Gui
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (8): 1484-1496.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01484
    Individual proactive behavior refers to the future-oriented and change-oriented work behavior, which is made actively by individuals in organizations. In the changing and uncertain organizational environment, whether an organization has appropriate individual proactive behavior determines whether the organization can survive and develop better. But does that mean that proactive behavior always has a positive impact on the organization? Scholars have given similar answers from different perspectives, that is, whether at the individual level or the organizational situation level, individual proactive behavior has advantages and disadvantages in the results. Specifically speaking: (1) On the themes of the researches, most studies found that individual proactive behavior could bring positive results, while some scholars also noticed the cost of individual proactive behavior; (2) From the perspectives of the analyses, the positive and negative effects of individual proactive behavior on individuals and organization situations were mainly included; (3) In terms of the theoretical mechanisms, the “advantages and disadvantages” due to individual proactive behavior could find answer in dominance complementarity theory, self-determination theory, attribution theory.
    Although the positive and negative effects of individual proactive behavior have attracted the attention of scholars, and some preliminary research attempts have been made on its principles, there is still a lack of integration. Such as dominance complementarity theory, self-determination theory, attribution theory, etc., explained the positive and negative effects of different characteristics of leaders or employees on individual proactive behavior results from different theoretical perspectives. In fact, just as “a coin has both positive and negative sides”, the three factors that affect the results of individual proactive behavior, namely, different forms of individual proactive behavior, the characteristics of proactive actors and observers and various aspects of the situation, also have inherent two sides. They just cover the two sides of the characteristics of leaders or employees explained by the previous three theories, which are relatively more comprehensive and can reveal the internal mechanism of the advantages and disadvantages of individual proactive behavior to a certain extent.
    Therefore, this study looks at proactive behavior from the perspective of contradictory duality, and points out that the duality of the factors affecting the outcome of proactive behavior is the main reason for the “advantages and disadvantages” effects of individual proactive behavior. In the long run, the two sides of the contradiction can partially or conditionally transform each other. From the perspective of organizational management, understanding how to deal with the inherent dual contradiction of individual proactive behavior and effectively manage it should also be included in the theoretical framework. This study proposes that future research can integrate the following theories from the perspective of two sides of contradiction:(1) Starting from the types of individual proactive behavior itself, its internal mechanism will be revealed, based on the perspective of wise proactivity theory; (2) From the perspective of the two sides of characteristics of actors or observers of individual proactive behavior, the mechanism behind it will be discussed empirically; (3) Dynamic researches will be conducted from the perspective of the development of the subjective and objective characteristics of proactive behavior. By revealing the dynamic and static internal mechanism of the “advantages and disadvantages” effects of proactive behavior, we hope to further develop the “advantages” side of individual proactive behavior, avoid its “disadvantages” side, especially the interference of subjective factors, complete the research framework of proactive behavior, and deepen the regular understanding of the result effects of proactive behavior.
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    Random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA): Separating the between-subject variation from the within-subject variation
    WEN Congcong, ZHU Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (10): 1773-1782.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01773
    Traditional latent transition analysis (LTA) is usually done using single-level modeling, but can also be viewed as a two-level modeling from a multi-level perspective. In 2020, Muthén and Asparouhov proposed a so-called random intercept latent transition analysis (RI-LTA) model which separates between-subject variation from within-subject variation. By integrating a random intercept factor, latent class transitions are represented on the within level, whereas the between level captures the variability across subjects.
    The random intercept factor f is the most important. If the factor loadings on the random intercept factor are large, this indicates that the item probabilities are large and thus the cases have large differences on these items. From this perspective, RI-LTA can be viewed as absorbing the measurement non-invariance of the model. Due to large item differences, the different latent classes are easy to distinguish. These differences are absorbed by the random intercept factor but are not set to influence the latent class variables. Therefore, the off-diagonal values of the transition probability matrix are larger. In traditional LTA, large differences across classes are not absorbed by the random intercept factor, which leads to smaller off-diagonal but larger diagonal values of the transition probability matrix.
    Performing RI-LTA in Mplus software can be done in three to four steps. First, implementing LCA across different time points; second, implementing traditional LTA and RI-LTA; third, saving the parameter estimates obtained in the second step and using them as population values to do a Monte Carlo simulation study; fourth, in the event of previous knowledge or existing applications, one may include covariates or distal outcomes in the model. Researchers can also perform multiple-group analysis, Markov chain mover-stayer analysis, multi-level RI-LTA, or longitudinal factor analysis to have deeper insight into the data.
    In the current study, a two-wave longitudinal data collection from undergraduates attending in the year 2016 at a research-oriented university was used to demonstrate how to implement RI-LTA in Mplus. The first three steps used were as described in the previous paragraph. For the fourth step, we performed a multiple-group analysis and investigated the interaction effects by including a “type of university enrolment” covariate. Results showed that students of the class labeled “strong intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class tended to switch to “strong intrinsic motivation but low extrinsic motivation” class and “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class at a 33.0% transition probability of staying in the original class with RI-LTA analysis, while these students tended to stay in the original class at a 68.9% staying transition probability with traditional LTA analysis. This indicated that RI-LTA avoided overestimation on the transition probabilities of students staying in the original class and allowed for clearer interpretation of the data. The RI-LTA model was shown to be better than the traditional LTA model in this situation. By including a “type of university enrolment” covariate, the multiple-group analysis indicated that measurement invariance should be established. Most of the regression coefficients of latent classes on covariate were not significant except c1#1 on dummy2, which was significant at a value of -2.364. This indicated that students who were enrolled via the independent admission examinations and endorsed the “low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation” class were fewer than the recommended students We also found that the interaction effects of the covariate and c1 on c2 were not significant. Thus, a more parsimonious measurement invariant multiple-group analysis including a covariate but without interaction effect model should be chosen. Future research could use Monte Carlo simulation studies to investigate the applicability of RI-LTA, for example by manipulating sample sizes, numbers of indicators, latent classes, and time points. Inspired by multi-level modeling, the implementation of multi-level RI-LTA in statistical software should also be explored further.
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    Food labeling effects in marketing
    YANG Qiaoying, LIU Wumei, ZHANG Dong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1669-1683.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01669
    As a tool to convey food-related information to consumers, food labels can effectively solve the problem of information asymmetry in food consumption. With the popularization of food labels in practice, more and more scholars have begun to pay attention to the impact of different food labels on consumer behavior. However, most of the existing studies focus on a single food label type and its effects, lacking of comparison and discussion on the effects of different food labels and their inherent mechanisms and boundary conditions. Based on this, this paper reviews the research on food labels in the field of marketing, which focuses on how different types of food labels affect individuals' cognition, emotion and behavior. Meanwhile, this paper introduces the regulatory orientation theory to explain the different effects of different food labels, and on this basis, a more integrated food label effect framework is constructed in this paper.
