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 he influence of different sex ratios and resource-gaining capability on male’s mating selection
WANG Yan, HOU Bowen, LI Xinyao, LI Xiaoxu, JIAO Lu
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (9): 1195-1205.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01195
Abstract   PDF (456KB)
 With two experiments the present study tried to explore the influential factors of male’s mating standards under the priming of different sex ratios. To understand the changing pattern of mating strategies, the life history theory was integrated, which focuses on interpreting organisms’ trade-off in the allocation of limited resources. Research has shown that individual’s life history strategies could be different under different environmental priming. Literature indicated that individual’s mating standard could also be influenced either by clues related to mating preferences such as resources and good looking, or by clues not related to mating preferences like death rate, economic condition of the society. This study generally put the emphasis on influences of the priming of different sex ratios, ability to gain resources and childhood economic conditions on male’s mating preference. It was hypothesized that when primed by different sex ratios, male participants with different childhood economic conditions or ability to gain resources would show different changing pattern of mating standards. In experiment 1 participants were 230 unmarried males, with an average age of 20.02 years old (SD = 1.94). Participants were primed by reading a news article about the condition of high sex ratio (more men than women), or about the condition of low sex ratio (less men than women), or about a new kind of robot (control group). Then, the mating preferences were measured by self-report scales. Furthermore, participants were asked to rate the level of childhood economic condition and the self-appraisal of potential resource-gaining capability. The results revealed that males showed significantly lower mating standards on “good resources” when primed by high sex ratio clues (more men than women), compared with low sex ratio clues (less men than women). The interaction effect on mating standard of good resources between sex ratio and the capability of resource-gaining was significant. With higher level of resource-gaining capability, male participants showed lower mating standard for good resources when primed by high sex ratio than low sex ratio. On the other hand, with lower level of resource-gaining capability, male participants showed a quite similar mating preference for good resources under different priming. No main or interaction effects were found on the influence of sex ratio clues on the mating standards for good appearance and good parent. Finally individual’s childhood economic condition showed no significant effect on male’s mating preferences under different priming. In experiment 2 participants were 82 male undergraduates with a mean age of 19.37 years old (SD = 3.325). All the subjects were divided into two groups randomly. After filling with the demographic data individuals in both of the two groups would read information of 8 pictures with different priming, one was 6 male pictures and 2 female pictures, and the other was 6 female pictures and 2 male pictures. After then they filled a form of 12 mating selection items. The results in experiment 2 were the same as that in experiment 1. Both of the experiments indicated that the sex ratio as an important environmental clue might influence male’s mating standard for good resources, but not the good appearance or good spouse (parents). The capability of resource-gaining, but not the harshness of childhood, played a moderating role between sex ratio and mating standards of good resource.
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 The cognitive processing of contrastive focus and its relationship with pitch accent
LI Weijun, ZHANG Jingjing, YANG Yufang
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (9): 1137-1149.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01137
Abstract   PDF (1428KB)
 Information structure (IS) is a very important pragmatic concept in linguistics. It has been broadly studied in linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, etc. IS can be generally distinguished as focus/new information and background/given information. It is proper for focused/new information to receive accent. Recently, researchers have shown increasing interest in the neural mechanism of focus processing and its relationship with pitch accent. It was generally found that focus elicited a widely distributed positivity compared to background (non-focused) information in both visual and auditory domain, although these positivities varied in time course, amplitude and scalp distribution. As for its relationship with pitch accent, the results are complicated due to the variability in task (prosodic, semantic), language (German, Dutch, and Chinese, etc.), focus-marking device (context-question, pitch accent, it cleft structure, etc.), as well as information status (being new or given information). The present study aims to investigate the processing of contrastive focus and its interaction with pitch accent at different positions using ERPs. We used a highly constraining question as context, which posited two single nouns (NP1 and NP2) at different positions (in the medial and end of clause) in the answer sentence as contrastive focus (new information, narrow focus). Twenty (nine males) healthy undergraduates participated in the experiment. The participants were told to listen carefully to each dialogue, and completed a sentence comprehension task. The EEG was recorded from 64 scalp channels using electrodes mounted in an elastic cap. Focus and accent related ERPs were calculated for a 1500 ms epoch including a 200 ms pre-critical words baseline. It was found that focus evoked a larger positivity compared to non-focus at both positions. This was convinced by the statistical analysis result at both NP1 during 650-1300 ms, F(1, 19) = 8.29, p < 0.05, η2p = 0.29, and NP2 during 550-1050 ms, F(1, 19) = 14.45, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.38. Besides, accented words elicited a larger positivity than unaccented ones at both of NP1 (950-1150 ms), F(1, 19) = 7.39, p < 0.05, η2p = 0.22, and NP2(1050-1400ms), F(1, 19) = 8.04, p < 0.05, η2p = 0.30. Furthermore, missing accent on focus did not elicit any observable brain effect compared to accented focus at both positions in the lateral area, F(1, 19) < 1, ps > 0.05. At the end of the clause, however, accent on background information elicited a larger negativity (200-350 ms) compared to consistently unaccented background, F(1, 19) = 10.84, p < 0.01, η2p = 0.38, while there was no significant difference between accented and unaccented focus, F(1, 19) < 1, p > 0.05. Overall, the positive effect elicited by focus at both positions may reflect that listeners consume more cognitive resource to integrate focus to discourse compared to non-focus. Besides, accented words elicited a larger positivity than unaccented ones at both positions, indicating that prosodic prominence attracted more attention than unaccented information. Finally, accent on non-focus evoked a larger negativity compared to unaccented non-focus at the end of the clause. This result may reflect that listeners were sensitive to the information structure induced by pitch accent and the processing were influenced by the position of focus. In sum, the current results suggest that listeners make on-line use of both focus and pitch accent in various ways at different positions to build coherent representations of dialogues.
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 The effect of part-list cues on memory retrieval: The role of inhibition ability
LIU Tuanli, BAI Xuejun
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (9): 1158-1171.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01158
Abstract   PDF (556KB)
 When people are asked to recall items from a previously studied list and are given a subset of the items on that list as retrieval cues, they often do more poorly at recalling the remaining items on the list than do people asked to recall the items in the absence of such retrieval cues. Such part-list cueing effect has often been attributed to inhibitory executive-control processes that supposedly suppress the non-cue items’ memory representation. According to this account, part-list cueing effect arises as an ‘aftereffect’ of executive-control processes during the presentation of part-list cues. The presence of part-list cues at testing leads to an early covert retrieval of the cue items, and this covert retrieval is assumed to trigger inhibitory processes on the non-cue items, affecting the representation of the non-cues itself and thus lowering their recovery chances. The core functions of executive-control processes include inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. The aim of current study was to further investigate the relationship between individual’s inhibitory executive-control ability and the part-list cueing effect. In this study, undergraduate students with different cognitive inhibitory ability were asked to finish a part-list recall task, and participants’ age, learning experience, and living background etc. were well balanced. In Experiment 1, a color-word Stroop task was carried out to test participants’ inhibitory ability, which can be reflected by the accuracy difference between the incongruent and congruent conditions of the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants’ working memory capacity, which is typically reflected by the OSPAN and T-OSPAN scores, was tested by an operation span task. We found typical part-list cueing effect in both experiments, that participants’ memory performance, discrimination, and response bias for target items were worse in the part-list cue condition than in the non-cue condition. The regression analysis showed a negative relationship (b = -2.525) between the amount of part-list cue effect and participants’ cognitive inhibitory ability, with the increasing Stroop effect, the part-list effect reduced. However, a positive correlation was shown between the amount of part-list cue effect and individual’s working memory capacity, indicated by the OSPAN score and T-OSPAN score. Higher the OSPAN and T-OSPAN score is, larger part-list cue effect was observed. The above results indicated that low-Stroop-effect individuals showing stronger part-list cueing effect than high-Stroop-effect individuals, and high-WMC individuals showing more part-list cueing effect than low-WMC individuals. Our findings are consistent with previous studies looking into individual-differences, suggesting a close link between working memory capacity, cognitive inhibitory ability and inhibitory efficiency. In addition, the current results also support the inhibitory executive-control account of part-list cueing effect.
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 Mobile phone addiction and sleep quality in adolescents: Mediation and moderation analyses
LIU Qingqi, ZHOU Zongkui, NIU Gengfeng, Fan Cuiying
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (12): 1524-1536.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01524
Abstract   PDF (509KB)
 Mobile phones have integrated into people’s daily lives. Proper mobile phone use would help individuals meet diverse needs in learning and shopping, as well as in recreation and communication. However, the problem that more and more people are getting addicted to mobile phones has been salient. Studies have revealed that mobile phone addiction would bring about significant adverse impacts on mental health such as depression, anxiety, and even suicidal ideation. Poor sleep quality is also one of the major undesirable outcomes of mobile phone addiction. Research documented that mobile phone addiction significantly predicted sleep quality, and sleep quality deteriorated with increasing level of mobile phone addiction. Prior studies have focused mainly on the direct association between mobile phone addiction and sleep quality, however, little is known about the underlying mediating mechanism (i.e. how mobile phone addiction influences sleep quality) and moderating mechanism (i.e. when mobile phone addiction influences sleep quality). To address these gaps, the present study constructed a moderated mediation model to examine the effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality in adolescents since both the use rate of mobile phone and the occurrence rate of mobile phone addiction are very high among adolescents. Specifically, the present study would examine the mediating role of affect balance in the relation between mobile phone addiction and sleep quality of adolescents, and test whether the direct effect and the indirect effect would be moderated by rumination and mindfulness. A sample of 1258 high school students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring their mobile phone addiction, sleep quality, affect balance, rumination and mindfulness. All the measures showed good reliability and validity in the present study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and the SPSS macro PROCESS which was specifically developed for assessing the complex models including both mediators and moderators. The results were as followings: (1) After controlling for gender and grade, mobile phone addiction significantly exerted direct effect on sleep quality and indirect effect on sleep quality through the mediation of affect balance. (2) Both the direct effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality and the indirect effect of affect balance were moderated by rumination, and these two effects were stronger in adolescents with high level of rumination. (3) Both the direct effect and the indirect effect of were moderated by mindfulness, and these two effects were weaker in adolescents with high level of mindfulness. The present study highlights the mediating role of affect balance and the moderating role of rumination and mindfulness in the effect of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality. It may contribute to a better understanding of the effects as well as its paths and conditions of mobile phone addiction on sleep quality of adolescents. Moreover, it can also provide constructive suggestions for protecting and improving affect balance and sleep quality of adolescents in the mobile Internet era.
