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    The influence of mindfulness on intimate relationships
    CHEN Guodian, YANG Tongping
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1551-1563.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01551

    Mindfulness in an intimate relationship indicates the conscious attention to feelings or thoughts paid by individuals that may affect the relationship. It has gradually attracted academic attention in theory and applications research because of its contributions to improve relationship satisfaction and buffer conflicts. The theoretical framework of interaction patterns between partners helps to understand the process and outcomes of intimate relationships at the level of the dyad. Researchers usually use self-report questionnaires, laboratory-based inductions and mindfulness interventions to explore the effects of mindfulness on intimate relationships. Since mindfulness intervention has a protective and remedial function for intimate relationships, it is applied to different relationship states such as relative happiness, facing challenges, and falling into crisis. Future research consists of four aspects. Firstly, constructing the theory based on the staged characteristics and possible reverse effects; secondly, conceptualizing the theoretical definition from multi-dimensional as well as dynamic perspective by relying on the interaction pattern and staged characteristics of the intimate relationship following by the measurement through the mutual evaluation or observational coding; thirdly, using robust designs to clarify the effects of interventions and finally paying attention to potential adverse effects.

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    Engineering psychology in the era of artificial intelligence
    XU Wei, GE Liezhong
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1409-1425.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01409

    Intelligent technology provides new opportunities for the research and applications of engineering psychology. To this end, a work framework of engineering psychology in the intelligent era is proposed. The framework includes the objectives of engineering psychology research and applications, core problem space, disciplinary philosophy, focus of research and applications, methods and so on. The human-machine relationship in the intelligent era has presented a new form: the human-machine cooperation in the form of human-machine teaming. “Human-centered artificial intelligence” should be the discipline philosophy of engineering psychology in the intelligent era. Aiming at intelligent technology, engineering psychology researchers have recently begun to carry out research work on the theoretical framework and basic issues surrounding the new human-machine relationship, mental construct, shared decision-making between human and machine, and the interaction design for intelligent systems. In order to effectively support the research and development of intelligent systems, new and enhanced methods of engineering psychology are summarized. Finally, specific suggestions are given for addressing the challenges faced by engineering psychology.

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    Concealed emotion analysis and recognition method
    WANG Su-Jing, ZOU Bochao, LIU Rui, LI Zhen, ZHAO Guozhen, LIU Ye, FU Xiaolan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1426-1436.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01426

    It is of great value to recognize concealed emotions for early warning of public security issues. Micro-expression is a vital channel to reveal concealed emotions. However, there are relatively few studies on concealed emotions, and micro-expressions are challenging to recognize because of their subtle magnitude and short duration. Existing Laboratory studies of micro-expression have few practical applications. Therefore, the perception and expression of concealed emotion should be systematically investigated by collecting micro-expression samples in an ecological situation, while synchronically collecting EEG signals for better labeling of micro-expressions. We spot and recognize concealed emotions mainly through micro-expressions, accompanied by face color analysis, gaze estimation, and contactless physiological signals measurement. Then, we verify and modify our system and method in two realistic public security related application scenarios: a Recognition Assistant System for the aggressive and suicidal behaviors of psychiatric patients and a Concealed Emotion Detection System for prisoners interview.

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    Can we really empathize? The influence of vicarious ostracism on individuals and its theoretical explanation
    YANG Xiaoli, ZOU Yan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1575-1585.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01575

    Vicarious ostracism refers to a form of ostracism that observes other's experience of ostracism and also feels the experience of ostracism. From the perspective of behavioral study and neuroimaging, it is found that experiencing vicarious ostracism can trigger individual's needs, emotion, behavior and brain network responses, etc. Ostracism detection system theory, multimotive model theory, moral attribution theory, social identity theory and empathy theory provide a theoretical basis for why individuals were experiencing vicarious ostracism make these responses. Future research can also continue to explore the complexity of ostracism situations, individual's empathy and theoretical explanation in order to expand the scope of vicarious ostracism.

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    The effect of stigmatization on interpersonal interactions of stigmatized individuals
    ZHANG Ming, MU Yan, ZHANG Yuqi, KONG Yazhuo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1564-1574.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01564

    Stigma refers to an individual’s unwelcome characteristics, which always lead people to be devalued and discriminated in some given societies and brings lots of negative consequences on an individual’s daily life. Stigmatization not only will make individuals involved in discrimination, exclusion, or rejection coming from others but also will further negatively affect their performance and behavioral responses in interpersonal interactions. These negative interactions between the stigmatized individuals and the mainstream cultural groups will further aggravate the stigmatization, forming a vicious circle. From the viewpoint of stigmatized individuals, it is helpful to explore the negative effect of stigmatization on their interpersonal interactions and the coping strategies.