    Through combing the existing literature, the existing research on food labeling has roughly underwent three stages. The first stage began in the early 1980s. The demand for the nutritional value of food led to the attention and research on the nutrition label. The second stage started around 2000. Scholars mainly focus on labels that can convey information about food safety and quality. In the third stage, in the last decade, eco-environmental labels attracted more attention from consumers and scholars. Based on the different levels of information coverage, food labels can be divided into two types: product-level labels and ingredient-level labels. The product-level label refers to the label which is used to explain the overall characteristics and quality information of the food (including date label, health warning label, organic label, natural label, brand information, genetically modified organism label, eco label, and fair trade label). However, the ingredient-level label refers to the label that is used to display the specific nutritional information of the food (including nutrition facts panel, GDA label, low-fat label, health claim, traffic light label, health star rating, calorie menu label, shelf label).
    Further analysis and comparison showed that different types of food labels differ in influencing results, mechanism of action, and boundaries. Specifically, the product-level labels can arouse consumers' perceptions of safety, risk, and morality, and can effectively increase consumers' trust in products. At the same time, after purchasing products with such labels, consumers will show more food waste and repeated purchases. Ingredient-level labels, on the other hand, mainly affects consumers' perceptions of product health, as well as subsequent food choices and food intake. The theory of regulatory orientation helps to explain the different effects of the two types of food labels. The product-level labels more often initiate consumer preventive orientation, while the ingredient-level labels activate consumer promotion orientation. In addition, the two types of food labeling effects are driven by the halo effect, information processing, conceptual metaphor, social identity, attribute inference and other mechanisms. Besides, these effects are moderated by social demographic factors, individual differences, and product characteristics.
    On the one hand, combing and commenting on the effects of different food labels can provide reference for food manufacturers to carry out food marketing practices. On the other hand, through the construction of food label research framework in the field of marketing, it can point out the context and direction for marketing scholars to carry out empirical research on food label. Based on the overall framework of food labeling effects constructed in this paper, we propose that further research on the topic of food label can be carried out from following aspects in the future: (1) Expanding the behavioral results of ingredient-level labels; (2) Expanding the behavioral results of product-level labels; (3) Exploring the impact of different food label presentation forms on consumers; (4) Expanding the outer packaging labels and related research; and (5) Exploring the reversal mechanism of the negative effects of food labels.
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    Moral injury: A review from the perspective of psychology
    AI Pan, DAI Yan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 168-178.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00168
    Moral injury refers to the long-lasting psychological, biological, spiritual, behavioral and social impact on an individual after the exposure to morally injurious events, which entail “perpetrating, failing to prevent, bearing witness to, or learning about acts that transgress deeply held moral beliefs and expectations” (Litz et al., 2009). Since Litz et al. (2009) redefined this concept from the perspective of psychology, moral injury has attracted extensive attention in the fields of psychology, ethics, psychiatry, and sociology. The present article reviews and summarizes the concept, relevant mechanisms, measurements, and interventions of moral injury and offer recommendations for future research. We first review the background of moral injury. Moral injury can be traced back to survivor guilt, which has long been regarded as one of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, Litz et al.(2009) pointed out that moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder are two different concepts, and Shay(2014) listed the five differences between moral injury and post-traumatic stress disorder in detail. Next, we review the mechanisms of moral injury. Under the influence of individual and social factors, potentially morally injurious events that severely violate an individual's moral code can lead to cognitive dissonance and intrapsychic conflict, and eventually produce lasting shame, guilt, and anxiety. In addition, different types of potentially morally injurious events may lead to different types of moral injury, but the specific mechanism is still unclear. Self-oriented events (e.g., committing a crime, failing to prevent a crime, etc.) are more likely to result in negative internal emotions and cognitions (e.g., guilt, shame, inability to forgive oneself), whereas other-oriented events (e.g., witnessing an act of violence, betrayal by a trusted person) are more likely to lead to negative external emotions and cognitions (e.g., anger, loss of trust, inability to forgive).Third, we summarizes the existing moral injury scales, with a focus on the scope of application and each scale's advantages and disadvantages. These scales can be divided into two categories according to their contents, with one group assessing moral injury symptoms alone, and another assessing both the moral injury events and symptoms. Researchers or clinicians can choose these scales according to their practical needs. Moreover, current interventions for moral injury include Cognitive Behavior Therapy, CBT-based Adaptive Disclosure Therapy, CPT-based Spiritually Integrated Cognitive Processing Therapy, etc. While being commonly used in the treatment of PTSD, those therapies are equally effective in treating the core symptoms of moral injury. We concluded this article with limitations of existing research and suggestions for future research. Moral injury events and moral injury outcomes need to be further distinguished, moral injury mechanisms need to be further studied, and the diagnostic criteria of moral injury need to be established. Researchers also need to pay attention to the differences of moral standards in different cultures, expand research on moral injury to more groups, and widen the application of research on moral injury.
