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    Mobile phone addiction and depression: Multiple mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information
    HOU Juan, ZHU Yingge, FANG Xiaoyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 362-373.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00362
    Abstract8912)   HTML1380)    PDF (892KB)(11789)      

    Depression is an important and widely studied measure of individual psychological and social adaptation. Previous studies have explored the mechanism of depression from various perspectives and found that addiction is a significant risk factor for the development of depression. In recent years, with the rapid development of mobile Internet technology and smart phones, researchers have found that mobile phone addiction, as another important aspect of behavioral addiction, also has a potential impact on depression. Further studies have found that mobile-addicted individuals spend too much time and energy in the virtual world, thus leading to social anxiety. In addition, when social anxiety is so high that it affects the daily life of individuals, individuals are prone to suffer depressive symptoms. According to the cognitive behavioral model of social anxiety and emotional consistent effect, attentional bias to negative information is a key factor in maintaining the anxiety state among individuals with social anxiety. When an individual experiences social anxiety, they will pay more attention to negative information. Depression cognitive theory also posits that attentional bias to negative emotional information is closely related with the occurrence, development and maintenance of depression.
    Therefore, social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information may be important factors in the effects of mobile phone addiction on depression. This study integrated emotional and cognitive factors and explored the effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information on the relationship between mobile phone addiction on depression through two studies. For study 1, a sample of 545 college students completed the Mobile Phone Addiction Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. For study 2, 51 college students were selected to complete questionnaires and a 2 (Emotional types of paired facial expressions: negative, neutral) × 2 (Detection point position: same as negative emotional face expression, different from negative emotional face expression) within-subjects task to investigate the serial mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information on the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression.
    All the data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 and Mplus 8.3. Some valuable results were obtained as follows. (1) There were significant positive correlations among mobile phone addiction, social anxiety and depression. Social anxiety fully mediated the effect of mobile phone addiction on depression. (2) Social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information serially mediated the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression. However, attentional bias to negative emotional information did not significantly mediate the effect of mobile phone addiction on depression. Specifically, mobile phone addiction affects depression through two pathways: one is the separate mediating role of social anxiety; the other is the serial mediation pathway of social anxiety → attentional bias to negative emotional information.
    This study expands previous research on mobile phone addiction and individual psychological adaptation, enriches the field of addiction and depression research, and has significance regarding the reduction or control of the negative effects of addiction on depression. Additionally, this study also provides evidence for causal inference that social anxiety and attentional bias can alter depression levels, suggesting that attentional bias training is likely to be a promising alternative therapy for depression and providing new ideas for the intervention and treatment of clinical mental disorders.

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    Neural mechanism underlying the effects of object color on episodic memory
    ZHOU Wenjie, DENG Liqun, DING Jinhong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 229-243.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00229
    Abstract8135)   HTML1443)    PDF (1154KB)(14262)      

    Color diagnosticity is the degree to which a color is associated with or symbolizes a particular object. Typical color is often associated with high color diagnostic objects and activates the visual (perceptual) or semantic (conceptual) knowledge in long-term memory. However, the relationship between different processing levels (perceptual and conceptual) of object color information and episodic memory retrieval components (familiarity and recollection) remains poorly understood. It is hypothesized that color information can facilitate memory encoding at the perceptual level but inhibit it at the conceptual level. In recognition retrieval, color has a greater impact on familiarity and recollection at the perceptual level, while at the conceptual level, recollection is more affected than familiarity.

    In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and a study-test paradigm were used to investigate the effects of color consistency (visual color input and object color knowledge) on episodic memory encoding and retrieval by using pictures and names of objects with high color diagnosticity. Twenty-seven college students participated in experiment 1. During the study phase, a picture of an object in its diagnostic color (such as a red apple) or non-diagnostic color (purple banana) was presented on a white background for 500ms. The participants were asked to determine whether the color of the object in each picture was consistent with its actual (diagnostic) color. During the test phase, participants provided old/new judgments about the objects that had appeared in the study phase and the equal number of new items. Twenty-five college students participated in the experiment. A similar procedure was used for experiment two, except that items were the names of the objects in their diagnostic or non-diagnostic color rather than pictures. During both experiments, the participants responded by pressing a mouse button. Their reaction time and EEG (electroencephalography) were recorded.

    The results of experiment 1 showed that, during the encoding phase, color-inconsistent objects were identified less accurately and more slowly, and this triggered a larger N400 than the color-consistent ones. During the retrieval phase the color-consistent objects were recalled more quickly and accurately, and this triggered larger FN400 (frontal negativity) values than the color-inconsistent objects. However, the opposite effects were observed in experiment 2. Color-inconsistent object names were identified more quickly and accurately, and they elicited the same ERP wave as the color-consistent names. During the recognition stage, the color had an effect only during the period of late positive components (LPCs).

    In conclusion, color was found to have different effects on encoding and retrieval of episodic memory at both perceptual and semantic levels. (1) Color had different effects on item coding at the perceptual and semantic levels. Color consistency was found to help the viewer identify objects at the perceptual level, but it hindered object identification at the semantic level. (2) Color congruence was here found to promote familiarity and recollection in object retrieval (perceptual level), but it only improved recollection of an object’s name (conceptual level). (3) The consistency effect in the processing of object name recognition showed that color is closely related to object name, and it also affects the semantic representation of objects, which further supports the spreading activation model.