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 The effect of emotional scene and body expression on facial expression recognition
BAI Lu, MAO Weibin, WANG Rui, Zhang Wenhai
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (9): 1172-1183.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01172
Abstract   PDF (641KB)
 Traditionally, the recognition of facial expression was studied by using isolated faces, which was affected by the categorical theory of emotion. In fact, in real life, facial expression always occurs in context. The result of facial expression recognition could be ambiguous when observer typically viewed face in isolation without any other cues. Recently many researches investigated how context may influence the facial expression processing. Numerous studies found context effect in recognition of facial expression, namely visual scene, body expression, emotional concept and surrounding other faces all shaped the facial expression processing. Evidence from ERPs and eye movements showed that facial expression was combined with both of emotional visual scene and body expression during the early stage of processing, and to some degree, was automatic. But none of these studies investigated the role they played simultaneously. Moreover, studies of context effect in recognition of facial expression seldom investigated the recognition of visual scene directly by using memory paradigm. Given that emotional concept may provide a top-down constraint in facial expression recognition, in the current study, we increased number of emotion labels for a better understanding of the context effect. Two experiments were conducted in this study, both of them adopted a 2 (facial expression: disgust, fear)×2(emotion congruent between face and context: congruent, incongruent) within-subject design. Stimuli were made up by images of disgust and fear (low level of perceptual similarity) facial expression, visual scene and body expression. All participants were required to label an emotion word for the face which was shown against backgrounds of visual scene (Exp1) or both visual scene and body expression (Exp2). Experiment 1 aimed to study the effect of emotion congruent between facial expression and visual scene on facial expression recognition. On the basis of experiment 1, experiment 2 added congruent or incongruent body expression to investigate whether body expression disturbed the effect of visual scene on facial expression recognition. Results of the two experiments indicate that: (1)The influence of visual scene on facial expression recognition is still significant when increased the number of emotion labels; (2)Participants would rely more on visual scene and remember the scene more often when emotional facial expression is shown against an incongruent visual scene; (3)The effect of visual scene on facial expression recognition can be influenced by body expression, but the emotion of visual scene still play an important role in recognition of negative facial expression
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 Perceiving better, inhibiting better: Effects of perceptual precision on distractor-inhibition processes during working memory
LIU Zhiying, KU Yixuan
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (10): 1247-1255.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01247
Abstract   PDF (624KB)
 Working memory (WM) is the memory system to store and process information shortly for the goal-directed behavior. The resource of WM is extremely limited. It is necessary to selectively maintain relevant information and inhibit interference from distracting information. Previous studies have found that individuals with high WM capacity would be able to suppress interference more efficiently. However, it’s still unknown whether the precision of WM representation will be influenced by distractors in a similar way as WM capacity. Perceptual representation as the first stage of information processing, its precision will highly influence the quality of information stored in WM. Here, we adopted an independent perceptual task and a variant version of color recall task to examine (1) the effect of interference on WM capacity as well as precision and (2) whether the precision of perceptual representation would influence the ability to inhibit interference during WM processing. Fifty-three undergraduate students participated in the experiment. In the first perceptual task, participants reported the color of a cued item while the item remained presented until a response was made. Afterwards, color recall tasks were operated including a ‘distractor-present’ and a ‘distractor-absent’ condition. Each condition contained three levels of WM load: low (2 targets), medium (4 targets) and high (6 targets). In ‘distractor-present’ condition, target items were presented along with two more distracting colored stimuli with a different shape. Participants were asked to remember only the color of the target items and report the remembered color of a cued item by clicking on a color wheel. From the distribution of errors between the reported color value and the original color value, we could obtain measures for both capacity and precision via standard mixture model used by Zhang and Luck, 2008. To explore the effects of distractor on WM capacity and precision and whether these influence will vary with WM load, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on WM capacity and precision. For WM capacity, main effects of distractors, WM load and their interaction were significant. WM capacity decreased with increasing WM load. And WM capacity in ‘distractor-absent’ condition was significantly higher than performance in ‘distractor-present’ condition. Interaction of distractor and WM load mainly reflected that distractors decreased WM capacity under the medium and high loads. For WM precision, main effect of load was significant and distractor affected precision on low load condition. When all participants were divided into two groups according to their performance in the perceptual task, the distractor effect only existed in the group with lower perceptual precision. Pearson correlation analysis further revealed that perceptual precision could predict the ability to inhibit distractors, in either WM capacity or precision. The quality of the perceptual representation in the lower group negatively correlated with the distractor effect in WM capacity while the perceptual precision in the higher group negatively correlated with the distractor effect for WM precision. The present study has shown that interference influenced the quantity and quality of WM representations differently under certain WM load. And individuals with lower perceptual quality would be more susceptible to interference. These findings imply that the performance and the ability to suppress distraction during WM may be enhanced via training of perceptual precision.
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 Parent-child relationship and the comparison between parents and their children on their children’s mate preference
WANG Yan, QIAN Xiaoyun, TIAN Qian, GAO Jun, LI Xiaoxu
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (1): 91-100.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00091
Abstract   PDF (430KB)
 One of the important factors influencing young people’s mating choice would be their parents’ preferences for their children-in-law. Especially in China with only one child in most families, parents’ involvement could not been ignored. However, the literature is very limited on the differences on mating preferences between parents and their adult children within the same families. Few studies on Chinese families have been conducted on this topic so far. Based on questionnaires colletcted from 1142 individuals from 339 Chinese families (mother, father and their adult unmarried child), this research explored the differences in the mating preference for the potential children-in-law between the parents and their adult children. A total of 7 factors have been extracted in the exploratory factor analysis, which were namely, good character, good genes, good personality, good resources, same nationality and political background, good parents and good spouse. Based on these 7 factors, the differences in mating preferences between the two parents and between parents and their adult children have been explored. Compared with parents of the sons, the adult daughters’ parents were more concerned on the mating standards on good characters, good resources and same nationality and political background. Comparisons between the two parents showed that as compared to mothers, sons’ fathers were more concerned with the appearance of their potential daughter-in-laws. Futhermore, the adult daughters’ mothers demanded more on their potential son-in-law’s good characters, good personality and good resources. As for the differences between parents’ and their adult children, the children were more concerned with their future spouse’s good genes and pleasurable personality whereas the parents emphasized more on the good characters, good resources and same nationality and political background of their potential child-in-laws. Finally contrary to the common belief, results showed the closer the relationship between parents and their adult children, the greater were the differences between their mating preferences. The correlational analyses showed that the closer the fathers’ perceiced relationship with the children, the greater their demand on the traits of “good characters” and “good parents” for their child-in-laws as compared with their children’s preference. Similarly, the closer the mothers’ perceived relationship with the children, the greater the concern the mothers would have on the trait of “good characters” for their children-in-laws. However, the closer the relationship between mothers and sons, the more demanding the sons would be on the preference for “good spouse” as compared with mother’s preference. Contradictorily, children’s perceived relationship with parents did not have impact on the difference between parents and adult children in the children mate preference.