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    Public service motivation in the Chinese context: Theory construction and workplace consequences
    WEN Bo, TAO Lei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 239-254.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00239
    Clarifying the consensual notions, measurement properties, and performance-related effects of public service motivation (PSM) in the Chinese context is an essential prerequisite to help China establish a committed public workforce and improve its public management strategies for personnel. Previous research on PSM, albeit copious, has overlooked a massive conceptual divergence between Chinese and Western contexts and therefore undermines its applicability in cross-cultural environments. In addition, our knowledge of how to inspire PSM in employees and its negative performance impacts remains limited. Hence, the purpose of this research is to develop an integrated PSM theory within the Chinese context through investigating its core components, activation mechanisms, and associated outcomes in the workplace. To begin with, we propose that PSM in the Chinese context ought to include three essential components: instrumental, norm-based, and affective motivations. Specifically, the first is the scaffolding that comprises individuals' self-interested reasons for seeking employment in the public sector. It encompasses two subdimensions: political efficacy and an attachment to the governance regime. The former can be characterized as aspirations or predilections towards becoming high-ranking politicians whereas the latter epitomizes allegiance to the system under which one lives and functions. The second is norm-based motives that emphasize the socialized influence of public organizations on civil servants. In China, the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, democratic centralism, a focus on the big picture, and preeminence of the government constitute the primary public values that are firmly held by civil servants. Affective motivation denotes one's impetus for reflecting one's family and social identity. Under collectivism and Confucianism, bringing glory to one's family or ancestors as well as patriotic self-sacrifice are two crucial aspects of civil servants' affective motives. Based on the abovementioned conceptualization, in this study, PSM is conceived as a mixed-motives construct. By virtue of a grounded theory approach primarily consisting of semi-structured interviews and observational fieldwork, we will further identify and refine the core and substantive components of PSM held by front-line public employees, thus laying a solid groundwork for the subsequent development of a PSM measurement scale that is highly relevant to the Chinese context. Second, through the lens of micro-interventions, we will draw on self-efficacy and predisposition-opportunity theories to design a series of behavioral experiments to examine whether and the extent to which beneficiary contacts, self-advocacy, and idea reflections activate PSM among Chinese public sector workers. Finally, we will rely on psychological contract and moral disengagement theories to investigate the underlying mechanisms of both the desirable and undesirable effects of PSM on the attitudes and behaviors of public sector employees. In sum, by developing a localized PSM quantification tool with specific consideration for the Chinese cultural, bureaucratic, and social reality, analyzing the micro-activation mechanisms of PSM, and exploring the mixed effects of PSM on organizational performance at the individual level, this study strives to comprehensively extend the existing PSM literature in the Chinese context. Findings stemming from this study will not only fill an enduring scholarly need for the establishment of locally-adaptive PSM theories but also will generate ample evidence-based policy implications regarding the approaches to increase the work motivation and job performance of Chinese public employees.
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    Cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear acquisition and extinction
    FENG Pan, YANG Ke, FENG Tingyong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 365-374.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00365
    Fear is a biologically adaptive response to environmental threats, and fear learning plays a key role in adaptive function. However, maladaptive fear learning underlies emotional disorders, such as anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Together with the development of cognitive neuroscience and the integration of multidisciplinary research, the study on the cognitive neural mechanism of fear has become a hot topic in the field of emotion. Using the classical fear conditioning paradigm, researchers have identified the brain circuits of fear learning and extinction. Specifically, extensive imaging researches have revealed several key regions involved in fear acquisition, including the amygdala, insula, dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and thalamus. Moreover, the amygdala, hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) served key roles in fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation, and the amygdala, hippocampus, vmPFC, and dACC are required for fear extinction. Cumulative evidence has suggested that oxytocin plays a crucial role in the process of fear acquisition, fear consolidation and fear extinction. Therefore, firstly, we summarized the paradigms of fear acquisition and fear extinction as well as the cognitive neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and fear extinction based on the fingdings of corresponding meta-analyses. Secondly, we focused on the cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear acquisition and fear extinction. Next, we summarized the neurobiological circuits of oxytocin influence on fear emotion processing. Finally, we prospected the future researches on the cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear processing. The present study sheds insights into the cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear processing. Moreover, the present study provides an potential treatment for the fear-related disorders.
    Oxytocin has been shown to facilitate fear acquisition as it affects brain activity in several regions including amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula and hippocampus, as well as the functional connectivity between them. Oxytocin also enhances fear extinction by regulating amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex activity, as well as enhancing the functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Furthermore, oxytocin can regulate the activity of the amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, vmPFC and other fear-related brain regions, thus affecting the processes of fear acquisition and extinction. Specifically, cumulative evidence has indicated that intranasal oxytocin attenuates amygdala (hyper)activity and enhances functional coupling of the amygdala with the vmPFC and hippocampus, resulting in increased top-down control over the fear response. In addition, intranasal oxytocin has also been found to attenuate amygdala—brainstem connectivity and to change activity and connectivity in nodes of the salience network (i.e., insula and dACC). Furthermore, oxytocin administration may enhance social behavior through modulating the hypothalamus—pituitary—adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, which may provide a potential treatment for the fear-related disorders. However, it should be noted that the dose, time and location of oxytocin injection might have different effects on the processes of fear acquisition and extinction.
    Future studies should focus on gender differences, neural network underlying the impact of oxytocin on fear consolidation and reconsolidation and the pathological study examining oxytocin effect on fear emotion processing to better reveal the cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on.
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    The decision-making process of offering help in the workplace
    YANG Jianfeng, GUO Xiaohong, MING Xiaodong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 15-31.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00015
    This project addresses the limitation of traditional literature on helping decision-making, which excessively focuses on transient "helping behavior." This project considers helping decision-making in the workplace as a social venture investment decision process, which involves a series of steps corresponding to dynamic psychological contracts. This includes preparation, strategic conception, and follow-up adjustment when the help giver and the help seeker sign contracts for help in the workplace. Simultaneously, a crucial task of managers is to create an environment that promotes employees' mutual help in the organization. Furthermore, the project proposes that human resource management practice can create and maintain an appropriate investment environment within the organization. This environment can boost social venture investment decision among staff and encourage them to accept social investment risk in workplace helping decision-making.
    Based on the above ideas, this project will be conducted in two parts, comprising of four studies. In the first part, based on the dynamic psychological contract theory, the interview and case study methods will be used to develop the process model of workplace helping decision-making (Study 1). The workplace helping decision-making process proposedly includes six steps: heeding the dilemma of the help seeker, explaining the help seekers' dilemma, confirming whether and how much responsibility individuals have to assist the help seeker, formulating strategies to assist the help seeker, implementing helping behavior, and adjusting further helping decisions based on the reflection of previous helping results. This project then focus on the last step, which is the main difference between our workplace helping decision-making model and those of previous research. This project will use a daily-diary survey to explore how help givers would reflect the feedback of help seekers and adjust further help based on their reflection (Study 2). In the second part, based on the above proposed six-step model of helping decision-making in the workplace, human resource management practice is regarded as an important environmental factor that influences individuals to conduct social venture investments, such as helping decision-making in the workplace. Using the multi-wave survey method, this project focuses on the influential mechanism of two key variables of human resource management practice on helping decision-making in the workplace: job design (Study 3) and salary management (Study 4). Specifically, Study 3 examines the mediating role of work engagement between job characteristics and workplace helping decision-making, and the moderating mechanism of task interdependence on this mediating process. Study 4 explores the mediating role of team identity between team performance payment and workplace helping decision-making, and the moderating mechanism of organizational identity on the mediating role of team identity.