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    Temporal dynamics of eye movements and attentional modulation in perceptual judgments of structure-from-motion (SFM)
    DING Jinhong, WANG Yamin, JIANG Yang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 337-348.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00337
    Abstract6493)   HTML531)    PDF (1069KB)(7691)      

    How attention plays a role in resolving ambiguous perceptual judgments is one of the age-old scientific questions. Understanding the processes of perceptual grouping, switching, processing speed, and awareness is a key step towards solving significant problems in applications such as computer vision and automatic driving involving three-dimensional space. The rotating three-dimensional (3D) structure from motion (SFM) is a well-known bistable ambiguous stimulus. Thus far, it is still an open question how attention, eye movements, and depth cues modulate perceptual judgments of rotating directions of a 3D SFM. As early as 1925, motion perception resulted from eye tracking signals was proposed by Helmholtz (Cavanagh, 1992). Pomerantz (1970) claimed that eye movement plays an important role in the occurrence of kinesthetic perception. Furthermore, neuroscience studies has supported a common neural basis for eye movement and attention transfer (Grosbras, Laird & Paus, 2005). The current study aimed to investigate the characteristics and the time course of eye movements during SFM perception by controlling exogenous visual cues and ascertain the effect of attention on SFM perception. Using advanced eyemovements analysis, we investigated how attention under both unambiguous and ambiguous depth cues modulate perceptual judgments of rotation directions in deepth.
    Twenty-two college students (10 males and 12 females), mean age 22, participated in this experiment. Their task was to indicate the rotation directions of 3D SFM by pressing the left (for clockwise CW percept from top view) or the right key of a mouse (for CCW percept) with their left or right thumb. A computer simulated structure-from-motion (a 3D rotating sphere) was created via 30 coherently moving dots with 0.2° diameter each along with an elliptical trajectory of different radii at a mean velocity of 5°/s. The luminant dots were randomly distributed in a spherical area extended 5°×5°. Under unambiguous depth cue condition, dots were fully illuminated in the half of their trajectories and partially illuminated in the other part of the trajectories. The two groups of dots appeared to move in opposite direction. There were two sets of cued rotations in which bright dots (drawing attention) moving leftwards or rightwards. For ambiguous condition (AMB), all dots had equal brightness (averaged luminance of unambiguous displays), which had equal chance to be seen as rotating in either CW or CCW direction. During each experimental trial, after a 500 ms fixation “+”, a rotation-in-depth structure was presented for about 950 ms. A mask of random brighter and dimer dots was displayed for 500 ms after a response window of 1500 ms at the end of each trial.
    Advanced eyemovements analysis, e.g. microsaccade rates with directions and time courses, were conducted using methods from Bonneh, Adini & Polat (2015) and Hermens & Walker ( 2010). The statistical analysis revealed that perceptual judgments of rotation directions under unambiguous cues were faster and more confident than those under the ambiguous conditions. For the micro-saccade, peak velocity and amplitude were higher during perception of unambiguous 3D rotation than those during the ambiguous rotations. There was no significant difference in saccade duration. When participants judged the SFM as rotation of clockwise (left), their microsaccade rate towards left was significantly higher than that towards right and vise versa while the counter-clockwise judgment was made. Under the unambiguous condition, significant differences between CW-cw and CCW-ccw were found during time widows of 150~400 ms and 500~970 ms. In contrast, ambiguous conditions (AMB-cw and AMB-ccw) differed most during 700~950 ms, which indicated extra time of attentional processes.
    Our findings of temporal dynamics of the ambiguous and unambiguous perceptual judgments of 3D rotations indicated two stages of processing. First, local speed calculation in three-dimensional structure construction during initial period of 150~200 ms after stimulus onset. Second, visual processing binds local motion vector flows to the overall perceptual judgment of rotation directions. The ambiguous conditions took longer time. When rotations were unambiguous, attentional facilitates during perceptual judgment of 3D rotation of SFM speed up in the higher-level processing.

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    The impact of gender orientation of names on individuals’ evaluation of impressions and interpersonal interaction
    ZUO Bin, LIU Chen, WEN Fangfang, TAN Xiao, XIE Zhijie
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 387-399.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00387
    Abstract6307)   HTML725)    PDF (703KB)(10909)      

    People can infer personal traits from names and, thus, the impressions of an individual can be influenced by how others perceive his or her name. Previous research has found that people have a distinctive perception of masculine and feminine names. This raises an interesting question: How do people evaluate individuals with opposite gender-oriented names, and how will this evaluation affect interpersonal interaction based on the main two dimensions of social cognition (i.e., warmth and competence). To answer these questions, the first aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of warmth and competence of names within the Chinese context and examine the effects of an individual’s gender and name-gender orientation on impression formation. The second aim was to explore the behavioral aftereffects of evaluation of impressions based on individual’s names.
    Four studies were conducted to explore the research questions. In Study 1, a total of 100 masculine and feminine names were presented to 176 undergraduate students who were asked to rate these names according to four traits: two traits for each dimension of warmth and competence. In Study 2, 121 undergraduate participants were presented with information about target genders and names. Participants were asked to rate these targets based on warmth and competence. In Study 3a, 136 undergraduate participants were presented with two targets that had masculine or feminine names within the context of imagining going on a trip with them. Furthermore, in Study 3b, 131 undergraduate participants were asked to imagine that they would meet two individuals with different names within the context of finishing a difficult task. Participants in Study 3a and Study 3b were then asked to evaluate these individuals based on their warmth and competence traits and choose one of them as their partner to complete the corresponding activities.
    The results were as follows: (1) Feminine names were rated higher on warmth than masculine names, and masculine names were rated higher on competence than feminine names; (2) Individuals with gender-consistent names were considered to have the typical characteristics of their gender: women with feminine names were perceived as warmer than women with masculine names, and men with masculine names were perceived more competent than men with feminine names; (3) Individuals with gender-inconsistent names were considered to have the characteristics of the opposite sex: men with feminine names were perceived less competent than women with masculine names, whereas women with masculine names were perceived less warm than men with feminine names; (4) Participants intended to make friends with women whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of warmth completely mediated the effect of name-gender orientation on willingness to interact; and 5) Participants preferred to finish difficult tasks with men whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of competence completely mediated the effect of name gender orientation on willingness to cooperate.
    This is the first study to explore how gender and name gender orientation affect individuals’ impressions by applying stereotype content in China. We examined the influence of name gender orientation on individuals’ perceptions about others, as well as their behavior intention and mechanism, from the perspective of the perceiver’s motivation. This study provides new theoretical explanations and empirical support for impression evaluation and interpersonal interaction based on names, and has important implications for future research on the social cognition of names. Further studies should explore the content of gender-ambiguous names and their effects on individuals’ impressions and behavioral aftereffects. The effects of emotional and cognitive processes on names and interpersonal interaction should also be assessed.

