ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Temporal dynamics of eye movements and attentional modulation in perceptual judgments of structure-from-motion (SFM)
    DING Jinhong, WANG Yamin, JIANG Yang
    2021, 53 (4):  337-348.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00337
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    How attention plays a role in resolving ambiguous perceptual judgments is one of the age-old scientific questions. Understanding the processes of perceptual grouping, switching, processing speed, and awareness is a key step towards solving significant problems in applications such as computer vision and automatic driving involving three-dimensional space. The rotating three-dimensional (3D) structure from motion (SFM) is a well-known bistable ambiguous stimulus. Thus far, it is still an open question how attention, eye movements, and depth cues modulate perceptual judgments of rotating directions of a 3D SFM. As early as 1925, motion perception resulted from eye tracking signals was proposed by Helmholtz (Cavanagh, 1992). Pomerantz (1970) claimed that eye movement plays an important role in the occurrence of kinesthetic perception. Furthermore, neuroscience studies has supported a common neural basis for eye movement and attention transfer (Grosbras, Laird & Paus, 2005). The current study aimed to investigate the characteristics and the time course of eye movements during SFM perception by controlling exogenous visual cues and ascertain the effect of attention on SFM perception. Using advanced eyemovements analysis, we investigated how attention under both unambiguous and ambiguous depth cues modulate perceptual judgments of rotation directions in deepth.
    Twenty-two college students (10 males and 12 females), mean age 22, participated in this experiment. Their task was to indicate the rotation directions of 3D SFM by pressing the left (for clockwise CW percept from top view) or the right key of a mouse (for CCW percept) with their left or right thumb. A computer simulated structure-from-motion (a 3D rotating sphere) was created via 30 coherently moving dots with 0.2° diameter each along with an elliptical trajectory of different radii at a mean velocity of 5°/s. The luminant dots were randomly distributed in a spherical area extended 5°×5°. Under unambiguous depth cue condition, dots were fully illuminated in the half of their trajectories and partially illuminated in the other part of the trajectories. The two groups of dots appeared to move in opposite direction. There were two sets of cued rotations in which bright dots (drawing attention) moving leftwards or rightwards. For ambiguous condition (AMB), all dots had equal brightness (averaged luminance of unambiguous displays), which had equal chance to be seen as rotating in either CW or CCW direction. During each experimental trial, after a 500 ms fixation “+”, a rotation-in-depth structure was presented for about 950 ms. A mask of random brighter and dimer dots was displayed for 500 ms after a response window of 1500 ms at the end of each trial.
    Advanced eyemovements analysis, e.g. microsaccade rates with directions and time courses, were conducted using methods from Bonneh, Adini & Polat (2015) and Hermens & Walker ( 2010). The statistical analysis revealed that perceptual judgments of rotation directions under unambiguous cues were faster and more confident than those under the ambiguous conditions. For the micro-saccade, peak velocity and amplitude were higher during perception of unambiguous 3D rotation than those during the ambiguous rotations. There was no significant difference in saccade duration. When participants judged the SFM as rotation of clockwise (left), their microsaccade rate towards left was significantly higher than that towards right and vise versa while the counter-clockwise judgment was made. Under the unambiguous condition, significant differences between CW-cw and CCW-ccw were found during time widows of 150~400 ms and 500~970 ms. In contrast, ambiguous conditions (AMB-cw and AMB-ccw) differed most during 700~950 ms, which indicated extra time of attentional processes.
    Our findings of temporal dynamics of the ambiguous and unambiguous perceptual judgments of 3D rotations indicated two stages of processing. First, local speed calculation in three-dimensional structure construction during initial period of 150~200 ms after stimulus onset. Second, visual processing binds local motion vector flows to the overall perceptual judgment of rotation directions. The ambiguous conditions took longer time. When rotations were unambiguous, attentional facilitates during perceptual judgment of 3D rotation of SFM speed up in the higher-level processing.