    Through the above four studies, this project will make the following theoretical and practical contributions. Theoretically, from the dynamic psychological contract perspective, this project regards the workplace helping decision-making process as a social venture investment decision process, thus providing a new theoretical perspective for literatures in the field of help. Thus, this project addresses the limitation of previous literatures focusing on "helping behavior," which is a transient behavior, and instead regards help in the workplace as a decision-making process. Therefore, future researchers could further explore this process and find more effective ways to encourage workplace helping behavior. Moreover, previous studies conventionally applied the psychological contract theory to explain the relationship between organizations and employees. This project is the first to adopt the psychological contract theory to elucidate the relationship between employees in the workplace, thus expanding the boundaries of the psychological contract theory. Regarding practice, this project examines the antecedents of the decision-making process of help in the workplace from different modules of human resource management, which can guide the practice of human resource management and promote employees' mutually helping behavior.
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    The role of disappointment in inaction inertia
    LI Xiaoming, ZOU Shi, GAO Youming
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (8): 1396-1401.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01396
    The present study sought to determine the role of disappointment in the “inaction inertia” effect: The phenomenon that “one is not likely to act on an attractive opportunity after having failed to take advantage of an even more attractive opportunity”. In terms of emotional causes, different researchers have argued for a causal role of regret for this effect (reluctance to accept a current opportunity represents an attempt to avoid the experienced or anticipated regret after missing an even more attractive opportunity), but it failed to explain the inaction inertia effect under the situations when the individual's failure to obtain a previous better opportunity was due to uncontrollable factors such as others or the outside world. The current study demonstrated that disappointment (i.e., anticipated disappointment) might play an important mediational role in the inaction inertia effect when uncontrollable factors account for bypassing a better opportunity, which may be an important supplement to regret explanation.
    Regret and disappointment are emotions that can be experienced in response to an unfavorable outcome of a decision. However, some regret and disappointment theorists argued that they differ with respect to the conditions under which they are felt, and how they affect decision making. They suggested that disappointment is the more general negative emotional response for unfavourable outcome, regret is experienced in cases where the disappointing outcome is attributed to the self, and the experience of disappointment can be more paralysing than that of regret and results in inertia. Totally, there is some theoretical support for the disappointment explanation of inaction inertia when the individual's missing of a previous better opportunity was due to uncontrollable factors, but the empirical evidence is missed. The present study aimed for a critical test of the disappointment explanation. Hence, two experiments did the following: Both disappointment and action likelihood were assessed to test whether factors that influenced disappointment also influenced action likelihood, and investigated whether the effects on action likelihood were mediated by disappointment. Experiment 1 focused uniquely on the escape from current experienced disappointment, and Experiment 2 further studied the avoidance of anticipated disappointment.
    Experiment 1 required participants to estimate their likelihood of becoming a member of a fitness club located 30 min away and the experienced disappointment as a function of the geographical location (5 or 25 minutes) of an earlier forsaken fitness club and the responsibility (high or low) of missing the nearer fitness club. Experiment 2 used the disappointment-version scenery in which whether an initial larger discount can be acquired depends on a lottery activity, and the difference between the price of an initial and a current computer (small difference or large difference) and two level of winning probability (high or low) were manipulated in Experiment 2.
    In the two experiments, the factor (Responsibility of missing a nearer fitness club in Experiment1) that did not influence disappointment had no significant effect on action likelihood, and the factors (Difference in attractiveness between an initial and a current opportunity in both experiments, and winning probability in Experiment 2) that influenced disappointment affected action likelihood. Experiment 2 further indicated that anticipated disappointment played a significant mediational role in inaction inertia. The current study introduced disappointment into this field for the first time, and demonstrated that disappointment (i.e., anticipated disappointment) plays an important role in inaction inertia when the freedom of choice and personal responsibility are reduced, which will help us understand the emotional mechanism of inaction inertia.
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    The formation of fear of failure and its influence on entrepreneurial behavior
    HAO Xi-ling, LIU Yi-ran, DU Jing-jing, ZHENG Fang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1551-1560.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01551
    Entrepreneurship is an emotional journey that is companied with fear of failure. Fear of failure can be both an enemy and a friend. It has a dark side of discouraging entrepreneurs from carrying out entrepreneurial activities, and a bright side of motivating them to move forward. Despite mounting research on entrepreneurs' fear of failure, most studies focus on its inhibitory effect on entrepreneurial entry. Few studies pay attention to the facilitating role of fear of failure and how does it influence the key behaviors in the whole process of entrepreneurship. Based on the research gap, the study focuses on the following three research questions. (1) What induces entrepreneurs' fear of failure? (2) How does fear of failure affect entrepreneurial behavior? (3) What are the boundary conditions of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior? Following the core logic of Affective Events Theory, the study constructs the theoretical framework of 'entrepreneurial event * entrepreneur -- fear of failure -- entrepreneurial behavior', and tries to explore this complex concept together with the insights from practice.
    This study aims to achieve four research goals. First, we explore the dimensions and contents of fear of failure in entrepreneurship context. From Cognitive Appraisal Theory, fear of failure is an emotional state results from the appraisal of the threats and possibility of failure in a specific situation. We thus capture this concept from two dimensions: sources of threats and ways of appraisal.
    Second, we investigate the different antecedents of fear of failure and explore how does it evolve in the process of entrepreneurship. According to the assumption of Classical Stress Theory, emotion is shaped simultaneously by the objective event and individuals' subjective interpretation. We thus focus on two important factors to address the antecedents, i.e. entrepreneurial events such as loss-relevant event and low-capability-relevant event, and characteristics of entrepreneurs, such as entrepreneurs' passion and ways of regulatory focus. In terms of entrepreneurial events, we propose that loss-relevant event and low-capability-relevant event positively affect fear of failure. In terms of entrepreneurs' characteristics, we propose obsessive passion and prevention focus induce fear of failure, while harmonious passion and promotion focus inhibit fear of failure.
    Last but not least, we clarify how fear of failure relates to key entrepreneurial behavior. Existing studies had insufficient attention on the functional role of fear of failure. Endeavoring to start filling in this gap, this paper expounds three different effects of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior: incentive, inhibition and repression, looking at both the bright side and dark side of fear of failure. We further disentangle the boundary conditions of the relationship between fear of failure and entrepreneurial behaviors. In the micro level, when entrepreneurs get emotional support, the incentive effect of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior would be reinforced. When entrepreneurs get functional support, the inhibition and repression effect of fear of failure on entrepreneurial behavior would be mitigated. In the macro level, when the institutional environment is friendly and the cultural environment is more failure tolerant, the incentive effect of failure fear on entrepreneurial behavior will be increased and the inhibitory effect of failure fear on entrepreneurial behavior will be reduced.