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    The relationship between social media use and fear of missing out: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Yali, LI Sen, YU Guoliang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 273-290.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00273
    Abstract5718)   HTML888)    PDF (1153KB)(10260)      

    Social media use and fear of missing out are both common phenomena in our daily life. Numerous studies have discussed the relationship between these two variables, but the results were mixed. Theoretically, there are two main arguments about the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out. To be specific, the social cognitive theory of mass communication suggested that there was a significant positive correlation between the two variables, while the digital goldilocks hypothesis argued that there may be a U-shaped relationship instead of a significant linear correlation between the two. Empirically, the effect sizes of this relationship reported in the existing literature were far from consistent, with r values ranging from 0 to 0.75. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out.

    Through literature retrieval, 65 studies consisting of 70 independent effect sizes that met the inclusion criteria were selected. In addition, a random-effects model was selected to conduct the meta-analysis in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.3 software, aiming at testing our hypotheses. The heterogeneity test illustrated that there was significant heterogeneity among 70 independent effect sizes, indicating that the random-effects model was appropriate for subsequent meta-analyses. Based on the funnel plot and Egger’s test of regression to the intercept, no significant publication bias was found in the included studies.

    The main effect analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between social media use and fear of missing out (r = 0.38). The moderation analyses revealed that the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out was moderated by the indicator of social media use, as well as the type of social media. Specifically, compared with the frequency, the time as well as the intensity of social media use, social media use addiction had the strongest correlation with fear of missing out; compared with Snapchat and Facebook, Instagram had the strongest correlation with fear of missing out. Other moderators such as gender, age, measurement tools of fear of missing out as well as individualism index did not moderate the relation between these two constructs. The results supported the media effect model, which suggested that social media use, especially social media use addiction may be an important risk factor for individuals’ fear of missing out. Longitudinal studies are needed in the future to explore the dynamic relationship between social media use and fear of missing out.

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    Effect of power on conspicuous prosocial behavior
    YAO Qi, WU Zhangjian, ZHANG Changqing, FU Guoqun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (12): 1421-1435.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01421
    Abstract5382)   HTML703)    PDF (790KB)(8958)      

    Conspicuous prosocial behavior refers to prosocial behaviors that are publicly displayed to enhance the image of the helper in the eyes of others. The existing research suggests that sense of power simultaneously generates self-interested behaviors and inhibits individual prosocial behavior. However, an increased number of recent researches indicate that several personal traits and environmental factors encourage individuals with power to conduct more prosocial behaviors. Moreover, less research has been conducted to explore the relationship between power and conspicuous prosocial behavior. The present study proposes that powerful (vs. powerless) individuals are more willing to engage in conspicuous prosocial behaviors with self-presentation as a mediating variable.
    Five experiments (Experiments 1, 2a, 2b, 3, and 4) were performed to test the hypotheses. Experiments 1 and 3 explored the relationship between power and conspicuous prosocial behaviors using the class role imagination task to manipulate sense of power. Experiment 1 participants (139 adults, 50 men) were provided with information about two backpacks. Experiment 3 participants (237 adults, 121 men) were shown an advertisement. Experiment 2a participants (147 adults, 75 men) involved powerful and powerless individuals who were instructed to report donation willingness and amount under two conditions, namely, public acknowledgment and control. Experiment 2b is a field study in which participants (210 adults, 93 men) who completed a recall task decided whether to write down their e-mail after perusing the information about a public service advertisement. Lastly, Experiment 4 examined the mediating role of self-presentation for which 117 adults were asked to indicate their sense of power, self-presentation motivation, and willingness to participate in blatant benevolence by a random sequence.
    Experiment 1 indicated that the powerful (vs. the powerless) tend to buy conspicuous green products with clear environmental labels. Experiment 2a demonstrated that powerful individuals display higher levels of willingness to donate and donate more compared with the powerless and under the public acknowledgment condition. Experiment 2b revealed that the powerful rather than the powerless tend to write down their e-mail under the public acknowledgment condition. Experiment 3 provided evidence that a strongly conspicuous inclination among powerful participants is not attributed to a general tendency to show off when engaging in prosocial behaviors. Finally, Experiment 4 not only replicated the effect of power on conspicuous prosocial behaviors, but also established the mediating role of self-presentation.
    The current study demonstrates the relationship between power and conspicuous prosocial behaviors. That is, individuals with high (vs. low) power are more willing to engage in conspicuous prosocial behaviors with self-presentation as a mediating factor. The findings of this work have important practical significance for marketing managers in terms of the utilization of sense of power to effectively guide individuals to engage in prosocial behaviors.

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    Confucian ideal personality traits (Junzi personality) and mental health: The serial mediating roles of self-control and authenticity
    GE Xiaoyu, HOU Yubo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 374-386.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00374
    Abstract5268)   HTML540)    PDF (785KB)(7139)      