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 The influence of Chinese and English background pop music to the memory of Chinese and English words in Chinese undergraduates
GAO Qi, BAI Xuejun
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00001
Abstract   PDF (366KB)
 It was generally found that pop music would do harm to the efficiency and accuracy of visual activity when it was as a kind of background music. This is called irrelevant sound effect, which means that the presence of irrelevant sound significantly impairs people’s performance on main visual task. Some researchers believe that the reason of this phenomenon is because the lyrics of the background pop music add extra workload to the working memory, which interferes with the visual task. Moreover, it was shown that the first language lyrics impaired participants’ performance more seriously than a strange language. To participants, the second language is less familiar than the first language but more than a strange language. So how about the irrelevant sound effect when lyrics are participants’ second language? And how about it when the visual task contains the second language? This study aimed to investigate the influence of different language lyrics to the visual memory task, the familiarity of whose materials was different in two experiments. It was hypothesized that there would be significant irrelevant sound effects in different language background musics with different language materials, and languages of the lyrics and materials would have reciprocal actions in both experiments. 180 participants from a university (90 for each experiment)who have passed CET6 (College English Test 6) attended this study to research the effect of lyrics in background pop music on short-term memory for familiar and unfamiliar Chinese and English words. There were three kinds of background sounds: no background sound, Chinese background pop music and English background pop music. In order to control effects caused by instruments, this research used Let it go sung by Yao Beina (Chinese) and Demi Lovato (English) as the background music in both two experiments. Only the refrain was used as music materials. In the first experiment, participants should remember 32 Chinese and 32 English familiar nouns and finish an instant recall task. In the second experiment, participants should remember 10 unfamiliar Chinese and 10 unfamiliar English nouns and finish an instant recognition task. Memory materials were displayed by Eprime 1.0 randomly. In the first experiment, the main effect of music types was significant, F(2,87) = 15.67, p < 0.00, ηp² = 0.15. The scores in the condition of no background music (M = 14.12) were significantly higher than the other two conditions. Participants’ scores in English background pop music (M = 12.50) were significantly higher than that in Chinese background pop music (M = 10.30). In the second experiment, the results showed that the scores in the condition of no background sound (M = 6.87) were still significantly higher than the other two conditions (M = 6.03 for Chinese music, M = 5.83 for English music). F(2,87) = 4.69, p < 0.05, ηp² = 0.05. The difference between two experiments was a significant reciprocal action in the second experiment, F(2,87) = 19.23, p < 0.01, ηp² = 0.20. The scores in the condition of Chinese background pop music were higher when the materials were Chinese words (M = 7.03), and the scores in the condition of English background pop music were higher when the materials were English words (M = 6.93). The conclusion was that lyrics in background music would effect the main visual task no mater what kind of lyrics’ language was, but different familiarity of languages indeed had different influences on the efficiency and accuracy of the main task. When memory words were familiar, the familiar language of lyrics would do more harm to the memory. While the words were unfamiliar, which means the task was more difficult, lyrics would do more harm to the memory of words that with the same language. The level of difficulty of the task and the familiarity of lyrics’ language both can effect the memory, while the former is more important.
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The inhibitive effect of positive emotions on fear generalization
FENG Biao; XU Liang; ZHANG Weixing; CHEN Ting; WANG Wenqing; ZHENG Xifu
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (3): 317-328.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00317
Abstract   PDF (741KB)

Overgeneralization is one of core symptoms in anxiety disorders. Previous studies of fear generalization just focused on the factors that facilitate generalization. For example, plenty of studies from this field showed that negative emotions can promote the generalization of fear. However, few studies explored how to prevent generalization, and the role of positive emotions in preventing generalization of fear is unknown. In current study, we fill this gap by behaviorally assessing the role of positive emotions in fear-generalization. Fifty healthy participants underwent fear conditioning and generalization procedure. Skin-conductance response (SCR) and on-line expectancy were served as the measurement of fear responses. After fear acquisition stage, all participants were randomly divided into experimental group or control group that accepted "Best Possible Self" emotional manipulation or nothing. The level of positive emotions were measured by PANAS before and after the manipulation stage. Furthermore, participants were instructed to rate the level of subjective fear and emotion valence of conditioned stimuli (CS) at the end of each stage. The results showed that experimental group displayed less fear generalization than control group, as reflected by SCR, on-line expectancy and self-report. Noteworthily, we observed the separation of implicit measure (skin conductance response) and explicit measure (on-line expectancy and self-report) in this study. This separation supports the dual process theory, suggesting that positive emotion manipulation inhibit fear generalization through different pathways (excitatory pathway and inhibitory pathway) and different mechanisms. Our findings demonstrate that positive emotion manipulation can prevent fear generalization effectively. Given the basis of fear conditioning and generalization, our results may have clinical implications for future treatments and interventions in anxiety disorder.

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 Automatic emotional access in emotional stroop of different proficient type of bilinguals
JIAO Jiangli, LIU Yi, WEN Suxia
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (9): 1150-1157.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01150
Abstract   PDF (342KB)
 In the domain of second language acquisition, one of the key questions relates to the representation of emotions in different languages of the bilingual’s. Although it has been proposed that the first language (L1) contains more richly interconnected semantic associations than the second language (L2), the emotional representation difference between L1 and L2 has been debated. Because the proficiency of L2 may influence the bilingual’s emotion automatic access, we thus investigated the emotional access in different proficiency type of bilinguals in this regard. According to their proficiency levels of L2, three types of bilinguals were selected in our study. That is, comprehensive proficient bilinguals, reading-proficient bilinguals, and listening and spoken-proficient bilinguals. Comprehensive proficient bilinguals are proficient in L2 input and output. Reading-proficient bilinguals are able to read and write in L2 without being able to listen and speak it, whereas listening and spoken-proficient bilinguals are the opposite. The present study investigated the modulation effect of bilingual’s types on the emotional access in L1 and L2 through the Emotional Stroop paradigm. The experiment was a 3-factor mixed design with 2 (Languages: L1 vs. L2) × 3 (Type of bilinguals: Comprehensive proficient bilinguals vs. Reading-proficient bilinguals vs. Listening and Spoken-proficient bilinguals) × 3 (Emotional valence: Positive vs. Negative vs. Neutral). The stimulus were delivered using E-prime software, which also automatically recorded reaction times and error rates. The results of reaction times showed that: (1) For Comprehensive proficient bilinguals: under the condition of L1, there was significant difference between positive and neutral words (F(1, 19) = 4.75, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.81), also negative and neutral words (F(1, 19) = 4.80, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.81). Under the condition of L2, there was significant difference between positive and neutral words (F(1, 19) = 6.98, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.69), also negative and neutral words (F(1, 19) = 6.65, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.68). That is, comprehensive proficient bilinguals showed Emotional Stroop effect under the condition of L1 and L2. (2) For Reading-proficient bilinguals: Under the condition of L1, there was significant difference between positive and neutral words (F(1, 19) = 5.96, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.73), also negative and neutral words (F(19) = 6.60, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.74). Under the condition of L2, there was significant difference between positive and neutral words (F(1, 19) = 5.56, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.86), also negative and neutral words (F(1, 19) = 3.86, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.85). That is, Reading-proficient bilinguals also showed Emotional Stroop effect under the condition of L1 and L2. (3) For Listening and Spoken-proficient bilinguals: Under the condition of L1, there was significant difference between positive and neutral words (F(1, 19) = 5.33, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.86), also negative and neutral words (F(1, 19) = 4.92, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.85). Under the condition of L2 there were no significant difference between these three type of words. That is, Listening and spoken-proficient bilinguals showed Emotional Stroop effect only under the condition of L1 but not L2.There were no significant differences in error rates. In summary, the results suggested that Comprehensive proficient bilinguals and Reading-proficient bilinguals had automatic emotional access in L1 and L2, and Listening and Spoken-proficient bilinguals have weaker emotional access in L1 but not in L2.
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 Integratin the theory of planned behavior and implementation intention to overcome procrastination
LIN Lin
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (7): 953-965.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00953
Abstract   PDF (468KB)
 Procrastination represents a behavioral tendency to delay beginning or completing a goal-directed action, which results in a gap between intention and behavior. While extant literature has predominately adopted cross-sectional designs to examine the antecedents of procrastination, the current study conducted a quasi- experiment to explore strategies to overcome procrastination by integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and implementation intention. Furthermore, the study employed a daily dairy design to examine how these factors might influence the dynamic process of procrastination over time. One hundred and thirty-four undergraduate students participated in this two-stage study. All participants firstly filled in a general questionnaire to capture their demographic information and individual traits. One week later, on Sunday evening, they were asked to list five academic-related tasks that were assumed to be finished by the end of the upcoming week. Implementation intention was manipulated in which half of the participants were randomly assigned to experimental condition and were instructed to form implementation intention. The other half received no such instruction and served as the control group. In the following week, they were asked to report how much each task was achieved by the end of each day for five consecutive working days. Given the multilevel nature of the data where daily task completion (Level 1) was nested within task (Level 2), and task was further nested within individual (Level 3), hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used for hypothesis testing. Results of series of HLM models indicated that a) all the TPB variables were significantly related to academic procrastination. Specifically, participants procrastinated to a less extent when they had more positive attitude, perceived higher behavioral control, felt stronger subjective norm, and held stronger behavioral intention toward the completion of the task; b) behavioral intention mediated the effects of attitude and perceived behavioral control, but not subjective norm, on procrastination; c) implementation intention mitigated the degree of procrastination such that those instructed to form implementation intention completed higher percentage of planned tasks than their counterparts; d) both perceived behavioral control and implementation intention accelerated the process of task completion in that participants who had higher behavioral control or were instructed to explicitly form action plan were in a higher speed toward task completion. The current study provided empirical evidence that implementation intention manipulation may serve as an effective strategy to overcome procrastination. Specifically, forming implementation intention was effective not only in mitigating the degree of procrastination, but also in accelerating the rate of achieving goals. The potential mediating mechanisms through which implementation intention mitigated behavioral procrastination and accelerated the process of task completion were discussed.