    This study contributes to an emerging strand of literature on “entrepreneurial fear of failure” by looking deeply into the dimensions of this concept. It also offers novel perspective to understand entrepreneurial behavior and entrepreneurial psychology by taking account into the functional role of fear of failure. The present research not only expands the application scope and applicable situation of fear of failure, but also enriches the Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion, Affective Events Theory and Classical Stress Theory. It also tries to shed light on practice by accumulating knowledge on entrepreneurial education and offer suggestions for policy makers on managing entrepreneurial failure.
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    The influence of oxytocin, progesterone and estrogen on disgust and its neurophysiological mechanism
    ZHANG Xia, LEI Yi, WANG Fushun
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 85-97.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00085
    Disgust, as an important basic emotion, is commonly recognized as a toxin (pathogens) avoidance mechanism to protect individuals from diseases, and has far-reaching evolutionary implications and specific physiological mechanisms. Hormones are chemical messengers synthesized and secreted by endocrine cells, which affect the physiological activities of individuals by regulating the metabolism of various tissue cells. A large number of studies have found that the generation and expression of disgust involve many different hormones, including oxytocin, progesterone, estrogens, testosterone, corticosteroids, arginine-vasopressin, etc. These various systems of neuroendocrine regulations make individuals rapidly evaluate and integrate the information related to toxins and pathogen cues, and thus producing appropriate disgust and avoidance behaviors. In the current researches, oxytocin, progesterone and estrogens are the most widely studied hormones in the field of disgust. Based on animal and human researches, this article reviews and summarizes some evidence that the three hormones affect the processing of disgust and their neurophysiological mechanism and predicts future research direction.
    Oxytocin is synthesized in the hypothalamus and is widely involved in social cognition and social behaviors, such as attachment. Studies have proved that oxytocin affects the generation and acquisition of disgust based on olfaction and taste, and recognition of disgust expression by regulating the activities of several brain regions such as insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, amygdala, piriform cortex, putamen, and middle frontal gyrus. Among them, oxytocin may participate in disgust learning by modulating the activity of serotonin receptors.
    According to the compensatory prophylaxis hypothesis supported by quantities of animal and human researches, progesterone promotes the individuals' sensitivity of disgust to potentially infectious stimuli, thereby producing avoidance behaviors to reduce the risk of infection. At the same time, progesterone also affects the recognition of disgust expressions, but has no significant effect on the disgust learning of rodents. And amygdala activity is the main brain area affecting the processing of disgust and can be both promoted and inhibited by progesterone in the processing of disgust. Estrogens also play regulatory roles in perception and acquisition of disgust and recognition of facial expression of disgust. The amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus may also be the neural substrates that progesterone affects the processing of disgust, but further research will be necessary before we can draw firm conclusions.
    It is noteworthy that oxytocin, progesterone and estrogens affect the generation and expression of pathogen disgust to varying degrees, except for moral disgust. This may be because pathogen disgust is more closely related to hormones than moral disgust which has a higher cognitive component, and its physiological basis is more evident in evolution. However, this may be due to current questionnaires used to measure moral disgust making the measurement indicators insensitive enough, which causes no significant effects of the three hormones on moral disgust.
    In short, most of the current studies in this field are still confined to describe phenomena and doing correlational research, but know little about its internal mechanisms. Besides, there are still many contradictions in results. Future studies should explore the effects of these hormones on disgust in different sensory channels and consider their moderating roles in different genders by accurately measuring hormone levels and controlling the task difficulties. In addition, researchers can combine neuroimaging technologies with behavioral studies to clarify the neuroendocrine mechanism of these hormones affecting disgust processing.
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    The structural and functional changes of the insula in people with addiction
    HE Xinyu, HE Qinghua
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (8): 1438-1449.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01438
    Located deep in the lateral sulcus, the insula is associated with a variety of psychological functions such as emotions and interoception. As an important nerve center of the interoception, the insula plays a critical role in the formation, maintenance, withdrawal and relapse of addiction.
    The function and structure of the insula show distinctive heterogeneity and anterior-posterior distribution. The differentiation of the anterior and posterior insula is mainly reflected in the posterior insula being more responsible for perceptual activities such as sensory motor, pain and language processing, while the anterior insula is more involved in cognitive and executive functions.
    In addicted individuals, the structure of the insula has changed, most of the findings point to a decrease in the volume and density of the insula gray matter, and this change is correlates with the length of time the addictive substance was used. Addiction has also led to changes in salience network function and connectivity between insula and executive function areas. In various types of addiction, the insula-centric network function and its functional connection are generally weakened.
    Therefore, how stimulations in the insula could lead to changes in addictive behaviors becomes the focus of ongoing research. A large number of studies have shown that insula is a highly promising target area for intervention in addiction. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are both effective methods of brain stimulation. Currently, published human experience with DBS for drug addiction is limited to a few promising case series or case reports, and further animal and human studies are needed to determine the role of DBS in drug addiction treatment. High-frequency rTMs targeting insula regions have been beneficial for craving associated with nicotine use disorder, but the available evidence does not adequately support the effectiveness of rTMs in the treatment of alcoholism. In terms of behavioral addiction, although there are no stimulation studies that target the insula, it is worthwhile to explore the cognitive and neurophysiological characteristics unique to behavioral addiction, and to establish separate brain stimulation methods targeting the areas related to behavioral addiction. Brain stimulation technology is progressing, which also allows researchers to use the insula as the direction of treatment of addiction, to provide promising treatment results for addicts.
    Although most studies have shown a decrease in the volume and density of the insula gray matter and the function of the network centered on the insula and its functional connections were generally weakened, some studies have shown the opposite conclusion. On the one hand, the contradictory results of the insula may be related to the functional and structural heterogeneity of the insula itself, the different sub-regions of the insula have different functions and participate in different functional networks, and some of the above conclusions do not distinguish the sub-regions of the insula. On the other hand, the insula is a typical region with dynamic functional changes, and changes in the interoceptive state (such as whether the patient is in a state of withdrawal or craving) are critical to the functional response of the insula. In addition, the commonalities and characteristics of different addictions also need to be considered. A large number of studies have shown that long-term adaptive changes in the nervous system under the action of addictive drugs are the basis for the formation of substance addiction behavior. Compared with the addictive behavior of substance dependence, behavioral addiction is not affected by any intake of substances, so the formation of its dependence state is mainly due to psychological mechanisms. Even different substance addictions have different characteristics. Therefore, future research should further investigate the specific role of insula in addiction through fine segmentation and a combination of multiple methods, and explore the commonalities and characteristics of different types of addiction in order to better carry out brain-based addiction intervention.