    Junzi personality refers to the composite of traits of ideal persons from the viewpoint of Confucian philosophy and is a key to East-Asian indigenous personality studies. Confucius said, “ Junzi is free from worries and fears” and that in such a personality, “to return to the observance of the rites through overcoming the self constitutes benevolence.” Mencius said, “there is no greater delight than to be conscious of authenticity on self-examination” while according to Chengzi, “one who returns to the observance of the rites through overcoming the self for long is authentic.” Based on these classic Confucian propositions and related empirical studies, this paper proposes the hypothesis that aJunzi personality has a positive effect on mental health, in which self-control and authenticity play serial mediating roles.
    To examine the above hypothesis, four studies were conducted. In Study 1 (N= 207), the self-rated questionnaires of Junzipersonality, self-control, authenticity, and mental health were used. Study 2 (N= 425) involved manipulating self-control using the scenario simulation method and looking into its effects on mental health and authenticity. In Study 3 (N= 317), authenticity, which was manipulated using the method of recall priming, was investigated for its effects on mental health. Participants were also asked to recall real-life instances involving a decision that may or may not have involved self-control to support the external validity. In Study 4 (N= 220), participants were subjected to four different tests with 2-month intervals for each that measured Junzi personality, self-control, and authenticity, with the final test measuring self-esteem, core self-evaluation, affect balance, and mental symptoms as overall indicators of mental health.
    Results showed that when measured simultaneously, Junzi personality positively predicted mental health. When measured after 6 months, Junzipersonality also positively predicted self-esteem, core self-evaluation, and affect balance but negatively predicted mental symptoms. Junzi personality positively predicted the trait of self-control and decisions involving self-control, whether in situations provided in the experiment or as were recalled by the participants. Manipulated self-control positively affected both mental health and authenticity while manipulated authenticity positively affected mental health. Results also provided evidence to the serial mediating effect of self-control and authenticity in the positive effect ofJunzi personality on mental health through simultaneous measurement and cross-temporal measurement. In addition, results of experimental manipulation also provided indirect evidence for this.
    This research sought to explore the positive relationship between Junzi personality and mental health and to help in the understanding of the internal mechanism of this relationship. The results are consistent with previous studies on the relationship between personality and mental health, self-control and mental health, and authenticity and mental health. In addition, this paper also discusses the practical value of Junzipersonality and Confucianism in today’s China.

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    The generalization effect in gap evaluation: How large is the gap between you and me?
    WANG Tianhong, CHEN Yuqi, LU Jingyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (11): 1327-1339.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01327
    Abstract5023)   HTML527)    PDF (834KB)(8551)      

    In many social comparisons, people know exactly how they and others do. These comparisons induce a self-other gap. A variety of important decisions are made on the basis of judgments of the gap between ourselves and other people. Existing research indicates biased judgments of self-other gaps, with unknown absolute performance of others. However, the question we are interested in is whether judgments of a self-other gap will be accurate when both absolute performance of oneself and others are specified. This research investigated how the self-other gap was shaped by absolute and relative performances. We proposed the generalization effect, in which individuals generalized their absolute performance to rate their relative position to others though the actual self-other gap was specified.
    We conducted seven studies (N = 2766) to test our proposed generalization effect on perceived self-other gap. Study 1 adopted a 2 (absolute performance: gain or loss) × 2 (relative performance: gain or loss) between-subjects design. The participants, who were informed their performance as well as their classmate's performance in a test, rated the gap between themselves and the classmate. The result indicated that absolute gain caused a larger perceived self-other gap for relative gain (“I am far ahead of her”) than for relative loss (“I am not far behind her”). Conversely, absolute loss caused a larger perceived self-other gap for relative loss (“I am far behind her”) than for relative gain (“I am not far behind her”).
    Studies 2 and 3 replicated the results in Study 1 with investment and social media scenarios. Besides, Study 2a excluded the influence of information order and Study 2b excluded the effect of emotion. Studies 3a and 3b ruled out the alternative explanations of numeric size.
    Study 4 tested the association mechanism by cutting off the associations between multiple dimensions. We adopted a 2 (association: cutting-off or control) × 2 (absolute performance: gain or loss) × 2 (relative performance: gain or loss) between-subjects design. In the cutting-off condition, we designed a debiasing intervention where general associations among multiple dimensions were cut off. As a result, the effect found in Studies 1 to 3 persisted in the control condition but disappeared in the cutting-off condition where associations among multiple dimensions were cut off. The result indicated that generalization among dimensions accounted for the effect we found. The result also ruled out the explanations of egocentrism and focalism.
    Study 5 manipulated the reference point in social comparison and found a null effect for reference point on the generalization effect, which ruled out the explanation of reference point.
    We reveal that assessments of relative performance are biased even when people have sufficient information about their own and others' absolute performances because people generalize their absolute performance to relative performance. The generalization effect reflects the overgeneralization bias in social comparison. People fail to realize that absolute performances are not necessarily related to relative performances. Moreover, the current research offers a feasible approach to reduce such a bias.

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    “You were what you eat”: Food gender stereotypes and their impact on evaluation of impression
    ZUO Bin, DAI Yuee, WEN Fangfang, GAO Jia, XIE Zhijie, HE Saifei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 259-272.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00259
    Abstract4862)   HTML839)    PDF (717KB)(8542)      

    Interpersonal evaluations refer to people’s perception of someone and how they judge personalities based on existing information. Recent research has focused on food gender stereotypes and their effect on impression evaluations. However, past studies on food gender stereotypes were mostly conducted within Western cultural context, while few studies were based on non-Western culture, and unsystematically only focused on the impressions of sexual attractiveness, personal qualities, or masculinity/femininity. Therefore, this study examined whether food gender stereotypes exist in the Chinese cultural context while investigating these stereotype effects on impression evaluations based on the Big Two model, which provided a good theoretical basis and measurement index. We hypothesized that the Chinese also held food gender stereotypes and had different impression evaluations on individuals consistent or inconsistent with food gender stereotypes of different genders. To test these hypotheses, we performed two separate studies. In total, 788 participants were recruited online and 132 through advertising on campus. Study 1 comprised examining whether participants held explicit and implicit food gender stereotypes using open nomination, self-reporting, and semantic priming paradigms. Study 2 involved measuring participants' evaluation of competence and warmth on individuals with given food gender stereotypes using questionnaires and Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures. Results revealed that both genders held the explicit food gender stereotype of “men like masculine food and women like feminine food,” but only women held implicit food gender stereotypes. Additionally, participants reported higher evaluations for competence and lower evaluations for warmth on men who were consistent with the food gender stereotype, while for women who were consistent, participants thought they were warmer but less competent. Implicitly, both genders held stereotyped evaluations that inconsistent men were warmer. In conclusion, this research explored and examined the unique content of food gender stereotypes in the Chinese cultural context, which deepens the understanding of food gender stereotypes and contributes significantly to the field of cross-cultural food gender stereotypes. Furthermore, we creatively combined our study purposes with the Big Two model and systematically investigated people’s evaluation of individuals with consistent/inconsistent food gender stereotypes in two aspects, which has important implications for future research.