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 Effects of spatial distance on visual working memory consolidation
LI Tengfei, MA Nan, HU Zhonghua, LIU Qiang
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (6): 711-722.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00711
Abstract   PDF (578KB)
 During past years, visual working memory (VWM) consolidation has been studied extensively. Consolidation of visual information into VWM is widely considered to occur with capacity limit. Previous studies have demonstrated that two colors could be consolidated in parallel and two oriented gratings could be consolidated only in serial. Some researchers provided a bandwidth hypothesis for these results: because of the difference between the informational demands for color and for oriented grating, two colors could be consolidated in parallel without exceeding the bandwidth limit, whereas two oriented gratings could only be consolidated in serial because of exceeding the bandwidth limit. But other researchers recently realized that different positions of stimulus could affect the VWM consolidation as well. In the present study, we used change detection paradigm and sequential-simultaneous manipulation to examine whether the spatial distance between memory items could affect the VWM consolidation. In Experiment 1, we briefly presented two masked color patches (targets) within one of three levels of spatial distance (4.6°, 8.5° and 11.1°). A probe color then appeared, and participants needed to judge whether the probe color matched any one of the targets. The results showed that no difference was found between sequential and simultaneous presentations in 4.6° and 8.5° spatial distance conditions, while the performance for sequential presentation was better than simultaneous presentation in 11.1° spatial distance condition. These results suggested that two colors were consolidated in parallel in 4.6° and 8.5° spatial distance conditions, but in serial in 11.1° spatial distance condition. In Experiment 2, we presented a color target firstly, and then two masked color patches appeared and the participants needed to judge whether the color target matched any one of the two masked color patches. As a result, no difference was found in the three given spatial distance conditions, eliminating the possibility that perceptual encoding led to the results in Experiment 1. Considering that the consolidation for oriented grating was different from the process for color and color might also be a unique visual feature, we attempted to use oriented grating to replicate the results of Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, we briefly presented two masked oriented gratings (targets) within three levels of spatial distance (4.6°, 8.5° and 11.1°). A probe cue then appeared, and participants needed to judge whether the cued sinusoidal grating had been oriented in a cardinal (horizontal or vertical) or an oblique (±45º) orientation. Despite superior performance for sequential over simultaneous presentations in all three spatial distance conditions, we found that the performance for parallel presentation was better than the accuracy’ in 4.6° spatial distance condition. The results suggested that parallel consolidation of oriented gratings into WVM was possible when the spatial distance between memory items was short enough. According to the results, we speculated that consolidation into VWM might be related to the distribution of the visual spatial attention, and the consolidation bandwidth increased with increasing resources of attention which memory items could get.
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 Effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy among elementary school students: The mediating effects of parents' encouragement and reading motivation
GU Honglei, LIU Jun, XIA Tiansheng
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (8): 1063-1071.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01063
Abstract   PDF (389KB)
 Reading ability is one of the most extensively investigated topics in education research. Several studies found that self-regulated reading was the core to improve reading ability while social economic status was important to self-regulated reading. However, the inner mechanisms were unknown. Both external factor (e.g., parents' encouragement) and internal factor (e.g., reading motivation) were likely to be mediating factors between socioeconomic status and reading autonomy. Therefore, it’s important to discuss the mediating effect of parents' encouragement and reading motivation on reading autonomy. The present study investigated the mediating effect between family socioeconomic status and reading autonomy among elementary school students. Three hypotheses were tested: Hypothesis 1: family socioeconomic status directly affects the reading autonomy. Hypothesis 2: family socioeconomic status affects the reading autonomy through parents' encouragement and reading motivation, respectively. Thus, parents' encouragement and reading motivation are parallel mediator factors. Hypothesis 3: family socioeconomic status affects reading motivation through parents' encouragement, and then affects the reading autonomy. Hence, parents' encouragement and reading motivation are chain intermediary roles. Participants were 313 fourth-grade students from two cities. All students completed the reading autonomy scale and questionnaire test. Participants were 175 (55.9%) male students and 138 (44.1%) female students. They completed four measures: socioeconomic status questionnaire, parents' encourage reading questionnaire, reading motivation questionnaire and reading autonomy scale. Preliminary and descriptive analyses showed that Cronbach’s alpha of parents' encourage reading questionnaire, reading motivation questionnaire, and reading autonomy scale was 0.828, 0.843, 0.749, respectively. Firstly, the statistic analysis showed that the total effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy was significant, γ = 0.32, p < 0.01. Model fit indices in SEM were χ2/df = 2.05, TLI = 0.90, CFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.063, SRMR = 0.053. Secondly, after the intervening variables (i.e. parents' encouragement and reading motivation) were included in the model, the direct effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy was not statistically significant, but other path coefficients were statistically significant. Model fit indices in SEM were χ2/df =1.39, TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.038, SRMR = 0.052. Finally, the bias-corrected bootstrap method was used for significant tests. The results indicated that the direct effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy was not significant and three intermediary effects were statistically significant. In conclusion, parents' encouragement and reading motivation play the intervention role between family socioeconomic status and reading autonomy.
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The effect of anger and sadness on prosocial decision making: The role of the interpersonal attribution of responsibility
YANG Zhaoning; GU Zibei; WANG Dujuan; TAN Xuyun; WANG Xiaoming
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (3): 393-403.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00393
Abstract   PDF (417KB)

Previous research suggested that emotions have an effect on prosocial decision making depending on the dimensions of emotional valence, little research has verified the role of specific emotions of the same valence. Drawing on the Appraisal-Tendency Framework (ATF), the present set of studies aimed to explore the carryover effect of two incidentally negative emotions, i.e. anger and sadness, on prosocial decision making and the role of the interpersonal attribution of responsibility in this effect. We conducted two studies, where emotions were induced via the Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task (AEMT). Study 1 investigated the effects of anger and sadness on prosocial decision making with a between-subjects design. Participants were randomly assigned to angry, sad, or neutral conditions and were asked to indicate how much time they were willing to spend helping others. Study 2 explored whether the effects of anger and sadness on prosocial decision making depend on interpersonal attribution of responsibility. This study employed a 2 (emotions: anger/ sadness) × 3 (interpersonal attribution of responsibility: ambiguity/ uncontrollable and external situation/ controllable situation and recipient own) mixed design with emotions as a between-subjects variable. Participants were randomly assigned to angry or sad conditions. Similar to study 1, emotions were induced through AEMT. Interpersonal attribution of responsibility was manipulated by varying the information about the person who needs help. In the ambiguity condition, the reason that the person needs help is not clear; in the uncontrollable and external situation condition, the reason that the person needs help is due to uncontrollable external situation; in the controllable situation and recipient own condition, the person who is in need of help is responsible for such circumstance. Prosocial decision making was measured by the amount of money participants were willing to donate. Across two studies we found that: (1) Participants in the sad condition were willing to spend more time and donate more money to others than their counterparts in the angry and neutral conditions. (2) Under the condition of ambiguous attribution of responsibility, participants who experienced sadness were more willing to help others compared to those in angry condition; in the uncontrollable and external situation conditions, and controllable situation and recipient own conditions, anger and sadness had similar effects on helping behavior. (3) In the sad condition, compared to ambiguous attribution of responsibility, participants were more willing to help when the responsibility was attributed to uncontrollable and external situation, whereas participants were less willing to help when the responsibility was attributed to the person who needs help. In the angry condition, participants were more willing to help when the responsibility was attributed to uncontrollable and external situation rather than when it was ambiguous or when the recipients were blamed. We conclude that (a) Incidental emotions of the same valence have different effects of carrying over on prosocial decision making- sadness facilitates helping behavior while anger impedes prosocial decision making, and (b) Interpersonal attribution of responsibility contributes to such effect. Anger and sadness have opposing effects on prosocial decision making only when the interpersonal attribution of responsibility remains ambiguous. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism underlying the impacts of different incidental emotions of the same valence on prosocial decision making.

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 Should I sacrifice my profit before his eyes? Partner’s ability and social distance affecting the tendency of reputation-profit game
WANG Pei, TAN Chenhao, CUI Yichen
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (9): 1206-1218.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01206
Abstract   PDF (614KB)
 Previous studies have shown that when individuals must make a choice between reputation and profit (reputation-profit game), individuals usually tend to get a reputation from the sacrifice of profit. According to competitive altruism theory, the reason why people cooperate to get a reputation at the cost of profit is to compete against others to get some valuable opportunities in the future with the help of the reputation. Based on this perspective, ability and social distance of the game partner (only receives information about reputation) which decide the upper limit of profit and the belief of whether the partner would afford such a chance would affect the tendency of reputation-profit game. To demonstrate these two factors and reveal the nature of reputation obtaining behavior, in this research, we hypothesized that ability and social distance of the partner would affect the preference between reputation and profit, when faced with a partner whose ability is strong or social distance is close, individual would prefer reputation than profit, and there would be an interaction between ability and social distance. A condition about contribution was set up in Experiment 1. 40 undergraduate students participated in this experiment. They were told that they would attend in an online activity. First, participants took part in a series of dummy prisoner dilemma game and won some money (100 tokens). Second, they were told that they would play a game (trust game) with another student in the future, and the importance of reputation was introduced (all participants were trustee). After that, participants were told that there were some public accounts which need their contribution, and they could make virtual contribution to each account and only one would be chosen as the real. Before the contribution, they were told that the contribution would be seen by a student who would be the trustee. Ability (truster’s principal: high/low) and social distance (schoolmate/students from other schools) were manipulated as independent variables, and contribution was used as dependent variable. A condition about bargain was set up in Experiment 2. 55 undergraduate students participated in this experiment. The background was just like experiment 1. First, participants were told that they will perform as suppliers in an online task whose task was pricing the materials they sold. They were told their profit would be calculated respectively in each zone, and only one would be selected as the final result. Second, participants were told if the price they set was higher than the “real value”, there would be 50% chance of being confiscated half of earnings in this turn. Then they were learned that there would be two times of bargain in each zone, and buyers would chat about each supplier soon after the first bargain. Before the pricing tasks, participants were informed that the number of suppliers was greater than the number of players in each zone; each player had the right to choose a supplier to buy material in the second bargain. Ability (player’s demand: high/low/none) and social distance (schoolmate/ students from other schools) were manipulated as independent variables, and participant’s pricing result was used as dependent variable. The results of Experiment 1 showed that participants donated more money when his donation was seen by a student whose ability was high. This finding demonstrated that the higher the ability is the more reputation individual wants. And the results of Experiment 2 showed that there was an interaction between ability and social distance. Only when partner’s ability of the future mission was low, participants preferred to propose a lower price before the partner whose social distance is close in order to gain reputation from the sacrifice of profit. This finding showed only when ability is low, then individuals would take social distance into account, and they tend to acquire a good reputation before a partner whose social distance is close. All the findings supported our hypothesis that ability and social distance are the core factors which affect the tendency of reputation-profit game. These results verified the tactical of individual’s choice in reputation- profit game.