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    Progress feedback and its effects on working alliance and treatment outcomes
    SUN Qiwu, WU Caizhi, YU Lixia, WANG Weixin, SHEN Guocheng
    2021, 53 (4):  349-361.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00349
    Abstract ( 4730 )   HTML ( 215 )  
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    Progress feedback involves collecting patients’ ratings on treatment outcome by session and providing feedback to therapists on patient progress. Research has indicated that the positive effect of progress feedback on psychotherapy outcome is a promising advancement. However, a recent meta-analysis showed that progress feedback may only have a small to medium effect for non-severe patients. Also, the theory which explains the effect of progress feedback is very much limited. Before implementing progress feedback in China, it is necessary to test its effect on working alliance and treatment outcomes in a natural setting.
    It is believed that Chinese are taught to obey their parents, respect elders, and restrain themselves to keep family harmony. Such schemas are subsequently transferred to their social life in the forms of respecting authority/superior, maintaining interpersonal harmony, which will lead to an indirect style of communication. Progress feedback from patients’ weekly reports can be used as a correction method for incongruences between therapists and patients without discussing it immediately and face-to-face, and thus can improve the quality of working alliance and treatment outcomes. The current study used a culturally-adapted version of progress feedback in a university counseling center. Research assistants collected patients’ ratings on working alliance and treatment outcomes and emailed the results with interpretations to the therapists, who were then encouraged to use feedback information to improve treatment outcomes.
    The participants included 48 therapists and 445 patients (of which 350 were used for analysis). Post survey indicated that 80% therapists read progress feedback information based on which they were divided into feedback and non-feedback group. CORE-OM10 was used to evaluate symptoms before each session, and WAQ was used to evaluate the working alliance after each session. PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CORE-OM-34 were used before and after treatment. Multi-level structural equation models were used to analyze the data. Results showed that progress feedback had a medium effect on working alliance but no effect on treatment outcomes (measured by CORE-OM) at the between-person level. At the within-person level, the results affirmed the reciprocal model of alliance-outcome, which indicated that the model is consistent and steady across cultures. In addition, the feedback group had better treatment outcomes measured by PHQ-9 and self-rated helpfulness measured after treatment.
    The results were discussed under the three possible mechanisms of progress feedback. Progress feedback may correct the bias of the therapist’s self-evaluation on treatment process, as well as the incongruence and alliance ruptures between therapists and patients. The cultural-specific factors may also contribute to the effect of progress feedback (e.g., indirect communication style). The support from regular supervision for therapists under progress feedback was emphasized as well. Overall, the present study suggested the positive effect of progress feedback on the working alliance and treatment outcomes in a Chinese counseling center based on practical evidence.

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    Mobile phone addiction and depression: Multiple mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information
    HOU Juan, ZHU Yingge, FANG Xiaoyi
    2021, 53 (4):  362-373.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00362
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    Depression is an important and widely studied measure of individual psychological and social adaptation. Previous studies have explored the mechanism of depression from various perspectives and found that addiction is a significant risk factor for the development of depression. In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile Internet technology and smart phones, researchers have found that mobile phone addiction, as another important aspect of behavioral addiction, also has a potential impact on depression. Further studies have found that mobile-addicted individuals spend too much time and energy in the virtual world, thus leading to social anxiety. In addition, when social anxiety is so high that it affects the daily life of individuals, individuals are prone to suffer depressive symptoms. According to the cognitive behavioral model of social anxiety and emotional consistent effect, attentional bias to negative information is a key factor in maintaining the anxiety state among individuals with social anxiety. When an individual experiences social anxiety, they will pay more attention to negative information. Depression cognitive theory also posits that attentional bias to negative emotional information is closely related with the occurrence, development and maintenance of depression.
    Therefore, social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information may be important factors in the effects of mobile phone addiction on depression. This study integrated emotional and cognitive factors and explored the effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information on the relationship between mobile phone addiction on depression through two studies. For study 1, a sample of 545 college students completed the Mobile Phone Addiction Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. For study 2, 51 college students were selected to complete questionnaires and a 2 (Emotional types of paired facial expressions: negative, neutral) × 2 (Detection point position: same as negative emotional face expression, different from negative emotional face expression) within-subjects task to investigate the serial mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information on the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression.