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    The influence of anger on delay discounting: The mediating role of certainty and control
    SONG Xiyan, CHENG Yahua, XIE Zhouxiutian, GONG Nanyan, LIU Lei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (5): 456-468.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00456
    Abstract4784)   HTML648)    PDF (771KB)(7530)      

    Delay discounting occurs when, compared to current or recent benefits (or losses), people give future benefits (or losses) less weight and choose current or recent benefits (or losses). Delay discounting is an important research direction in the field of decision-making. Based on the Appraisal-Tendency Framework, the present study aimed to examine how anger influences an individual’s delay discounting and then explore the underlying mechanism of the effect of anger on delay discounting.
    The key hypotheses--that anger would influence delay discounting and that certainty and control appraisal tendencies would drive this effect--were tested across three experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of anger on delay gratification. In Experiments 2a and 2b, an experimental-causal-chain design was used to test (a) whether anger increases certainty-control relative to fear and neutral feelings, and (b) whether experiencing certainty-control increases one’s delay gratification. In Experiment 3, a measurement-of-mediation design was used to test whether feelings of certainty-control stemming from anger predicted delay gratification. Simultaneously, we explored whether positive emotions associated with certainty-control produced increases in delay gratification. The focus was on pleasure as a positive, certainty-control-associated emotion.
    In Experiment 1, the results showed that compared with fear and neutral participants, angry participants were more likely to choose large and delayed rewards. In Experiment 2a, the results showed that compared with fear and neural participants, angry participants were more likely to experience certainty-control feelings. Then, in Experiment 2b, the results showed that compared with low certainty-control participants, high certainty-control participants were more likely to choose large and delayed rewards. In Experiment 3, the results showed that compared with fear and neutral participants, angry and pleasant participants experienced more certainty-control feelings and were more likely to choose large and delayed rewards. Furthermore, the mediation analysis showed that certainty-control feelings played a complete mediating role in the effect of anger and pleasure on delay discounting.
    Converging evidence from the three experiments indicated that incidental anger can influence delay discounting. Compared with fear and neutral feelings, those experiencing anger were more likely to choose larger and delayed rewards (Experiment 1). Importantly, these two experiments provide direct process evidence by showing that the certainty and control appraisal tendencies triggered by anger may underlie its delay gratification-enhancing effects (Experiments 2 and Experiment 3). Furthermore, experiencing certainty- control-associated emotions (i.e., anger and pleasure), regardless of valence, increased to the likelihood that individuals would choose larger and delayed rewards (Experiment 3). The current research supports the hypotheses that anger increases delay gratification and that certainty and control appraisal tendencies drive this effect. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of specific negative emotions on intertemporal choice.

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    Progress feedback and its effects on working alliance and treatment outcomes
    SUN Qiwu, WU Caizhi, YU Lixia, WANG Weixin, SHEN Guocheng
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 349-361.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00349
    Abstract4730)   HTML215)    PDF (712KB)(4917)      

    Progress feedback involves collecting patients’ ratings on treatment outcome by session and providing feedback to therapists on patient progress. Research has indicated that the positive effect of progress feedback on psychotherapy outcome is a promising advancement. However, a recent meta-analysis showed that progress feedback may only have a small to medium effect for non-severe patients. Also, the theory which explains the effect of progress feedback is very much limited. Before implementing progress feedback in China, it is necessary to test its effect on working alliance and treatment outcomes in a natural setting.
    It is believed that Chinese are taught to obey their parents, respect elders, and restrain themselves to keep family harmony. Such schemas are subsequently transferred to their social life in the forms of respecting authority/superior, maintaining interpersonal harmony, which will lead to an indirect style of communication. Progress feedback from patients’ weekly reports can be used as a correction method for incongruences between therapists and patients without discussing it immediately and face-to-face, and thus can improve the quality of working alliance and treatment outcomes. The current study used a culturally-adapted version of progress feedback in a university counseling center. Research assistants collected patients’ ratings on working alliance and treatment outcomes and emailed the results with interpretations to the therapists, who were then encouraged to use feedback information to improve treatment outcomes.
    The participants included 48 therapists and 445 patients (of which 350 were used for analysis). Post survey indicated that 80% therapists read progress feedback information based on which they were divided into feedback and non-feedback group. CORE-OM10 was used to evaluate symptoms before each session, and WAQ was used to evaluate the working alliance after each session. PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CORE-OM-34 were used before and after treatment. Multi-level structural equation models were used to analyze the data. Results showed that progress feedback had a medium effect on working alliance but no effect on treatment outcomes (measured by CORE-OM) at the between-person level. At the within-person level, the results affirmed the reciprocal model of alliance-outcome, which indicated that the model is consistent and steady across cultures. In addition, the feedback group had better treatment outcomes measured by PHQ-9 and self-rated helpfulness measured after treatment.
    The results were discussed under the three possible mechanisms of progress feedback. Progress feedback may correct the bias of the therapist’s self-evaluation on treatment process, as well as the incongruence and alliance ruptures between therapists and patients. The cultural-specific factors may also contribute to the effect of progress feedback (e.g., indirect communication style). The support from regular supervision for therapists under progress feedback was emphasized as well. Overall, the present study suggested the positive effect of progress feedback on the working alliance and treatment outcomes in a Chinese counseling center based on practical evidence.