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 The mechanism and effect of leader humility: An interpersonal relationship perspective
MAO Jianghua, LIAO Jianqiao, HAN Yi, LIU Wenxing
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (9): 1219-1233.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01219
Abstract   PDF (561KB)
 Humility is a traditional virtue in China, however, the effectiveness of humility has been questioned in modern society. For example, by expressing humility, one’s strength and contribution may not be recognized by others. Although the traditional view requires us to show humility, however, the modern view indicates that if someone expresses humility, he/she may not get deserved reputation. Meanwhile, sometimes followers may regard leaders’ humbleness as weakness because followers need powerful leaders to guide them. The paradox of traditional and modern views of humility raises leaders’ concern about whether and how to display humility in workplace. Based on interpersonal relationship perspective, this research aims to examine the effect of leader humility on employee organizational citizenship behavior, as well as the role of inferred leader humility motives during this process. Instead of focusing on the formal relationship between leader and follower, we proposed that humble leaders would be more attractive to followers and would be easier to form a good interpersonal relationship with followers. Meanwhile, we proposed that when followers inferred different motives of leader-expressed humility, the positive relationship between leader humility and relational closeness would be weakened or strengthened. In order to test our hypothesized model, we conducted a time-lagged leader-member matching questionnaire design. Our sample came from 13 big companies located in Wuhan or Xiangyang, which resulted in 295 leader-followers dyads. To reducing common method bias, leader humility, inferred leader humility motives and demographic variables was measured in time 1. 7 weeks later, we measured relational closeness and LMX from followers and we measured voice behavior and helping behavior from leaders. Because leader humility was embedded in teams, we used hierarchical linear regression to analysis the data. Meanwhile, to test the indirect effect of relational closeness in relationship between leader humility and employee organizational citizenship behavior, bootstrapping method was also adopted. Results showed that: (1) after controlling leader-member exchange, leader humility was positively related to relational closeness. (2) Leader humility could enhance followers’ voice and helping behavior. (3) Relational closeness mediated the relationship between leader humility and followers’ voice and helping behavior. (4) When follower inferred leader humility’s impression management motive was high, the positive relationship between leader humility and relational closeness would be weakened. However, the moderation effect of follower inferred leader humility performance enhancement motives on relationship between leader humility and relational closeness was not significant. The present research makes several contributions to leader humility literature. By examining the positive effect of leader humility on follower OCB, this research proves the effectiveness of leader humility further. Moreover, this study confirmed the mediating role of relational closeness as well as its boundary conditions. As to the practical implications, this research suggested that leaders could show more humility in workplace to trigger followers to do more organizational citizenship behavior. However, at the same time, leaders should realize that if their humility was motivated by impression management, the positive effect of leader humility would be weakened.
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Salty food brings obesity? The effect of saltiness on calorie estimation
ZHOU Yuanyuan; CHEN Rui; ZHENG Yuhuang
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (4): 513-525.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00513
Abstract   PDF (594KB)

Consumer’s calorie estimation plays an important role in food consumption choices. However, calorie estimation is often objective and biased based on many factors. One of the most important factors is saltiness. Hardly any studies exist to show the influence of saltiness on food consumption. While the association of saltiness and unhealthiness is obvious in daily life routines, it is very likely to have an effect on calorie estimation. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of saltiness on calorie estimation. We conducted four studies to examine our hypothesis. We adopted a laboratorial food taste task in study 1. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups (saltiness: strong vs. weak). They were asked to estimate the calorie content of the peanuts after eating them. The stimuli in two groups were the same except for the salt content. In order to examine the robustness of the effect among different age-groups and people from different regions, we enlarged our sampling to include young adults and elders, northerners and southerners in study 2. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups (saltiness: strong vs. weak) then they were shown a description of the type of food. Additionally, the mediating role of perceived healthiness is tested in study 2. We manipulated the healthy perception of salt in study 3 to test the mechanism indirectly. In the manipulated group, the participants were shown a report implying that salt could benefit us, while in the control group, the report showed that a smile was healthy. In study 4, we examined further the moderating role of food category as well as the mediating role of perceived healthiness in the effect of saltiness on calorie estimation with a 2 (saltiness: strong vs. weak) × 2 (food category: healthy vs. unhealthy) between subject design. Participants were randomly divided into 4 groups and showed a description of food (e.g., chips mixed with salt). In all studies, participants needed to estimate the calorie content of the food described. As predicted, we found that consumer’s estimation in calorie would significantly increase when food was saltier. The effect is robust among different age groups as well as participants from Southern China and Northern China. Nevertheless, when salt was primed to be a healthy element to our body, the increase of calorie estimation in saltier food no longer existed. Moreover, food categories played a moderating role. Consumers were more likely to overestimate the number of calories in saltier healthy food than in unhealthy ones. Furthermore, the results showed that participants perceived healthiness mediate the effect of saltiness in calorie estimation. As perceived healthiness increased, consumers’ estimation of calorie increased as well. The mediating effect existed only in healthy foods. These results enrich literature regarding calorie estimation. First, this study explored the field of taste in which it is the most related factor in food consumption. Secondly, it added the evidence that calorie estimation is irrational and easily biased due to salt itself contains zero calories. Third, we examined the perceived healthiness as a mechanism to the effect. Moreover, this study has shown some insight for companies. By making food products less salty, sales may increase not only because it may seem healthier to consumers but it may also cause consumers to underestimate the amount calorie intake.

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 Priming effects of virtual avatars on aggression: Influence of violence and player gender
HENG Shupeng, ZHOU Zongkui, NIU Gengfeng, LIU Qingqi
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (11): 1460-1472.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01460
Abstract   PDF (654KB)
 A virtual avatar is a video game player’s self-presentation in virtual space. The physical appearance of an avatar can prime stereotypes and behavioral scripts stored in memory. The relation between avatar appearance and aggression has been substantially confirmed, but there are open questions about the conditions in which this association is strongest, and what the relation between avatar identification and aggression is. This study used a cue-priming paradigm in two experiments to test the effect of avatar appearance on avatar identification and aggression in violent and nonviolent video games; to test gender as a moderator of these effects; and to test the correlation between avatar identification and aggression. The first experiment investigated the effect of avatar appearance on the level of avatar identification and aggression in violent and nonviolent video games. This experiment employed a 2 (Avatar Appearance: justice/evil) × 2 (Game Violence: violent/non-violent) between-subjects design. 75 male participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or non-violent video game using an avatar representing justice or evil. Based on the first experiment, the second experiment explored the interaction effect of avatar appearance and gender on the level of avatar identification and aggression in a violent video game. This experiment also employed a 2 (Avatar Appearance: justice/evil) × 2 (Gender: male/female) between- subjects design. 42 male and 36 female participants were randomly assigned to play a violent video game using an avatar representing justice or evil. After game play, the amount of hot sauce given by participants to an ostensible partner who hated spicy food was used to measure aggression, and an avatar identification scale was used to measure identification with the avatar. The results showed that: (1) The relations between avatar appearance, avatar identification and aggression were influenced by the violence of game. In the violent video game, the identification with the justice avatar was significantly higher than with the evil avatar, and the evil avatar elicited significantly higher aggression than the justice avatar. In the non-violent game, there was a marginally significant difference between the identification with the justice or evil avatar, but there was no significant difference between the level of aggression elicited by the justice or evil avatar. (2) In the violent video game, the avatar effects were moderated by player gender. Specifically, the avatar identification of female participants was significantly affected by avatar appearance, whereas that of the male participant was not. Avatar appearance had a stronger impact on the aggression of males than females. (3) There was a significant correlation between avatar identification and aggression, which was moderated by game violence and gender. In conclusion, the results of this study supported the priming effect theory and were partially consistent with the existing research. Several factors influenced the effect of avatar appearance on aggression, including a video game factor (violent or non-violent game) as well as an individual factor (male or female), and the complex relationship between avatar identification and aggression. One social implication of the study is that game designers should embed more positive associations, situations, and stereotypes in games to provide users more positive potential priming effects.