    All the data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 and Mplus 8.3. Some valuable results were obtained as follows. (1) There were significant positive correlations among mobile phone addiction, social anxiety and depression. Social anxiety fully mediated the effect of mobile phone addiction on depression. (2) Social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information serially mediated the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression. However, attentional bias to negative emotional information did not significantly mediate the effect of mobile phone addiction on depression. Specifically, mobile phone addiction affects depression through two pathways: one is the separate mediating role of social anxiety; the other is the serial mediation pathway of social anxiety → attentional bias to negative emotional information.
    This study expands previous research on mobile phone addiction and individual psychological adaptation, enriches the field of addiction and depression research, and has significance regarding the reduction or control of the negative effects of addiction on depression. Additionally, this study also provides evidence for causal inference that social anxiety and attentional bias can alter depression levels, suggesting that attentional bias training is likely to be a promising alternative therapy for depression and providing new ideas for the intervention and treatment of clinical mental disorders.

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    Confucian ideal personality traits (Junzi personality) and mental health: The serial mediating roles of self-control and authenticity
    GE Xiaoyu, HOU Yubo
    2021, 53 (4):  374-386.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00374
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    Junzi personality refers to the composite of traits of ideal persons from the viewpoint of Confucian philosophy and is a key to East-Asian indigenous personality studies. Confucius said, “ Junzi is free from worries and fears” and that in such a personality, “to return to the observance of the rites through overcoming the self constitutes benevolence.” Mencius said, “there is no greater delight than to be conscious of authenticity on self-examination” while according to Chengzi, “one who returns to the observance of the rites through overcoming the self for long is authentic.” Based on these classic Confucian propositions and related empirical studies, this paper proposes the hypothesis that aJunzi personality has a positive effect on mental health, in which self-control and authenticity play serial mediating roles.
    To examine the above hypothesis, four studies were conducted. In Study 1 (N= 207), the self-rated questionnaires of Junzipersonality, self-control, authenticity, and mental health were used. Study 2 (N= 425) involved manipulating self-control using the scenario simulation method and looking into its effects on mental health and authenticity. In Study 3 (N= 317), authenticity, which was manipulated using the method of recall priming, was investigated for its effects on mental health. Participants were also asked to recall real-life instances involving a decision that may or may not have involved self-control to support the external validity. In Study 4 (N= 220), participants were subjected to four different tests with 2-month intervals for each that measured Junzi personality, self-control, and authenticity, with the final test measuring self-esteem, core self-evaluation, affect balance, and mental symptoms as overall indicators of mental health.
    Results showed that when measured simultaneously, Junzi personality positively predicted mental health. When measured after 6 months, Junzipersonality also positively predicted self-esteem, core self-evaluation, and affect balance but negatively predicted mental symptoms. Junzi personality positively predicted the trait of self-control and decisions involving self-control, whether in situations provided in the experiment or as were recalled by the participants. Manipulated self-control positively affected both mental health and authenticity while manipulated authenticity positively affected mental health. Results also provided evidence to the serial mediating effect of self-control and authenticity in the positive effect ofJunzi personality on mental health through simultaneous measurement and cross-temporal measurement. In addition, results of experimental manipulation also provided indirect evidence for this.
    This research sought to explore the positive relationship between Junzi personality and mental health and to help in the understanding of the internal mechanism of this relationship. The results are consistent with previous studies on the relationship between personality and mental health, self-control and mental health, and authenticity and mental health. In addition, this paper also discusses the practical value of Junzipersonality and Confucianism in today’s China.