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    Evolution of Napoleon complex: Relative height disadvantage, mating motivation and men’s risk-taking behavior
    WU Qi, ZHONG Chunyan, XIE Jingyuan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 95-110.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00095
    Abstract4647)   HTML475)    PDF (1176KB)(9979)      

    Throughout the animal kingdom, larger animals are more likely to attain dominance and thus enhance their ability to acquire mates. In human males, body height is also associated with the success and failure in sexual selection. For example, studies have found that taller men have higher strength or fighting ability, are more likely to higher overall income and higher social status, and hold greater potential for acquiring mates. However, shorter men are not necessarily doomed with disadvantages. Previous studies have suggested that men have a flexible status psychology that may allow them to exercise behavioral flexibility (e.g., by showing more indirect aggression or feeling more jealousy toward sexual rivals) to compensate for their disadvantage in height. Given the importance of risk-taking behavior in signalizing the quality of ones’ genes, in the present study, we hypothesized that when encountering a taller same-sex rival, shorter men would compensate for their disadvantages in height by showing more risk-taking behavior, and their mating motives would modulate such an effect in men.
    This hypothesis was tested by four behavioral studies. We measured risk-taking behavior by employing a well-validated and computerized laboratory task (i.e., Balloon Analogue Risk Task, BART). In Studies 1 and 2, male or female participants (176 participants in Study 1, and 246 participants in Study 2, respectively) were paired with taller or shorter same-sex opponents, and were asked to compete with their opponents in a computerized game (i.e., the BART task. In Study 3 (255 male participants), we further tested our hypothesis by situationally activating the mating motives of male participants (i.e., by watching videos depicting highly attractive females) and paired them with taller or shorter male opponents in the BART task as in Studies 1 and 2. In Study 4 (90 male participants), we further investigated the effects of chronic mating motive and the relative height disadvantage on men’s risk-taking by employing the Mate Seeking scale of Fundamental Social Motives Inventory.
    The results showed that: 1) male participants had significantly higher BART scores (i.e., the average numbers of pumps per unexploded balloon) when their opponents were taller; 2) such an effect was caused by the increase in risk-taking propensity when facing a taller opponent; facing a shorter opponent didn’t affect the risk-taking of male participants (also be compared to a no-height-info control); 3) the relative height difference between participants and their opponents did not affect the risk-taking of female participants; 4) situationally activating the mating motives of male participants significantly affected the effects of relative height disadvantage on male risk-taking, after watching the mating prime, male participants were more likely to elevate their risk-propensity to compensate for their disadvantage in height; 5) male participants with higher level of chronic mating motivation were also more likely to elevate their risk-propensity to compensate for the height disadvantage.
    The above results support our hypothesis, suggesting that men may have evolved a behavioral strategy to elevate their risk-taking propensity to compensate for their height disadvantage, and this strategy iswas driven by motives of intrasexual competition and mating. Our study thus provides further evidence for the evolutionary theory of Napoleon complex.

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    A meta-analysis of the effect of crowding on consumers’ emotional reactions and shopping-related behavioral reactions
    LIU Wumei, MA Zengguang, WEI Xuhua
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (10): 1237-1252.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01237
    Abstract4616)   HTML610)    PDF (858KB)(7220)      

    In the last few years, marketing scholars have been showing increasing interest in examining how crowding affects consumers’ emotions and behaviors. As a result, empirical literature on crowding has been growing rapidly. However, the crowding literature in Marketing has reported many inconsistent findings which need to be reconciled. The current meta-analysis paper aims to find out the reasons for heterogeneity in the findings of previous studies on crowding.
    In this meta-analysis paper, the authors analyzed 149 effect sizes from 38 Eastern and Western empirical studies and 81 samples. Each author independently coded the data and discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Based on the measures of crowding used in each individual empirical paper, the authors coded two types of crowding, namely, social crowding and spatial crowding. First, the authors analyzed the effect of social crowding and spatial crowding on consumers’ emotional reactions and shopping reactions. Next, the authors examined the potential moderation effects of several contextual and methodological factors, including types of shopping environment, the reality of research designs, and sources of research samples (western countries vs. eastern countries, students vs. non-students).
    This meta-analysis work obtained many interesting findings. First, this paper documents that social crowding significantly increased consumers’ negative emotions, but dramatically decreased consumers’ dominance. Social crowding was found to be positively correlated with the approach-related shopping responses (ρ = 0.208, N = 28624), and negatively correlated with consumer attitudes and willingness to shop (ρ = -0.135, N = 10094). Second, this paper documents that spatial crowding had a significant negative effect on avoidance-related shopping responses (ρ = -0.409, N = 3223), but had no significant influence on the approach- related shopping responses. Furthermore, moderation analyses showed that some of the aforementioned main effects were significantly moderated by types of shopping environment (utilitarian vs. hedonic), the reality of the context (virtual vs. real), and sources of research samples (western countries vs. eastern countries, students vs. non-students).
    To summarize, this paper makes several important theoretical advances. First, drawing on several psychological theories on individuals’ reactions to the crowding environment, this paper builds a relatively unified research framework on consumers’ reactions to crowding. More importantly, this paper also tests this framework via meta-analyzing the effects of social crowding and those of spatial crowding on consumers’ emotional reactions and shopping-related behavioral responses, respectively. The results suggest that the overall influence of crowding on individuals’ emotion and behavior is not as large as that reported in previous studies. Second, by examining the moderation effects of several situational and methodology-related factors, this paper is able to explain why prior literature on crowding has reported inconsistent findings. Finally, this meta-analysis work also puts forth several intriguing and testable future research opportunities. In addition to advancing theory, the current paper's findings also have practical implications. Companies and managers should consider reducing consumers’ spatial crowding perceptions of the shopping environment. However, it is not wise for firms to universally adopt a policy of decreasing consumers’ perceptions of pedestrian volume.