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 Parafoveal preview benefits during silent and oral reading
GAO Min, LI Lin, XIANG Huiwen, SUI Xue, Ralph Radach
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (11): 1357-1369.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01357
Abstract   PDF (422KB)
 The researches pay more attention to the parafoveal preview benefits (PPB) in the field of reading and language comprehension. Most of previous studies about PPB were done in silent reading. Those studies mainly investigated whether there is PPB and what type the PPB is. Seldom researches are done about oral reading. We cannot find the literature about the extraction time of preview information during Chinese reading. Thus, present study used the boundary paradigm to explore the differences of PPB between silent and oral reading in Chinese. In experiment 1, in order to explore the effect of the preview of word N when word N-1 was fixated during silent and oral reading, we manipulated the preview condition of word N (masking preview and target preview) and reading modes (silent reading and oral reading). The results show that parafoveal preview information plays an important role in eye movement control during oral reading and silent reading. The preview benefits in oral reading are smaller than that in silent reading. In experiment 2, to explore the effect of the extraction time of preview information of word N when word N-1 was fixated during silent and oral reading, we manipulated parafoveal preview time (0 ms, 50 ms, 100 ms and 150 ms) and reading modes (silent reading and oral reading). The results show that during silent reading, the extraction of parafoveal information might start immediately at the beginning of fixating the word N, but during oral reading, it might start relatively late. In summary, during Chinese reading, parafoveal preview can extract the information during silent reading and oral reading. However, there is significant difference of parafoveal process between silent reading and oral reading. First of all, PPB in silent reading is bigger than that in oral reading. Secondly, parafoveal preview information extraction during oral reading is later than that during silent reading. The last but not least, parafoveal information extraction did not start immediately when pre-target word was fixated. This finding is consistent with the theory of sequential attention shift. But there is not the same phenomenon in silent reading.
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 Upward social comparison on SNS and depression: A moderated mediation model and gender difference
LIAN Shuailei, SUN Xiaojun, NIU Gengfeng, ZHOU Zongkui
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (7): 941-952.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00941
Abstract   PDF (514KB)
 Scholars have started investigating the link between social network site (SNS) use and depression among adolescents, but findings remain inconsistent. In order to find out the reasons, researchers conduct lots of studies, trying to give an interpretation for the relationship and its complex mechanisms from a different perspective. Among many factors influencing adolescents’ depression, the role of upward social comparison on SNS has increasingly received attention of both practitioners and researchers over the past few years. There is substantial literature documenting that upward social comparison on SNS has an important influence on adolescents’ depression, but little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. Therefore, based on the social comparison theory of envy and the response styles theory of rumination, the present study constructed a moderated mediation model to examine the effect of upward social comparison on SNS and the underling mechanisms. Specifically, the present study examined whether upward social comparison on SNS would be indirectly related to adolescents’ depression through the experience of envy during SNS using, and whether this indirect association would be moderated by the adolescents’ rumination. This integrated model can address questions about both mediation and moderation in one model. Its results would be helpful to answer the issues such as “what works for whom”, and provide valuable information for early identification and prevention that cannot be obtained by separately testing the two questions. A total of 836 high school students (mean age = 16.34 years, SD = 1.06) participated in this study. Adolescents’ upward social comparison on SNS was measured by the revised upward social comparison questionnaire. Envy was assessed with the SNS envy scale. The short form of ruminative responses scale was used to assess rumination traits. Adolescents’ depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. All the measures have good reliability and validity. The results showed that: (1) after controlling for age, grade, number of friends on SNS and the frequency and time of SNS use, the upward social comparison on SNS has a positive direct effect on adolescents’ depression. (2) The positive association between upward social comparison and adolescents’ depression was mediated by envy, and there is gender difference in this indirect effect. The indirect effect was stronger for girls than boys. (3) For boys, the mediating effect of envy was moderated by rumination. The indirect effect was stronger for boys with high rumination than for those with low rumination. However, the moderating effect of rumination cannot be found in the indirect effect of envy for girls. These findings contribute to our understanding of how and when upward social comparison on SNS impacts adolescents’ depression. On the one hand, the experience of envy during SNS using relative to the upward social comparison on SNS, may serve as a more important role on the emergence and development of adolescents’ depression. On the other hand, more attention should be paid to the boys with high level of rumination (especially reducing their frequency of upward social comparison on SNS) and boys with high frequency of upward social comparison on SNS (especially reducing their rumination). Last but not the least, the prevention and interventions for adolescents’ depression should pay attention not only to the effect of behavior factors, experience factors and personality trait factors, but also to the combined influence of those factors.
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 What do you listen to under the pressure of time? The moderator effects of reference group on impulsive buying
ZHOU Yuanyuan, HU Yangli, ZHAO Yancheng
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (11): 1439-1448.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01439
Abstract   PDF (404KB)
 Sometimes consumers should make decisions under the pressure of time. Although researchers have investigated impulsive buying under time pressure for many years, almost no consensus has reached. A number of literature have found that time pressure has a positive impact on impulsive buying while other literature have got the opposite conclusion. These researches ignored others’ influence. With the popularization of the social media, consumers are more and more exposed to reference group when making decision under the pressure of time. So in this research we will investigate the relationship between time pressure and impulsive buying under different types of reference group influence based on reference group theory. Three studies were conducted to verify our hypotheses. Study 1 used secondary data and an experiment to test main effect. First, 104 products’ sale data from JUMEI have been gotten. Based on regression analysis, we verified the interaction effects of time pressure and reference group on impulsive buying. Then, experiment 1 was conducted through a 2 (time pressure: high vs. low) × 2 (reference group: informational influence vs. normative influence) between-subjects design. 128 participants completed the experiment. The results also revealed the same significant interaction effects. Study 2 used the similar experimental design as study 1 to further test our mediation effects. 148 university students from Zhongnan University of Economics and Law participated in the experiment. The results revealed the significant mediation effects of instant gratification (i.e., the degree of immediate gratification that an individual obtains via making an impulsive buying) and normative evaluation (i.e., judgments about the appropriateness of engaging in impulsive buying behavior). Moreover, study 3 further tested informational influence. A total of 144 participants from Huazhong University of Science and Technology completed the study with a 2 (time pressure: high vs. low) × 2 (informational influence: content information vs. quantity information) between-subjects design. The results revealed the significant interaction effects of time pressure and informational influence on impulsive buying. The results of these three studies have provided supports for our hypotheses: (1) The reference group moderate the relationship between time pressure and impulsive buying—Specifically, consumers under higher time pressure will do more impulsive buying in the normative reference influence, while those under lower time pressure will do more impulsive buying in the informational reference influence. (2) Instant gratification and normative evaluation mediate the above relationships. (3) The informational influence moderate the relationship between time pressure and impulsive buying—Consumers under lower time pressure will do more impulsive buying when reading content information, while those under higher time pressure will do more impulsive buying when reading quantity information. Finally, we discussed the theoretical contributions and managerial implications of this paper, and offered some critical insights for marketers.
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 Long-term effects of choice of major, social support, learning engagement on college students’ interest in their major
PAN Yingqiu
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (12): 1513-1523.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01513
Abstract   PDF (676KB)
 Previous research suggested that about 40% of Chinese undergraduate students report that the majors they are studying are not congruent with their interest. To shed light on the underlying factors and processes that shape college students’ interest in their major, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate whether and how factors including students’ initial choice of major, academic engagement (i.e., critical thinking, and time and study environment management) and social support (i.e., peer relatedness and help-seeking from teachers) in the first three years of college would shape students’ interest in their major in the third year of college. A total of 729 freshmen from a comprehensive university with high academic reputation in southern China participated in the study. 633 (305 males and 328 females) of them (87%) continued to participate in the study in the second and third years of college. The sample attrition rate for each year was about 8%. The main reason for the sample attrition was that students were not available at the time of data collection. Students from the same major program completed questionnaires in a group at a specific time in their classroom. Questionnaires were collected in the same procedure by the same experimenter in December of each year. Latent Growth Modeling was used to analyze data. It was found that students’ critical thinking as well as time and study environment management steadily decreased from Year 1 to Year 3 while peer relatedness showed an increasing pattern over the three years. It was also found that the students’ initial choice of their major and a higher level of critical thinking in the first year positively predicted students’ interest in their major in the junior year. The slopes of both critical thinking and time and study environment management from Year 1 to Year 3 also showed a positive prediction to students’ interest in their major. That is, students who demonstrated a higher level of critical thinking or were better in time and study environment management from Year 1 to Year 3 were more interested in their major in the junior year. Help seeking from teachers in the junior year also had a positive contribution to students’ interest in their major. In short, college students’ initial choice of major, critical thinking, time and study environment management, and help seeking from teachers are critical for college students’ interest in their major. College students’ deceasing critical thinking and time and study environment management is worthy of attention for researchers and educators in higher education institutes.
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 Perceptual difference between internet words and real-world words: temporal perception, distance perception, and perceptual scope
PENG Ming, JING Wenying, CAI Mengfei, ZHOU Zongkui
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (7): 866-874.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00866
Abstract   PDF (861KB)
 According to embodied cognition theory, cognitive activity takes place in the context of a real-world environment, and it inherently involves perception and action, therefore our cognitive process is grounded in our sensorimotor systems. Internet is a virtual environment, in which sensorimotor system is inhibited. Therefore, our cognitive process is different in internet environment compared to real-world environment. In this study, we aimed to compare the cognitive differences between internet environment and real-world environment on temporal perception, distance perception, and perceptual scope. Because internet words and real-world words are used in our life frequently and can be processed proficiently, we use internet words (such as “website”, “WeChat”), and real-world words (such as “school”, “canteen”) to induce the internet environment and real- world environment. In Experiment 1, we compared the temporal perception on internet words and real-world words by using temporal generalization method. A random line square presented 800 ms or 2000 ms, then a word appeared. The word presented 600 ms, 800 ms or 1000ms when square presenting 800 ms; 1600 ms, 2000 ms, or 2400 ms when square presenting 2000 ms. Then the participant was asked to judge whether the time that word presented was the same with the square. In Experiment 2, we used a picture-word version of Stroop task to test the difference of psychological distance between internet words and real-world words. Participants indicated whether the target word appearing within the picture was near or far. In Experiment 3, we used prime paradigm to test whether the internet words priming decreased participants’ perceptual scope compared to real-world words. Participants were judged the letters (“E” or “H”) appeared in different places (center or peripheral) in the screen after priming words presenting 2s. In Experiment 1, we compared the ratio that participants judged the time the word presenting was the same with square between the internet and real-world condition. The results showed that the ratio was higher in the internet condition than real-world condition when the word presented 600 ms, and the ratio was lower in internet condition than real-world condition when the word presented 2400 ms.The results suggested the temporal perception of internet words was longer than real-world words. In Experiment 2, we did not find any significant interaction effect between distance and the word type. Therefore, there was no difference of psychological distance between internet words and real-world words. In Experiment 3, the results showed that there was no difference on reaction time between the letters appeared in center and peripheral screen after the real-world words, but it’s significantly faster when the letters appeared in the center screen than peripheral screen after the internet words. The results suggested that internet words decreased the perceptual scope. In summary, current study showed that participants judged internet words presenting longer than real-world words, the perceptual scope was decreased after internet words presented, and no difference between internet words and real-world words was found on the psychological distance perception. The temporal perception and perceptual scope differed between internet environment and real-world environment. This study suggested that internet environment influenced people’s perception processing compared to real-world environment.