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    The psychological change of the Chinese people over the past half century: A literature review
    CAI Huajian, HUANG Zihang, LIN Li, ZHANG Mingyang, WANG Xiaoou, ZHU Huijun, XIE Yiping, YANG Ying, YANG Ziyang, JING Yiming
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (10): 1599-1618.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01599
    China has undergone unprecedented societal transformations over the past decades. A large body of research has examined the impacts of the rapid societal change on Chinese culture and psychology, including values, personality, self, emotion, motivation, parenting, trust, Guanxi, happiness, mental health, and other social attitudes and behaviors. On the one hand, individualism in general was on the rise. On the other hand, while collectivism in general is declining, as manifested in diverse values, self-construals, personalities, parenting styles and social attitudes, some traditional values persist (e.g. filial piety). Some specific findings include that 1) general trust declined; 2) negative emotions, motivation to avoid failure, and the importance of Guanxi were on the rise; 3) mental health overall was on the rise but it was getting worse for some specific groups (e.g. students in elementary and middle schools); 4) subjective well-being was decreasing in 1990s and started to rise recently. Many changes, however, varied across time and people with different demographic and social backgrounds, suggesting co-existence of multi-cultures. These findings have important theoretical and practical implications. Future study needs to extend the current research scope and examine the causes, outcomes, and mechanisms of the changes.
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    The influence mechanism of narcissistic leadership on the formation process of team creativity: A multi-perspective study
    LI Mingze, YE Huili, ZHANG Guanglei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1437-1453.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01437

    Narcissism leadership is a common phenomenon in organizations. It is important to study whether narcissistic leaders can effectively integrate knowledge in their teams to foster creativity. Draw on the review of the existing research, we adopted the aggregation, process, and social network perspectives to comprehensively clarify the influence of narcissism leadership on team creativity. Specifically, the perspective of aggregation emphasizes the important role of individual creativity in the development of team creativity, the perspective of process emphasizes that the interaction among team members is critical in enhancing team creativity, and the perspective of social network focuses on the team members’ relative positions as well as their internal and external relations. These three perspectives complemented each other to clarify the mechanisms and boundary conditions of the relationship between narcissism leadership and team creativity. This study provides implications regarding the intervention strategies for work teams that are managed by narcissistic leaders.

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    Effect of sleep restriction on cognitive function and its underlying mechanism
    QIAN Liu, Ru Taotao, LUO Xue, Ma Yongjun, ZHOU Guofu,
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1493-1507.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01493

    Effects of sleep restriction on cognitive functions have been of considerable concern. Studies showed that effects of sleep restriction on cognitive performance were inconsistent and suggested that effects of sleep restriction on cognition would depend on cognitive domains (e.g. attention, executive function and long-term memory), the severity of sleep restriction, as well as demographic characteristics (e.g. age and gender). Four main possible hypotheses including the arousal hypothesis, the vigilance hypothesis, the controlled attention hypothesis and the prefrontal cortex vulnerability hypothesis have been put forward to explain the underlying mechanism. Further understanding of such mechanism could be facilitated by focusing on individual differences, effects of mild sleep restriction and employing the ASL Perfusion MRI technology.

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    The effects and mechanism of attachment priming
    JIA Chenglong, SUN Li, FENG Bole, QIN Jinliang
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1539-1550.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01539

    In the context of cognitive science, attachment research has revealed a social cognition shift. Researchers’ interest is shifting from focusing on individual differences in attachment to the attachment schemas behind the differences. The research paradigm has also shifted from observational measure to the fine cognitive experimental paradigm represented by priming. The attachment priming paradigm is divided into secure priming and unsecure priming. Priming materials will activate different attachment schemas, prompting individuals to adopt secure attachment strategy, hyperactivating strategy or deactivating strategy, respectively, and thus show different mental and behavioral patterns. Meanwhile, these patterns can moderate the priming effects. And all these processes form a dynamic priming feedback loop. Future research should refine the components and structure of attachment schemas, focus on the relationship between attachment anxiety and attachment priming, and explore the impact of attachment priming on subsequent cognitive processing from the perspective of processing time.