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    The relationship between musical training and inhibitory control: An ERPs study
    CHEN Jiejia, ZHOU Yi, CHEN Jie
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (12): 1365-1376.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01365
    Abstract4608)   HTML623)    PDF (4267KB)(9101)      

    Inhibitory control, a fundamental component of executive function, refers to the ability to control one’s attention and suppress internal and external interferences effectively to achieve the setting targets. It plays a crucial role in allowing us to adapt to the environment, and serves as a basis of other cognitive functions, such as reasoning, planning and learning. Moreover, several psychiatric disorders, such as addictions, attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder have been shown to involve deficits in inhibitory control. Thus, establishing ways in which inhibitory control can be improved constitutes an important issue for psychologist and medical scientist. In recent years, musical training has been suggested to be associated with improved executive functions, such as inhibitory control. However, the overall findings in these studies have been mixed. While some studies indicated a positive relationship between musical training and inhibitory control, other studies showed no facilitative effect of musical training. Importantly, however, inhibitory control is not a single function, but can be divided into response inhibition and interference control. Previous studies that assessed the relationship between musical training and inhibitory control failed to investigate these two separate components within the same experiment. Furthermore, its underlying neural mechanism remain elusive. Based on these considerations, the present study aimed to examine the relationship between musical training and inhibitory control through the Go/No-go (response inhibition) and Stroop (interference control) tasks by using event- related-potentials (ERPs).
    Experiments were carried out in an acoustically and electrically shielded room, and lasted approximately 40 minutes. In the Go/No-go task, participants had to press a keyboard button in response to white shapes (Go trials, 75%), while they had to inhibit responding to purple shapes (No-go trials, 25%). Each stimulus was presented for 500 ms with an interstimulus interval of 1000 ms. The experiment consisted of 320 trials, presented in a random order. Performance was evaluated using a Signal Detection approach by calculating perceptual sensitivity via: d′ = z(No-go hit rate) - z(Go false alarm rate). Higher d’ values indicate better response inhibition. In the Stroop task, participants were presented with Chinese color words (red, green, blue, yellow), printed in different colors. Stimuli were divided into word-color consistent trails (congruent, 50%) and word-color inconsistent trails (incongruent, 50%). A stimulus was presented for 1000 ms with a random interstimulus interval of 1000~1500 ms. Participants had to name the color in which the word was presented without paying attention to the word’s meaning. The experiment consisted of 240 trials, presented in a random order. The difference between accuracy in the congruent and the incongruent conditions is referred to as Stroop interference effect. Smaller effects are indicative of better interference control. The experimental sequence was balanced between participants.
    The behavioral results showed that music group had smaller interference effect than the control group in the Stroop task, while both groups performed similarly in the Go/No-go task. As for the ERP results, in Go/No-go task, the amplitudes of the N2 (N2d) and P3 difference waves, contrasting No-go and Go trials, were larger in music group than in control group. In the Stroop task, the amplitude of the N450 (N450d) difference wave, contrasting congruent and incongruent trials, were also larger in music group than in control group. However, the amplitude of the SP (SPd) difference wave, which serves as an index of conflict resolution, was similar between the two groups.
    The aim of present study was to explore the influence of music training on the cognitive and neural mechanisms governing inhibitory control. The present results supported the hypothesis that individuals that received music training had stronger conflict monitoring and motor inhibition abilities when completing the response inhibition task, as well as a better conflict monitoring ability when completing the interference control task. This indicates a potential association between music training and inhibitory control.

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    The establishment of Chinese Emotion Regulation Word System (CERWS) and its pilot test
    YUAN Jiajin, ZHANG Yicheng, CHEN Shengdong, LUO Li, RU Yishan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (5): 445-455.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00445
    Abstract4571)   HTML502)    PDF (906KB)(8164)      

    Implicit emotion regulation has become a hotspot of emotion regulation research recently. However, currently there is no standardized emotion regulation word system for researchers in the field of implicit emotion regulation. The purpose of this study is to establish a Chinese Emotion Regulation Word System (CERWS) by multi-dimensional ratings and analysis of emotional regulation words, and then to verify the effectiveness of the system by experiments.
    In Study 1, two hundred and twenty-six emotion regulation words (N = 226) were selected as preliminary materials by group discussion. Among them, 176 were judged as emotion regulation words that corresponded to five commonly used strategies (acceptance, distraction, venting, suppression and reappraisal) and 50 as neutral words. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (N = 128) rated the representativeness of words on five emotion regulation strategies. To ensure that the selected words are not mixed in strategic meanings, the words that exclusively represent one regulatory strategy or neutral meanings were selected into CERWS as emotion regulation words or neutral words, respectively. The words of CERWS were further rated by participants on the dimensions of valence, arousal, dominance, motivational tendency, familiarity and spelling complexity (N = 128). Thirty participants were randomly selected and retested one month later (N = 30).
    In Study 2, the emotion regulation effect of words in CERWS was further investigated. The regulatory effect of 5 strategies of CERWS on negative emotion was tested using a typical implicit emotion regulation paradigm (sentence unscrambling task). One hundred and ninety-six participants (N = 196) were involved in Study 2, who were divided into six groups (five implicit emotion regulation groups and one control group). Before viewing neutral and disgust pictures, the participants in implicit emotion regulation groups were required to complete the sentence unscrambling tasks to prime the emotion regulation strategy, while the participants in the control group were required to complete the sentence unscrambling task that was unrelated to emotion regulation.
    The CERWS was established in Study 1. One hundred and forty-nine emotion regulation words (N = 149) were selected into 6 groups (acceptance, distraction, venting, suppression, reappraisal and neutral) of CERWS. Comparing the attributes of emotion regulation words with those of neutral words, we found that five emotion regulation strategies had different affective connotation. For example, acceptance strategy was characterized by high pleasure, high dominance, high approach tendency and low arousal. In terms of gender differences, males were more pleasant with the words of distraction strategy, while females were more familiar with the words of acceptance strategy. The test-retest reliability was more than 0.7 after one month. The Cronbach’s α coefficients and Kendall’s coefficients of concordance of CERWS fit with relevant criteria. Moreover, results of Study 2 showed that implicit reappraisal and implicit suppression strategies decreased the emotional valence and arousal ratings significantly, and implicit distraction strategy decreased the emotional arousal ratings significantly.
    In conclusion, this study has established a standardized emotion regulation words system with good reliability. Moreover, this study has verified the regulatory effect of implicit reappraisal, suppression and distraction strategies on negative emotions, which provides a reference for the future use of the system.