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 Is color words identification really not needed in attentional resources? Evidence from the Stroop paradigm
WU Yanwen, YOU Xuqun
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (10): 1267-1276.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.001267
Abstract   PDF (445KB)
 According to the classical theories of automaticity, automatic processing is considered entirely stimulus- triggered and independent of top-down control of attention. Automatic processes elicited by unconscious stimuli are not needed in capacity-limited attentional resources. Furthermore, the classical theories highlight the inflexibility of the cognitive system. Namely, conscious information processes would be massively influenced by various unconscious processes. Such inflexibility would require for much conscious control as intended actions could only be ensured by inhibiting numerous interfering response tendencies. In contrast to these classical conceptions, Kiefer and Martens (2010) recently developed an attentional sensitization model of unconscious cognition, which allows for more flexibility and adaptability of automatic processing or unconscious cognitive processing, and the cognitive system has to be configured by attention and task sets in order for automatic processes to occur. Research on unconscious perception has long been known, but the controversies about researching methods and theoretical interpretations in empirical findings have not been resolved. However, in the past few years, it has become increasingly apparent that factors such as attention allocation, intentions, and task sets do influence on the processes that underlie unconscious perception. Kiefer and Martens (2010) argue that higher level task representations configuring the cognitive system in a way of task-congruent processing streams. In view of the above theoretically different opinions, this research aims to extend the findings of attentional sensitization theory that unconscious semantic stimulus processing is dependent not only on the activation of a semantic processing, but also on the extent to which participants assign attention to specific semantic stimulus dimensions and features. In the present research, the Stroop task paradigm was used because the Stroop paradigm was the most robust findings in attentional research that the time to name a color was lengthened markedly in the presence of an irrelevant word, and the Stroop effect was considered the hallmark of automatic processing. The Stroop paradigm would be appropriate to verify the unconscious processing. In three experiments, we used color words, homonyms of color words and color semantic associative words as priming words, and employed several stringent measures to prevent participants from attending to the irrelevant words, including the priming words’ semantics and physical colors separated from time and space; Each words were outside the focus of spatial attention and their visibility were decreased so as to discuss whether the automatic processing was constrained by attentional resources, and whether the participants obtained different amount of attentional resources could make a difference in automated processing. The results showed that: (1) Automatic processes are heavily dependent on the attentional resources, and the automated processes were terminated when the color words could not obtain the attentional resources. (2) The amount of available attentional resources regulated the efficiency and effectiveness of automatic processing, the more attentional resources obtained, the larger significant semantic priming effects to the target stimulus. The results supported the hypothesis of attentional sensitization model that automatic processes were susceptible to top-down control by the higher level cognitive system.
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 Fairness cognition-behavior gap in 4~8 year-old children: The role of social comparison
LIU Wen, ZHANG Xue, ZHANG Yu, YU Ruiwei
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (12): 1504-1512.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01504
Abstract   PDF (361KB)
 Fairness is a comprehensive strategy that takes into consideration of self-interest and other people's interests. The development of fairness norms, that is, using certain rules to distribute resources among different agents, includes two levels: the cognitive level, understanding fairness norms, and the behavioral level, applying fairness rules. Young children endorse fairness norms related to resource distribution, but often act in contradiction to those norms when given a chance to distribute. While currently most research focuses on children's fairness cognition or behavior, the phenomenon of children’s fairness cognition-behavior gap and its influence factors have rarely been explored in the context of a single study. Using a novel approach, the present study aims to investigate the gap of fairness cognition and behavior among 4- to 8- year-old children. The research presented here offers clear evidence of this discrepancy and goes on to examine possible explanations for its diminution with age, as well as the impact of social comparison on such resource distribution behavior. Study 1 adopted the Dictator game to examine the equity principle among 105 4~8-year-old children’s fairness cognition and behavior, and compared the cognition-behavior gap. The justifications/motivations of children’s distribution behavior were also coded and analyzed. In Study 2, We replicated the findings in Study 1, that children will take a cost to avoid being at a relative disadvantage, but also found that 5-to 6-year-olds would spitefully take a cost to ensure that another welfare falls below their own. We tested 80 6-year-old children, and analyzed the influence of social comparison on children’s distribution behavior, both upward and downward social comparisons considered. A variant of the Dictator Game, were used to investigate children’s behavior in different conditions. In Study 1, we found that children at this age already have developed fairness understanding, their fair distributive behavior increased with age, and the gap between cognition and behavior decreased with age. Nevertheless, they failed to engage in equal distribution until age 8. Children’s interpretations of their behavior showed a significant age-related difference from 4 to 8. As children grew older, their interpretations transitioned from focusing on desire to principle. Study 2 found that the degree of unfairness and the cost had a significant impact on the choice of distribution behavior in both the upward social comparison and downward social comparison. Under the no-cost situation, children were more inclined to avoid their own disadvantage and to favor their own favorable results. In the highly unfair situation, it was necessary to avoid being inferior to others, even if the cost was too high. The present study of children’ fairness cognition-behavior gap in a single environment contributes to the literature on moral development. The results provide some support for traditional accounts of moral development by showing that, in the course of development, children’s distribution behavior is increasingly consistent with the norm of fairness that they endorse from an early age. These results also suggest that social comparison influences children’s distribution behavior, and that the development of fairness includes overcoming an initial social comparison preference for self-advantage/disadvantaging others.
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 Effects of interference on retrieval process in implicit memory
LIN Wuji, MENG Yingfang, LIN Jingyuan
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (7): 897-908.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00897
Abstract   PDF (382KB)
 A wide range of studies have shown that executing the other secondary task during encoding has little influence on implicit memory (repetition priming). Somewhat surprisingly, relatively few studies discussed the effects of interference on implicit memory during retrieval, which was confirmed as a process distinct from encoding, but also important in memory. Furthermore, an open question remains as to whether the retrieval interference could affect implicit memory? The effect of interference during retrieval was assessed by comparing a divide-attention (DA) condition, on which participants carried out a memory task (lexical decision) and an interference task (even-odd decision) simultaneously or successively, with a full-attention (FA) condition, on which participants performed only the memory task or interference task. Each experiment consisted of five parts: a study phase, a distraction phase, twice FA interference phases, and a retrieval phase, which included above two types attention conditions. Thirty-five undergraduate students participated in Experiment 1, which investigated whether synchronous interference task during retrieval could affect implicit memory. Experiment 2 further examined whether asynchronous interference could also change the priming of implicit retrieval. Thirty participants took part in Experiment 3, which was designed to examine whether such interference could affect explicit memory retrieval. Therefore, it replaced the lexical decision with recognition task based on Experiment 1. Participants were instructed to make response to corresponding items by pressing keyboard, and were told that the memory and interference task were equally important. They were asked to perform both tasks as quickly and accurately as possible. The Reaction Time (RT) and Accuracy data in retrieval phase were recorded, in order to assess priming effects, the effect of interference and interference task costs. The results showed that, first, the repetition priming results (the facilitation or bias in processing of studied items) were quite consistent across Experiment 1 and 2 both on RT and Accuracy. It reflected that priming would be impacted by interference task, whatever the distraction and memory stimulus presented synchronously or asynchronously. Second, In Experiment 3, there was non-significant difference across attention conditions in recognition Accuracy. Third, we followed Lozito and Mulligan’s (2010) method for examining interference task costs. They proposed two measures to obtain distracting task costs for verifying the effects of interference. One of them would work out global costs, which was assessed by comparing performance on the interference task when performed under DA to FA. We found global costs occurred among three experiments, indicating that attention resource competition happened across dual tasks. But significant specific costs, which comparing performance on interference among DA, was only found in Experiment 3, indicating that explicit retrieval would break secondary task performance, whereas, implicit retrieval seemingly has little impact on interference task, but easily influenced by interference task. In conclusion, results from the current study revealed that implicit memory priming could not be regarded as an automatic form of retrieval with ease. And it's necessary for memory retrieval to catch enough cognitive resources. If limited resource was occupied by the other task, implicit retrieval processing would be impacted.