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    How to overcome boundary conditions: Implications from the molecular mechanism of memory strength as a constraint on destabilization
    ZHU Junping
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (8): 1450-1461.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01450
    Retrieval of long-term memories can induce a destabilization process that returns them into a labile state, and then the labile state will be followed by a reconsolidation process that helps memories to restabilize and maintain their relevance. The reconsolidation process can be interfered by electroconvulsive shock, pharmacological treatment or behavioral training to update the original memories. Disrupting memory reconsolidation could become an approach tackling maladaptive memory. However, some boundary conditions such as training strength and memory age may prevent memory destabilization. Memory destabilization is the prerequisite for reconsolidation to occur. Therefore, they make reconsolidation-based interventions invalid. This may be taken as a potential stumbling block for reconsolidation-based interventions: in clinical practice, old and strong maladaptive memories are the norm rather than the exception. Therefore, overcoming the boundary conditions has become an urgent problem, and it is also one of the hotspots in the field of reconsolidation in recent years. It is because boundary conditions hinder the memory destabilization that memory can't experience reconsolidation. Therefore, this paper first summarized and analyzed the molecules involved in memory destabilization and their respective roles in memory destabilization. Among the boundary conditions, memory strength is the most studied. Therefore, combining the molecules of memory destabilization and a series of experimental evidences about the effect of memory strength on memory reconsolidation, we inferred that the molecular path of memory strength hindering memory destabilization may be: as the memory strength increases, the noradrenergic projection from locus coeruleus to amygdala will be enhanced, and then the expression levels of NR2B and GluA2 in basolateral amygdala, the key molecules of memory destabilization, will be changed through this projection, and thus memory destabilization will be inhibited. Boundary conditions can affect the activities of key molecules involved in memory destabilization, thus hindering memory reconsolidation. This suggests that, in turn, pharmacological manipulation of the molecules involved in memory destabilization before memory activation can overcome the barrier of memory destabilization caused by the boundary conditions formed during memory coding. Previous animal experiments have shown that NMDAR, one of the key molecules involved in memory destabilization, was pharmacologically regulated before memory activation, which successfully promoted memory destabilization and overcome the boundary conditions. It can be seen that the boundary conditions are not absolute. All the molecules involved in memory destabilization are expected to be the target molecules to overcome the boundary conditions. The role of other molecules involved in memory destabilization, except NMDAR, in overcoming the boundary conditions is still unknown and needs to be further explored. The effect of these molecules in overcoming the boundary conditions may be different, and the clinical application potential is also different, which requires a lot of comparative experiments to select the best target molecules. Future research can further explore more and better methods to promote memory destabilization and overcome boundary conditions, and enhance the clinical application potential of reconsolidation-based interventions.
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    Do positive stereotypes have a negative impact?
    WANG Zhen, GUAN Jian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (9): 1657-1668.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01657
    Positive stereotypes are defined as positive traits describing social groups. Previous research on stereotypes has mainly focused on negative stereotypes while overlooking positive stereotypes, especially their negative effects. Here, we will discuss positive and negative effects of positive stereotypes from racial, gender and aging stereotypes and conditions for their emergence and further future research
    The positive effects of positive stereotypes are mainly evinced through the stereotype boost. For example, activation of positive racial stereotypes, positive gender stereotypes and positive aging stereotypes has a positive effect on targets' minds and behaviors. The negative effects of positive stereotypes on targets' behaviors and cognition are caused by the choking under pressure effect and compensation effect of social cognition, respectively. For example, targets with positive racial stereotypes have negative attitudes and evaluations towards the stereotyper. Targets are prone to underperform in stereotyped domains in positive gender stereotypes situation. As for positive aging stereotypes, the mental and psychical health of targets can be adversely affected. Generally, positive stereotypes still induce negative effect similar to negative stereotypes in certain conditions, although having the positive side.
    The effects (positive or negative) of positive stereotypes depend on the following four moderators: (1) Activation of positive stereotypes. Compared with the subtle activation of positive stereotypes, blatantly activating positive stereotypes easily cause the “choking under pressure” of targets and their sense of being depersonalized, finally resulting in a negative impact. (2) Accuracy of expressing positive stereotypes. Compared with accurately expressing positive stereotypes, the one who states positive stereotypes in an extreme way tends to generate the feeling of untruth, resulting in conflicted response of targets. (3) Individuals who state positive stereotypes. Compared with an ingroup member, positive stereotypes stated by an outgroup member easily cause the prejudice by targets, which then result in targets' negative attitudes and evaluations towards the stereotyper. (4) Culture context of positive stereotypes. Compared with collectivistic culture, positive stereotypes in individualistic culture are prone to have a sense of being depersonalized and be thread.
    Further research on positive stereotypes can be discussed from the following aspects: (1) Exploration of effects of positive stereotypes in collectivistic culture. For example, China is the representative country of collectivistic cultures which emphasize “fundamental connectedness of human beings to each other”, and positive stereotypes as positive beliefs about members of social groups based on the category membership. Therefore, the Chinese feel less depersonalized when the stereotyper describe them in ways related positive stereotypes. (2) Exploration of positive stereotypes from research fields and targets, such as fields of sexual orientation and academic discipline. Academic discipline stereotypes deem that science students are superior to arts students in science, and arts students are superior to science students in arts. As a result, male science students may underperform on the science test and female arts students may underperform on the arts test when priming their major and gender identities simultaneously, due to the feeling of untruth present when activating two positive stereotypes. In addition, researchers can explore positive stereotypes of children as there are no stereotype awareness of children under 7 ages. That is one of the prerequisites for positive stereotypes having influence on targets. (3) Exploration of interventions of negative effects reduced by positive stereotypes. By far there is no research on the interventions of negative effects of positive stereotypes. However, it is not hard to assume that would be difficult to reduce the negative effects of positive stereotypes because of the complimentary nature of positive stereotypes. (4) Exploration of positive effects of negative stereotypes. Based on our knowledge, only two studies have found that negative stereotypes have positive consequences. Once more empirical evidence to support the findings can be confirmed, this would play a significant role in the domain of stereotype research, especially for the interventions of negative effects of stereotypes.