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    How does power in organizations promote prosocial behavior? The mediating role of sense of responsibility
    LI Xin, LIU Pei, XIAO Chenjie, WANG Xiaotian, LI Aimei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1586-1598.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01586

    Early research on power has provided considerable evidence for the negative effects of power on prosocial behavior and its internal mechanisms. Although an increasing number of studies have attempted to test the positive effects of power on prosocial behavior, the mechanism of this positive effect is still not clear. By reviewing and integrating the relevant literature, sense of responsibility has been identified as a critical mediator in this positive effect. In addition, individuals with high levels of power may increase their sense of responsibility because of different reasons. Given the individual's own needs, relationships with others as well as organization, we systematically figure out that need for power maintenance, perception of dependency, and organizational identification would lead to high levels of responsibility, which then triggers powerful individuals to conduct more prosocial behaviors. Moreover, we also identified potential moderators at individual level, interpersonal level, and organizational level. Future research could focus on how power results in increased sense of responsibility from various ways including exploring this relationship in Chinese culture, adopting multiple research designs beyond experimental studies, as well as manipulating interventions for helping powerful individuals increase their levels of sense of responsibility.

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    The influence of acute stress on working memory: Physiological and psychological mechanisms
    LI Wanru, KU Yixuan
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1508-1524.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01508

    Acute stress is a series of physiological and psychological reaction that could help people adjust homeostasis, when their body facing changes and challenges in the external environment. Acute stress has a profound impact on cognitive processing, especially the core function working memory. However, inconsistent behavioral influence by acute stress exists in a plethora of previous studies. We therefore review the empirical results, and systematically summarize the findings. From three perspectives, methods to induce stress, working memory tasks/sub-components, and subjects’ individual differences, we can better explain the physiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the influence of acute stress on working memory. We proposed that the influence could be better understood from views of cognitive neural mechanisms. Future studies should jointly consider these extensive factors of stress and translate findings from basic research into intervention and regulation of negative effects of acute stress.

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    Scanmatch: A new method for studying decision-making process
    HUANG Long, XU Fu-ming, HU Xiao-yu
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1454-1461.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01454

    Scanmatch is an emerging method of eye movement data analysis in recent years. The method includes four steps: preprocessing of gaze data, division and encoding of interest regions, formation of eye track strings, and calculation of similarity scores. Researchers have used scanmatch to study the decision process theory and related influencing factors, and verified the feasibility and accuracy of scanmatch in the decision research field. Future research should use scanmatch to conduct in-depth research on various decision-making theories and influencing factors to reveal the essence of decision-making process and construct a more complete decision theory model.

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    The cognitive and neural mechanisms of statistical learning and its relationship with language
    XU Guiping, FAN Ruolin, JIN Hua
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1525-1538.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01525

    Statistical learning (SL), which was first addressed in the seminal study on speech segmentation of infants by Saffran et al. (1996), is a process of detecting the statistical regularities such as transitional probability in continuous flow of stimuli. Previous studies have proven the general existence of SL, and in recent years close attention has been placed on its specificity and its impact on other cognitive activities, especially revealing the cognitive neural mechanisms of SL and its interaction with language by exploring the process and the specificity of SL. According to the multimodal data from brain and behavior measures, future studies should seek more behavioral and neural indexes to evaluate the performance of SL, to explore the dynamic changes in neural activities of different types of SL and to construct the connection between neural correlates and behavioral performance, which will help to have an in-depth understanding of SL. Based on previous discoveries on the interaction between SL and language, future studies could determine whether SL is an effective intervention to improve language acquisition and how it works in the improvement, through exploring the effect of music SL training on second language learning of adult learners.

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    The relationship between self-concept consistency and well-being: The moderating effect of culture
    DU Jian
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (10): 1751-1761.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01751
    It has been demonstrated that self-concept consistency improves hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, culture may influence the relationship between them. Westerners are not only individualistic but also possess independent self-construal and low-level dialectical thinking. Therefore, their self-concept consistency is high and more predictive of their well-being. In contrast, Easterners are collectivistic, and they tend to have interdependent self-construal and high-level dialectical thinking. In this manner, their self-concept consistency is low and less predictive of their well-being. Future research should be conducted on other levels of personality besides dispositional traits and investigate different kinds of self-concept consistency and well-being. Moreover, they should also explore other cultural factors functioning in this process and investigate the comprehensive mechanism through which self-concept consistency and culture can influence well-being.
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    Lasso regression: From explanation to prediction
    ZHANG Lijin, WEI Xiayan, LU Jiaqi, PAN Junhao
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (10): 1777-1788.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01777
    Regression analysis, a method to evaluate the relationship between variables, is widely used in psychological studies. However, due to its highly focus on the interpretation of sample data, the traditional ordinary least squares regression has several drawbacks, such as over-fitting problem and limitation on dealing with multicollinearity, which may undermine the generalizability of the model. With the rapid development of methodology research, a shift from focusing on interpretation of the regression coefficients to improving the prediction of the model has emerged and become more and more important. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) regression has been emerged to better compensate for the limitations of traditional methods. By introducing a penalty term in the model and shrinking the regression coefficients to zero, Lasso regression can achieve a higher accuracy of model prediction and model generalizability with the cost of a certain estimation bias. Besides, Lasso regression can also effectively deal with the multicollinearity problem. Therefore, it is helpful for the construction and improvement of psychological theory.
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    Deception detection based on memory-response conflict: A cognitive load approach
    LIANG Jing, RUAN Qiannan, LI He, MA Mengqing, YAN Wenjing
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (10): 1619-1630.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01619
    Deception detection is an important topic in psychology. The cognitive approach to deception detection is based on the premise that lying is more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Increased cognitive load is hypothesized to result in greater behavioral differences between truth tellers and liars. By manipulating cognitive load through different interfering task of various difficulties during the concealed information test, the influence of cognitive load on memory-response conflict was investigated to better illustrate the cognitive mechanism of deception detection. Second, behavioral and physiological cues for memory-response conflict based deception detection were examined in both noncriminal and criminal group. Finally, machine learning algorithms were employed to predict liars and truth tellers via behavioral and physiological cues. These findings will serve to aid in deception detection in the fields of judicial security and human communication.
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    Change point analysis: A new method to detect aberrant responses in psychological and educational testing
    ZHANG Longfei, WANG Xiaowen, CAI Yan, TU Dongbo
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1462-1477.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01462