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    The impact of gender orientation of names on individuals’ evaluation of impressions and interpersonal interaction
    ZUO Bin, LIU Chen, WEN Fangfang, TAN Xiao, XIE Zhijie
    2021, 53 (4):  387-399.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00387
    Abstract ( 6312 )   HTML ( 728 )  
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    People can infer personal traits from names and, thus, the impressions of an individual can be influenced by how others perceive his or her name. Previous research has found that people have a distinctive perception of masculine and feminine names. This raises an interesting question: How do people evaluate individuals with opposite gender-oriented names, and how will this evaluation affect interpersonal interaction based on the main two dimensions of social cognition (i.e., warmth and competence). To answer these questions, the first aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of warmth and competence of names within the Chinese context and examine the effects of an individual’s gender and name-gender orientation on impression formation. The second aim was to explore the behavioral aftereffects of evaluation of impressions based on individual’s names.
    Four studies were conducted to explore the research questions. In Study 1, a total of 100 masculine and feminine names were presented to 176 undergraduate students who were asked to rate these names according to four traits: two traits for each dimension of warmth and competence. In Study 2, 121 undergraduate participants were presented with information about target genders and names. Participants were asked to rate these targets based on warmth and competence. In Study 3a, 136 undergraduate participants were presented with two targets that had masculine or feminine names within the context of imagining going on a trip with them. Furthermore, in Study 3b, 131 undergraduate participants were asked to imagine that they would meet two individuals with different names within the context of finishing a difficult task. Participants in Study 3a and Study 3b were then asked to evaluate these individuals based on their warmth and competence traits and choose one of them as their partner to complete the corresponding activities.
    The results were as follows: (1) Feminine names were rated higher on warmth than masculine names, and masculine names were rated higher on competence than feminine names; (2) Individuals with gender-consistent names were considered to have the typical characteristics of their gender: women with feminine names were perceived as warmer than women with masculine names, and men with masculine names were perceived more competent than men with feminine names; (3) Individuals with gender-inconsistent names were considered to have the characteristics of the opposite sex: men with feminine names were perceived less competent than women with masculine names, whereas women with masculine names were perceived less warm than men with feminine names; (4) Participants intended to make friends with women whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of warmth completely mediated the effect of name-gender orientation on willingness to interact; and 5) Participants preferred to finish difficult tasks with men whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of competence completely mediated the effect of name gender orientation on willingness to cooperate.
    This is the first study to explore how gender and name gender orientation affect individuals’ impressions by applying stereotype content in China. We examined the influence of name gender orientation on individuals’ perceptions about others, as well as their behavior intention and mechanism, from the perspective of the perceiver’s motivation. This study provides new theoretical explanations and empirical support for impression evaluation and interpersonal interaction based on names, and has important implications for future research on the social cognition of names. Further studies should explore the content of gender-ambiguous names and their effects on individuals’ impressions and behavioral aftereffects. The effects of emotional and cognitive processes on names and interpersonal interaction should also be assessed.

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    Does conformity lead to gains? The effect of workplace ostracism on performance evaluation from a self-presentational view
    JIANG Ping, ZHANG Lihua
    2021, 53 (4):  400-412.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00400
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    Workplace ostracism is an increasingly widespread and serious social problem nowadays. Many studies have shown that being rejected in the workplace can significantly increase employees’ psychological stress, lead to health problems, and even cause deviant workplace behaviors, thereby ultimately damaging the normal operation of an organization and lowering organizational performance. However, existing research regarding the impact of workplace exclusion on individual performance has reached inconsistent conclusions; thus, this field involves hidden mechanisms that need to be further explored. To address this theoretical gap, we drew upon the self-presentational perspective and hypothesized that employees’ collectivism values strengthen the likelihood that employees will create facades of conformity when suffering from workplace ostracism. We further assumed that whether or not a supervisor is a collectivist determines how the employees’ creation of facades of conformity affect subsequent performance ratings.