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    The effect of attachment on the process of emotional regulation
    HUANG Yufei, SHI Pan, CHEN Xu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (1): 77-84.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00077
    Previous studies based on attachment theory have proved the influence of attachment on emotion regulation. These influences can be manifested in many aspects, such as the choice of emotion regulation strategies, the effect of emotion regulation, and some cognitive processing related to emotion regulation. However, these studies ignore the complexity and diversity of emotion regulation as a process, and therefore cannot answer how attachment can affect emotion regulation. The extended process model divides emotion regulation into three stages, and clearly describes the process of emotion regulation and the relationship between various factors in the process. Combining the extended process model and the attachment theory to look back to previous studies is helpful to find out the relationship among these studies and expand new research directions. From the perspective of the extended process model, it can be found that there are individual differences related to attachment in all the three stages of emotional regulation. Specifically, in the recognition stage, the influence of attachment on emotion regulation is mainly reflected in the cognitive processing related to emotions. Both higher attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are related to lower emotion recognition ability. At the same time, higher attachment avoidance is related to lower emotion recognition ability, and higher attachment anxiety is related to lower emotion regulation self-efficacy. In the selection stage, individuals with different attachment styles have different preferences for the choice of emotion regulation strategies. Most studies have found that individuals with secure attachment prefer to use highly adaptable and efficient strategies (such as cognitive reappraisal), and individuals with insecure attachment styles prefer to use strategies which are less adaptable and efficient(such as hypo-regulation or hyper-regulation). In the implementation stage, most studies have found that both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are significantly positively correlated with emotion regulation difficulties or disorders, but in some studies, high attachment avoidance individuals may not have problem with emotion regulation. In general, many factors are influenced by attachment in the process of emotion regulation, and the extended process model provides a theoretical framework for describing the sequence and causal relationship between these factors. However, there are still many key issues that have not yet been resolved. Future research can be expanded from the following aspects: The influence of attachment on emotional regulation should be explored while paying attention to the impact of environmental factors; New experimental paradigms need to be designed to confirm the continuity of the three stages and explore the reasons why attachment could affect emotional regulation. It is necessary to explore the influence of attachment on the emotion regulation flexibility. In addition, future intervention studies should design more targeted interventions to improve the emotion regulation of insecurely attached individuals.
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    The incubation effect of creative thinking
    LI Ziyi, ZHANG Ze, ZHANG Ying, LUO Jin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2022, 30 (2): 291-307.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.00291
    Incubation effect refers to the phenomenon that when people are confronted with an unsolvable problem, they temporarily put it aside and switch to complete other irrelevant tasks instead, which is beneficial to the ultimate solution of the original problem. In recent years, researchers have conducted extensive studies on incubation effect of creative thinking and its influences, and put forward many theories to explain incubation effect. The representative theories include “selective forgetting theory”, “spreading activation and cue assimilation theory” and “unconscious work theory”. They explain the mechanism of incubation effect from different perspectives and predict different influences and phenomena respectively. For example, the attention-withdrawal theory supposes that the length of incubation will not influence the incubation effect. And the forgetting-fixation theory recommended a longer break to incubate. Furthermore, some factors are mentioned in many theories, such as the length of incubation and the length of preparation period. So the empirical researches about them can be explained by these related theories. While some factors are only mentioned by a few theories. For example, the function of beneficial cues can only be explained by the opportunistic assimilation theory. However, the research field of incubation effect has begun to combine with mind wandering and sleep. Many of the results of these studies are difficult to be well explained by the above theories, but should be explained in the light of the characteristics of mind wandering and sleep. Until now, related researches of mind wandering and sleep further shed light on the mechanism behind incubation effect. For example, mind wandering increases unconscious associate processing to serve creative problem-solving. Sleep, as a special long period of incubation, may promote problem solving through various mechanisms such as the reconstruction of memory representation and the reactivation of memory. But there is also conflicting evidence as to whether mind wandering and sleep promote the incubation effect. There are many studies that have failed to prove the effect of mind wandering and sleep on creative problem solving. The psychological processes underlying the incubation effect includes at least two cognitive components: the transformation of problem representation and the formation of remote associations. Different brain mechanisms are responsible for these two basic components. During the incubation period, memory systems are regulated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to break the fixation caused by false assumptions. The cooperation of right frontal lobe, temporal lobe and parietal lobe was beneficial to assimilation of beneficial cues. The striatum-hippocampus-prefrontal lobe network continued to catalyze the reconstruction of representations during incubation period. Mind wandering promotes insight through the interaction of the medial temporal lobe, default network and executive network. The research on sleep can reflect the mechanism of long-term incubation in real life, and future research can further investigate the role of different sleep stages and their corresponding brain mechanisms. Future research needs to improve the ecological validity of relevant studies, promote the development of incubation theories, improve reproducibility, explore the positive factors that promote the incubation effect, and pay attention to the relationship between the incubation effect and emotion or other non-cognitive factors.
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    The impact of trust in technology and trust in leadership on the adoption of new technology from employee's perspective
    XU Yi, LIU Yixuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (10): 1711-1723.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01711
    In today's knowledge-based economy, new technology adoption is crucial for companies to increase their core competitiveness. The success of new technology diffusion in enterprises depends on employees' trust in new technologies to overcome risks and uncertainties surrounding new technology. Although many scholars recognize the positive role of trust in the adoption of new technology, the extant literature lacks empirical evidence and theoretical underpinning. To fill the gap, we aim to explore how trust in technology and leadership affects employees' decision to adopt new technology through four different studies. Further, we introduce perceived risk and technology self-efficacy as mediators to explore the underlying mechanisms.
    In study 1, we validate the measurement of trust in technology with functionality, reliability, and helpfulness as three antecedent factors. The positive effects of trust in technology and trust in leadership on employees' new technology adoption are examined through an experiment. In study 2, we collect employees' data within organizations. Perceived risk and technology usefulness are added into the model to explain the relationship between trust in technology, trust in leadership, and new technology adoption from the employees' perspective. In study 3, we first refine the measurement of technology self-efficacy. Then, through an experiment, we manipulate the trust in technology (High, Low, Control) and measure employees' technology self-efficacy and new technology adoption. We propose that trust in technology can increase technological self-efficacy and further facilitate employees' new technology adoption. In study 4, we examine the contextual effects of industries' backgrounds and organizational cultures. We suggest that in high-tech industries, trust in technology could have a greater effect on employees' adoption of new technology. In addition, organizational culture could moderate the effects of trust. In particular, collectivistic organizational culture could moderate the effects of trust in leadership, while individualistic organizational culture could moderate the effects of trust in technology.