    The change point analysis (CPA), as one of the most widely used methods for statistical process control, is introduced to psychological and educational measurement for detection of aberrant response patterns in recent years. CPA outperforms the traditional method as follows: In addition to detecting aberrant response patterns, it can also pinpoint the locations of change points, contributing to efficient cleansing of response data. The method is employed to determine whether there is a point so that the complete sequence can be divided into two parts with different statistical properties, where person-fit statistics (PFS) is needed for quantifying the difference between two sub-sequences. Future researchers should pay more attention to multiple change points detection, making full use of other effective information like response time data, developing non-parametric indices as well as reforming the exiting person-fit statistics for polytomous and multidimensional tests, so as to enhance its applicability and power.

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    Animal research paradigm and related neural mechanism of interval timing
    WENG Chunchun, WANG Ning
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (9): 1478-1492.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01478

    In exploring the brain mechanism of interval timing, animal research, compared with human subjects, can provide more evidence in pharmacology, molecular biology, single neuron electrophysiology and optogenetics. At present, the commonly used animal research paradigms of interval timing include temporal bisection task, peak-interval procedure and differential reinforcement of low rates. To be well fit for different research need, animal research paradigms are often adjusted. Animal research of interval timing were discussed from two aspects: (1) the introduction and comparison of the commonly used animal research paradigms of interval timing; (2) the research progress of neural mechanism of interval timing based on these paradigms, to provide a reference for further psychological research on time perception.

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    Relationship between chronotype and depression and its mechanism
    CHEN Yongjin, HUANG Huizhen, ZHI Kuiyun, ZHANG Shangxian, LIN Qiuyun, WANG Qingya, AN Wei
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (10): 1713-1722.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01713
    As a worldwide public health challenge, depression negatively affects personal health and substantially increases the public burden of medical care. Prior research found a strong association between disrupted circadian rhythm and depression, suggesting the important role of chronotype in depression research. Individuals can be categorized into three general chronotypes: evening types (E-Types), morning types (M-Types), and neither type (N-Types). Most of studies show that evening types are independently associated with severe depressive symptoms, while morning types are a protective factor against depression. Behavioral mechanisms (such as emotion regulation) and neural mechanisms of amygdala and cingulate cortext may help us understand the effects of chronotype on depression. Future research should explore the sub-dimensions of chronotype, apply the prospective cohort design, and assess the proposed psychological and physiological mechanisms. In addition, the study has important implications to develop effective interventions to reduce depression.
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    Testosterone and human aggression
    NAN Yu, LI Hong, WU Yin
    Advances in Psychological Science    2020, 28 (10): 1697-1712.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01697
    Testosterone is an androgen synthesized and secreted by the Leydig cells of the testes in men, the thecal cells of the ovaries and placenta of women. It can mediate various physiological, morphological, and behavioral processes, and is vital to human survival and reproduction. A large number of studies have shown that there is a bidirectional relationship between testosterone and social behavior. Testosterone can regulate various social behaviors, which in turn feedback and affect the testosterone level. Early research showed that individuals with high testosterone level are more aggressive. According to the challenge hypothesis and the biosocial status model, recent studies have revealed that testosterone is highly responsive to competitive interactions. In addition, by reviewing these studies, we suggest that changes in testosterone can affect aggressive behavior by enhancing the reactivity of the amygdala or reducing PFC-amygdala functional coupling. Future research could consider the potential role of other hormones (such as cortisol) and personality traits in regulating the relationship between testosterone and human aggressive behavior, as well as related biological mechanisms.
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