    We tested these hypotheses in an experimental study and a field sample of supervisor-employee dyads. For the experimental study, we recruited 142 full-time Chinese workers in different industries as participants through the authors’ alumni networks. The respondents were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: the ostracism condition (N = 70) versus the inclusion condition (N = 72). Participants first completed a measure of collectivism values and reported their demographics. Then, they were asked to read a scenario from a computer screen, one which depicted a situation in which the participant was ostracized (or included) by team members in a hypothetical organization. After reading the scenario, participants finished the manipulation check of workplace ostracism and indicated the extent to which they would be likely to engage in creating facades of conformity. For the field study, we collected 254 dyadic data from a major air company in China at three time-spots. At Time 1, employees assessed perceived workplace ostracism and their collectivism values, as well as provided their demographic information. At Time 2 (one months after Time 1), employees rated their self-esteem level and the extent to which they create facades of conformity, conduct self-leadership, and implement impression management strategies. At Time 3 (one months after Time 2), supervisors provided a performance evaluation of the focal employee and their own collectivism values. We applied confirmatory factor analysis, regression analysis, and bootstrap methods via SPSS 22.0 and Mplus7.4 software to analyze the data.
    Empirical results supported our arguments that workplace ostracism was positively related to facades of conformity. The relationship between workplace ostracism and facades of conformity was stronger when employees had high levels of collectivism values. When supervisors themselves also hold high levels of collectivism values, the employees’ facades of conformity are positively related to the supervisors’ evaluations of job performance. Moreover, workplace ostracism has a conditional, positive indirect effect on supervisor evaluations of employee performance via employee facades of conformity, such that the indirect effect is positive only when both the employees’ and supervisors’ collectivism values are high.
    With these findings, we make several contributions to the literature and management practice. First, we offered a new explanatory mechanism for understanding the complex relationship between workplace ostracism and employee performance from a self-presentational perspective by examining the mediating role of creating facades of conformity. Second, our findings on the moderating effect of employees’ collectivism values provide explanations for the differential reaction to negative workplace experiences such as workplace ostracism. Third, by exploring the contingent role of leaders’ collectivism values, our study is among the earliest attempts to consider the role of bystanders in the ostracism process. Finally, we enrich the research field of conformity by examining new criteria, thereby providing a response to the call for investigating the antecedents and consequences of facades of conformity.

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    “More” is less: Why multiple payment mechanism impairs individual donation
    RAN Yaxuan, NIU Yixin, CHEN Siyun
    2021, 53 (4):  413-430.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00413
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    Almost all transactions require the information of payment--payment mechanism. It is increasingly common nowadays that venders prone to harness multiple payment mechanism to provide potential convenience for their consumers, including under donation scenarios. Inevitably, the morality people valued in donation scenarios are different from other transactions. A growing of recent studies have investigated the donation payment, while surprisingly very few studies have examined whether a donation activity should be accompanied with either one payment mechanism or multiple payment mechanism. In the current study, we extend the extent literature by examining how potential donators respond to donation with either one payment mechanism or multiple payment mechanisms.
    People subjectively associate things that often come together. In our daily lives, multiple payment mechanism is applied in commercial scenarios so frequently that people may elicit a conclusion that is “multiple payment mechanisms = commercialization.” In this research, we propose that when consumers encounter multiple payment mechanisms (versus one payment mechanism) with the information of seeking help, they would feel incongruence and then make metacognitive inferences about their evaluations toward the target based on the “multiple payment mechanism = commercialization” lay belief. Specifically, we propose that compared to one payment mechanism, multiple payment mechanism leads people less likely to donate via the following metacognition inference process: consumers (1) notice the multiple payment mechanism, (2) infer that the information of donation must contain commercial components, based on the “multiple payment mechanisms = commercialization” lay belief, to explain their inner feelings, and (3) because the perception of commercialization is contrary to the positive moral expectations (e.g., loyalty, sanctity), consumers may be skeptical to the morality of the target which in turn attenuates their donation. Further, we suggest that the main effect of the number of payment mechanism on individual donation should be contingent on the diagnosticity of the lay belief. When the “multiple payment mechanisms = commercialization” is low diagnositic, the negative effect of multiple (vs. one) payment mechanism on donation should be suppressed.