    Overall, the current research constructs a theoretical model and extends our understanding of employees' adoption of new technology. First, it investigates factors that affect new technology adoption from the employees' perspective with consideration of both individual and contextual factors. We propose employees' technological self-efficacy as individual differences and organizational culture and industry background as contextual factors that equally matters. Second, the current study clearly identifies trust in new technological adoption processes in organizations, as both trust in technology and trust in leadership. We further analyze the effects of the two types of trust and the underlying mechanisms. This enriches the literature of the influence of trust and its mechanism in new technology adoption. Third, we suggest that technological self-efficacy can explain the mechanism of trust in technology, which could lay the foundation for future research of trust in technology. Lastly, this study has managerial implications. Based on our findings, effective management strategies can be implemented to support new technologies integration.
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    The teaching and learning brains: Interpersonal neuroscience in educational research
    CHENG Xiaojun, LIU Meihuan, PAN Yafeng, LI Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (11): 1993-2001.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01993
    One significant challenge that currently limits the development of educational neuroscience is the way to neurophysiologically characterize interpersonal interactions and dynamics of pedagogical activities. Addressing this challenge in the literature, we aim to provide a perspective on the research emerging in the nexus between the fields of interpersonal neuroscience (i.e., the measurement of two or more individuals' brain activity and the analysis of their inter-dependency), teaching and learning. Our review will highlight important recent developments and target outstanding questions that have so far not been addressed, and offer a novel synthesized framework for a better understanding of both the transmission of information between individual brains, and how such interactions shape memories and behavior. The interpersonal neuroscience focuses on the associations among two or more people when they perform the same cognitive activity. There are two different types of scanning in interpersonal neuroscience research: sequential scanning and hyperscanning. In a sequential scanning protocol, a stimulus is first shown to a subject A (e.g., a teacher), whose responses are recorded and later presented to another subject B (e.g., a student). The responses from subject B are also recorded and compared with those of subject A. Research using sequential scanning examines the group's processing mode of information and the transmission of such information between people. The concurrent scanning (also known as “hyperscanning”) captures the brain activity of interacting individuals simultaneously. In hyperscanning studies, a student acquires information by interacting with another individual (another student or a teacher). Related studies focus on the interaction patterns of multiple individuals in naturalistic situations. Compared with sequential scanning, hyperscanning is thought to have higher ecological validity and can be applied in real-time one-to-one and one-to-many teaching scenarios.++=Recent years have witnessed fruitful applications of interpersonal neuroscience in the field of education. It has been demonstrated that teaching activities can induce the synchronization of brain activity (i.e., interpersonal brain synchronization, IBS) between interacting individuals (such as teacher-student dyads and student-student dyads) with different task scenarios and materials. IBS may reflect the quantity and quality of teacher-student/student-student interaction. The characteristics of IBS in the teaching process are closely associated with the dynamic nature of the teaching process and the teacher-student relationship. Also, the inter-student correlation of brain activity can reflect their cognitive states (such as engagement and attention, etc.) during the learning process. Therefore, the interpersonal neuroscience perspective can help researchers better understand the teaching process. Interpersonal neuroscience can provide valuable insights for monitoring the teaching process, predicting the teaching effect, and capturing the factors that may affect the teaching activities.
    The research findings of interpersonal neuroscience in the field of education have important implications for teaching activities and research. The related neural indices can help teachers select teaching materials, establish and maintain a good teacher-student relationship, and attach importance to the role of interaction in teaching activities. According to the current findings of the application of interpersonal neuroscience in education, the correlation or synchronization between brain activity can be used as a predictor of attention engagement and learning outcomes. Future research is needed to improve the quality of online courses by applying the methods of interpersonal neuroscience to monitor the interactive learning characteristics of students with different learning ability levels, improve the quality of teaching activities of skills, track the dynamic changes of students' engagement in online course learning and evaluate the quality of online courses. We believe that our perspective will have a broad impact in fields, such as psychology, pedagogics, and neuroscience, in particular those targeting social behavior and teaching/learning settings. Our perspective will also be of interest to researchers working across species and in the clinic.
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    Discriminating the concepts of goal and its influence on decision-making
    HE Jiamei, JIN Lei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2021, 29 (8): 1410-1419.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01410
    Decision-making is the process that individuals evaluate and make a choice among multiple alternatives, in order to maximize their possible benefits. Individuals usually think about and predict what may happen in the future and set reasonable goal to guide their decisions. The goal is not only the reason why the decision-maker makes their choice, but also the ideal result that the decision-maker anticipates to achieve.
    Individual decision making under the guidance of a goal involves two mental processes, such as setting a goal and accomplishing the subsequent decision task. Based on goal's content, motivational function, and other features, previous studies believe that the goal is a future result that individuals anticipate to achieve and it has motivational effects on their cognition and behavior. However, only one future result that individuals intended to achieve was discussed in previous researches. Usually, individuals want to attain multiple goals at the same time, potential conflict of interest among these future results might exist. So, in the first step, individuals have to make a choice among these future results that they wish to achieve at the same time. The one that is chosen would possess motivation power to arouse individuals' cognitive process and behavior. Therefore, goal is the winner of the competition for motivation. On the basis of the evaluation of their desirability and feasibility, specific future results are selected as the goal and endowed with motivation by the decision-maker.
    Behavior habits, personality traits, and life experience affect individuals' goal setting. For example, high construal level helps decision makers to recognize better their goal and focus their attention on decision scheme that is conducive to the goal's achievement. Among decision-makers with high trait self-control, a temptation has lower subjective value, compared with the goal. Individuals with high trait self-control would have less intention to approach the temptation and might experience fewer conflicts between the goal and the temptation. The asymmetric effect between temptation and goal caused by the successful experience in executing self-control has changed the value of the future results assigned by the decision-maker. The cues related to the temptation can activate the goal while they inhibit the temptation among individuals with high trait self-control.
    The goal can influence decision-making by changing the decision-maker's attitude and selective attention towards decision scheme in accomplishing subsequent decision tasks. In the process of achieving a goal, decision-makers are more likely to overestimate the positive emotions related to the goal. Therefore, positive anticipation would be endowed on the decision scheme that is benefit for the goal. The activated goal can drive selective attention and allocate attention resources to benefit the goal achievement. Moreover, selective attention increases the time duration that the decision-maker pays their attention on its corresponding decision scheme. It further helps the decision maker to improve its subjective value estimation.
    In the future, it is necessary to investigate how an unconscious goal weakens the effect that it has on negative consequences and how to measure the two mental processes directly.
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