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 Advancing the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model: Economic rewards influence on teachers’ mental health
YANG Ruijuan, YOU Xuqun
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (9): 1184-1194.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01184
Abstract   PDF (593KB)
 In many countries over the past two decades, workplace stress has increased remarkably. Teaching is an example of a highly stressful occupation due to the diverse requirements of the job: teachers have always been subject to high job-related stress and tend to suffer from stress-related psychosomatic problems at unusually high rates. The purpose of this study is to explore how economic rewards influence on teachers’ mental health. This article uses the interdisciplinary perspective of psychology and economics to test the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model. This study consists of a cross-temporal meta-analysis that examines the changes of Chinese teachers’ scores on the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) from 1995 to 2013. Samples of Chinese teachers (N = 48712) from one hundred and thirteen different past studies were included in this study’s data. The means and SDs of the nine different SCL-90 dimensions were calculated for each of the 19 years under examination, and were compared using Excel2010 and SPSS19.0. Annual average teacher salaries were gathered from the China Statistical Yearbook. Results showed that: (1) Teachers’ mental health decreased from 1995 to 2009 and improved from 2009 to 2013. Although though some studies suggested that there were significant differences in mental health between genders, our composite conclusions showed that there was no significant difference between male and female teachers (N = 19919, p = 0.596). Kindergarten teachers and college professors tended to have the best mental health, whereas primary school, middle school, and special education teachers tended to have the worst mental health. Vocational middle school teachers scored between these two groups (N = 32260). (2) Economic rewards play an important role in influencing teachers’ mental health over time. A one-way causal relationship was observed between teachers’ compensation and psychological factors. The result show that interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, and psychoticism were all influenced by teachers’ compensation and a lag period for such influences was one year. Obsessive neurosis, paranoid psychosis, and depression were also influenced by teachers’ compensation, with a lag period of three years. The present study represents the first time that economic methodology has been combined with psychological research to test the ERI model. Using Granger Causality to investigate the link between teacher salary and changes in SCL-90 scores, the results clearly indicate that economic rewards influence teachers’ mental health. This study also represents the first recent use of a large sample of members from one profession to test the ERI. Possible contributions to the field of Psychological Economics are discussed in the conclusion.
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 The effects of moral punishment and relationship punishment on junior middle school students’ cooperation behaviors in public goods dilemma
CUI Liying, HE Xing, LUO Junlong, HUANG Xiaojiao, CAO Weijia, CHEN Xiaomei
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (10): 1322-1333.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01322
Abstract   PDF (499KB)
 Several factors can account for the cooperative behaviors in social dilemmas, which include individual differences, reward and punishment system, task design and so on. People have a strong aversion to being the “sucker” in social dilemma situations so that those who prefer cooperation may be willing to punish free-riding. Researches demonstrated that although punishment could promote people’s cooperative behaviors temperately, their cooperation levels would drop down to the baseline when the punishment was removed. In previous studies, material punishment was adopted most frequently, however, social punishment has not been sufficiently investigated. Furthermore, there is no unanimous conclusion towards the issue whether the cooperation of the juveniles has any gender differences. So this study mainly examined the effects of moral punishment and interpersonal punishment on the junior middle school student’s cooperative behaviors. Last but not least, social value orientation is a relatively stable individual state and is defined as a tendency of allocation proportion between individual and others. Therefore, we further explored the relationship between social value orientation and student’s cooperative behaviors under different types of punishment. Accordingly, the present study consisted of 2 experiments. The first experiment was organized into a 3 × 2 factorial design. The first factor was the type of punishment, consisting of 3 levels: moral punishment, interpersonal punishment and no punishment. The second factor was the phase of punishment, consisting of 2 levels: punishment in the first phase and no punishment in the second one. Specifically, participants were randomly assigned to the three types of punishment. For punishment groups, participants were given the two phases of punishment. The second experiment was organized into a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial design. The first two factors were the same as experiment 1. The third factor was the type of social value orientation, encompassing 2 levels: prosocial participants and proself participants. The results are as follows, first, the cooperative level was significantly higher in the moral and interpersonal punishment conditions compared to no punishment condition, and the punishment effect remained when the interpersonal punishment removed. Second, punishment effects were significantly greater in the interpersonal and moral conditions than in the no punishment condition for the female participants, but the male participants just had this effect on the case of the interpersonal conditions. Third, a greater cooperative level observed in the moral and interpersonal punishment conditions across both prosocial participants and proself participants, but only the prosocial participants kept a higher cooperative level when the punishment removed. These results suggested that the moral and interpersonal punishment could promote the cooperative behaviors of the junior middle school students. In comparison, the interpersonal punishment had a more lasting effect, which was more prominent in the male group. Additionally, relative to the case of proself participants, there was a long-term effect on punishment for prosocial participants.
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 Consumer self-construal, need of uniqueness and preference of brand logo shape
WANG Haizhong, FAN Xiaowen, OUYANG Jianying
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (8): 1113-1124.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01113
Abstract   PDF (472KB)
 There are a variety of brand logos in the market and it has become a marketing way to attract consumers. However, how to design a reasonable and effective brand logo and what kind of brand logos is preferred by the target consumers, are questions for marketers and researchers. Based on the horizontal dimension of Individualism-Collectivism Framework by Triandis and Gelfand (1998), this research found the mechanism between consumer self-construct and preference of brand logo shape: need for uniqueness. Findings from four experiments demonstrated that consumers with independent (vs. interdependent) self-construal had a higher (vs. lower) need for uniqueness and preferred angle- (vs. rounded-) shaped brand logos. Consumers' need for uniqueness played a mediation role in the relationship of self-construal and preference of brand logo shape, and that product type (private products vs. public products) played a moderation role in this relationship. We conducted four experiments to examine our hypotheses. The data of study 1 was collected from 63 undergraduates who were activated either an independent or interdependent self-construal, following which both groups responded to questionnaire items on the manipulation check of self-construal and Need for Uniqueness Scale. At last, they were showed two brand logos: an angle and a rounded one, and then gave their preference to these two logos. Study 2 investigated the boundary effect of product type (private products vs. public products). Study 3 manipulated self-construal in another different method by asking participants to describe the differences or similarities between themselves and their family or friends, and changed product categories to further test our hypotheses. The data in study 2 and 3 were collected from 129 undergraduates and 156 consumers through online survey. In study 4, we adopted the brand logo shape in the graphic form, different from the brand logo shape in the text form from Study 1 to 3, and thus expanded the application of this study. All four experiments showed that individuals of independent (vs. interdependent) self-construct had a higher (vs. lower) need for uniqueness, and preferred angled (vs. rounded) brand logo only when consuming public products (vs. private products). This research has theoretical contributions in four aspects. First, this study proved that “need for uniqueness” played a mediation role in the relationship of self-concept and brand logo shape preference. This is a significant advancement of the previous research, which found "conflict resolution style" as a mediator. Second, this study have theoretical impetus on the relationship of self-construal and need for uniqueness. Unlike the existing research, which either adopted only one method to prime self-construal or measured it using continuous variable, our present research adopted two methods to prime self-construal and the results got replicated perfectly. Third, this study enriched the researches about brand logo shape (angle or rounded). Totally, this research adopted two forms to represent the shape of brand logo, graphic and text. Fourth, this study advanced sensory marketing (especially visual marketing) researches. Moreover, it provides rich strategic implications for marketers and firms in designing and adjusting brand logos, and also developing corresponding marketing strategies.
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Parent-child attachment and prosocial behavior among junior high school students: Moderated mediation effect
WANG Yanhui; LI Dongping; SUN Wenqiang; ZHAO Liyan; LAI Xuefen; ZHOU Yueyue
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2017, 49 (5): 663-679.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00663
Abstract   PDF (758KB)

Prosocial behavior refers to behaviors that benefit others, such as sharing, helping and cooperating. The development of prosocial behavior is an important part of adolescent socialization. Substantial literature has documented the important influence of parent-child attachment on prosocial behavior; however, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. In this study, guided by development system theories and attachment theory, a moderated mediation model was constructed to examine the effects and underlying mechanisms of family (parent-child attachment), individual (psychological capital) and peer (deviant peer affiliation) factors on adolescent prosocial behavior. Specifically, the present study examined whether parent–child attachment is indirectly related to prosocial behavior through psychological capital, and whether this indirect association is moderated by deviant peer affiliation. A total of 737 junior high school students (mean age = 13.92 years, SD = 0.73) participated in this study. They anonymously filled out questionnaires regarding parent-child attachment, psychological capital, deviant peer affiliation, and prosocial behavior. All the measures have good reliability and validity. After controlling for gender and age, the structural equation model showed that: (1) parent-child attachment had a positive effect on prosocial behavior; (2) the positive impact of parent-child attachment on prosocial behavior was mediated by psychological capital; and (3) the mediating effect of psychological capital was moderated by deviant peer affiliation. The indirect effect was stronger for adolescents with low deviant peer affiliation than for those with high deviant peer affiliation. These findings contribute to our understanding of how and when parent-child attachment affects adolescent prosocial behavior as viewed through the lenses of different subsystems of development system theories. On the one hand, psychological capital plays an important role in the association between parent-child attachment and prosocial behavior; therefore, more attention should be paid to psychological capital and parent-child attachment and their roles in improving adolescent prosocial behavior. On the other hand, junior high school students with more deviant peer affiliations may require more attention, because parent–child attachment has a weaker protective effect on them in comparison with students with fewer deviant peer affiliations. The cultivation of adolescent prosocial behavior should focus not only on the effects of family factors, peer factors, and individual factors separately, but also on the combined influence of those factors.

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