    One pilot study and six experimental studies were conducted to examine our hypotheses. Pilot study used supraliminal tasks to examine the existence of the “multiple payment mechanism = commercialization” lay belief. Study 1a ( N = 342) was a 4 (number of payment mechanism: one vs. two vs. three vs. four) between-subjects design, excluding the impact of different number of payment mechanisms. Study 1b (N = 295) was a 5 (number of payment mechanism: control vs. one [Bestpay] vs. one [Bank of China] vs. one [Alipay] vs. three) with the purpose of excluding the impact of different types of payment mechanisms and initially validating the mediating role of perceived commercialization. Study 2 (N = 298) further confirmed the robustness of the main effect for different receiving targets with a 2 (number of payment mechanism: one vs. four) × 2 (target: person vs. organization) between-subjects design. Study 3 ( N = 140) examined the serial mediating effect of perceived commercialization and moral suspicion. Studies 4 (N = 173) and 5 (N = 224) identified the moderating effect of the diagnosticity of “multiple payment mechanism = commercialization” lay belief by using different manipulations of diagnosticity. Specifically, Study 4 was a field study in which we measured people’s real donation behavior. To document a robust effect, we varied the context of donation and payment methods across all studies.
    Our investigation suggests that relative to one payment mechanism, multiple payment mechanism may dampen individual donate. This effect would be attenuated when the “multiple payment mechanism = commercialization” lay belief is not used (i.e., low diagnosticity). These findings offer novel insights on literature regarding donation, payment, number effect, and metacognition inference, while practically suggesting that sponsor of donation activities must carefully consider the number of payment mechanism.

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    Theory and History of Psychology
    Unfinished instinct: Zing-yang Kuo and the anti-instinct movement in China
    CHEN Wei, WANG Yong, GUO Benyu
    2021, 53 (4):  431-540.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00431
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    Under the influence of Darwin’s theory of biological evolution, instinct gradually became a core issue in the fields of human and animal psychology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, soon to be relegated to the realm of “magic.” At the height of its popularity, theorists interpreted almost all human behavior in relation to instinct. A young Chinese developmental psychobiologist, Zing-yang Kuo, adopted John B. Watson’s approach to behaviorism, strongly advocating for the complete removal of instinct from the interpretation of human and animal behaviors - an approach that started a massive anti-instinct movement in the field of psychology in the United States. After returning to China, Kuo continued to spread his knowledge of radical behaviorism among the intellectual elite, promoting the debate on instinct, “one of the three biggest debates in the history of modern Chinese psychology.”
    Kuo’s suggestion that the origin of behavioral development could be traced in a laboratory setting was scorned by conservative US researchers. Convinced that he could resolve the controversy surrounding instinct in the laboratory, and following critical reflection on the matter, Kuo performed a range of experiments in China to verify his anti-instinct claims. Ultimately viewed as the most important development in the Chinese anti-instinct movement, Kuo’s work bridged the gaps in global debates on instinct. Psychologists such as Wei Joseph Ai, Shuh Pan, and Juefu Gao all joined the movement, and it also attracted the interests of other public intellectuals, including Jianren Zhou and Shicen Li.
    Centered on topics such as the existence of instinct, its definition, whether instincts are inherited, and the relationship between instincts, heredity, and environment, the heated discussion in China’s intellectual community surfaced positive, negative, and mixed reactions. While the Chinese anti-instinct movement did not develop extensive theories, there is no doubt that, as a natural extension of the international anti-instinct movement, it responded to the main contentions of the debate. While the Chinese movement expedited the methodological transmission of the psychological study of instinct from armchair to laboratory, it also confused the interpretation of development with that of evolution.
    While Kuo and the anti-instinct movement failed to “complete” their study of the psychology of instinct, their work revealed the epistemological value of semantics and the scientific method. Moreover, as a bridge between the global and Chinese anti-instinct movements, Kuo’s academic thought and scientific work reflect his uncompromising spirit of individualism and skepticism, which finally secured him a unique position in the history of behavioral science, exposed him to the wider fields of ethology, embryology, and development science, and provided the impetus for the positioning of “instinct” as an “unfinished” and open scientific issue.

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