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    Does conformity lead to gains? The effect of workplace ostracism on performance evaluation from a self-presentational view
    JIANG Ping, ZHANG Lihua
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (4): 400-412.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00400
    Abstract4567)   HTML303)    PDF (855KB)(5674)      

    Workplace ostracism is an increasingly widespread and serious social problem nowadays. Many studies have shown that being rejected in the workplace can significantly increase employees’ psychological stress, lead to health problems, and even cause deviant workplace behaviors, thereby ultimately damaging the normal operation of an organization and lowering organizational performance. However, existing research regarding the impact of workplace exclusion on individual performance has reached inconsistent conclusions; thus, this field involves hidden mechanisms that need to be further explored. To address this theoretical gap, we drew upon the self-presentational perspective and hypothesized that employees’ collectivism values strengthen the likelihood that employees will create facades of conformity when suffering from workplace ostracism. We further assumed that whether or not a supervisor is a collectivist determines how the employees’ creation of facades of conformity affect subsequent performance ratings.
    We tested these hypotheses in an experimental study and a field sample of supervisor-employee dyads. For the experimental study, we recruited 142 full-time Chinese workers in different industries as participants through the authors’ alumni networks. The respondents were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: the ostracism condition (N = 70) versus the inclusion condition (N = 72). Participants first completed a measure of collectivism values and reported their demographics. Then, they were asked to read a scenario from a computer screen, one which depicted a situation in which the participant was ostracized (or included) by team members in a hypothetical organization. After reading the scenario, participants finished the manipulation check of workplace ostracism and indicated the extent to which they would be likely to engage in creating facades of conformity. For the field study, we collected 254 dyadic data from a major air company in China at three time-spots. At Time 1, employees assessed perceived workplace ostracism and their collectivism values, as well as provided their demographic information. At Time 2 (one months after Time 1), employees rated their self-esteem level and the extent to which they create facades of conformity, conduct self-leadership, and implement impression management strategies. At Time 3 (one months after Time 2), supervisors provided a performance evaluation of the focal employee and their own collectivism values. We applied confirmatory factor analysis, regression analysis, and bootstrap methods via SPSS 22.0 and Mplus7.4 software to analyze the data.
    Empirical results supported our arguments that workplace ostracism was positively related to facades of conformity. The relationship between workplace ostracism and facades of conformity was stronger when employees had high levels of collectivism values. When supervisors themselves also hold high levels of collectivism values, the employees’ facades of conformity are positively related to the supervisors’ evaluations of job performance. Moreover, workplace ostracism has a conditional, positive indirect effect on supervisor evaluations of employee performance via employee facades of conformity, such that the indirect effect is positive only when both the employees’ and supervisors’ collectivism values are high.
    With these findings, we make several contributions to the literature and management practice. First, we offered a new explanatory mechanism for understanding the complex relationship between workplace ostracism and employee performance from a self-presentational perspective by examining the mediating role of creating facades of conformity. Second, our findings on the moderating effect of employees’ collectivism values provide explanations for the differential reaction to negative workplace experiences such as workplace ostracism. Third, by exploring the contingent role of leaders’ collectivism values, our study is among the earliest attempts to consider the role of bystanders in the ostracism process. Finally, we enrich the research field of conformity by examining new criteria, thereby providing a response to the call for investigating the antecedents and consequences of facades of conformity.

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    “Will I be judged harshly after trying to help but causing more troubles?” A misprediction about help recipients
    SHANG Xuesong, CHEN Zhuo, LU Jingyi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 291-305.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00291
    Abstract4503)   HTML635)    PDF (745KB)(7663)      

    In many cases, people intend to offer help but unfortunately cause more troubles to help recipients. After doing so, helpers often expect negative evaluations from help recipients. However, is this prediction accurate? The present research proposes a misprediction: helpers will overestimate the negative impacts (underestimate the positive impacts) of their behaviors on help recipients when they try to help but cause more troubles. The reason for this misprediction is that in contrast to helpers’ predictions about help recipients, help recipients pay more attention to helpers’ warmth and less attention to helpers’ competence.

    We conducted six studies (N = 1, 763) to test the proposed misprediction and test its underlying mechanism. Study 1 adopted a 2 (outcome: success or failure) × 2 (role: helper or help recipient) between-subjects design. Helpers predicted help recipients’ reactions (gratefulness, satisfaction, the likelihood to seek help again, the likelihood to recommend helpers to others), whereas help recipients rated their own reactions. The results showed a misprediction such that helpers exaggerated the negative reactions of help recipients. In addition, the misprediction was specific to failure. In the success condition, helpers made accurate predictions about help recipients’ reactions. These results also ruled out alternative explanations of the spotlight effect and social desirability bias.

    Studies 2a and 2b adopted an identical design to that in Study 1 and replicated the results in Study 1 in a different scenario by bounded and unbounded scales. In addition, we found the existence of the misprediction made by helpers in both proactive and reactive helping. Study 3 replicated the results by using indicators involving money.

    In Study 4, with an identical design to that in Study 1, helpers made predictions about how help recipients rated their warmth and competence, whereas help recipients rated helpers’ warmth and competence. Afterwards, helpers predicted help recipients’ reactions, whereas help recipients rated their own reactions. The results showed that helpers underestimated help recipients’ ratings of warmth and competence in the failure condition and that this underestimation accounted for the overestimation of help recipients’ negative reactions.

    In Study 5, we recorded participants’ real-time thoughts during their prediction or rating process. We found that helpers considered their competence (warmth) earlier and more (later and less) than help recipients, indicating that helpers focused more on their competence and less on their warmth when making predictions about help recipients than help recipients did. The query order and content accounted for the overestimation of help recipients’ negative reactions in the failure condition.

    We show that people who try to help others but eventually cause more troubles mispredict the reactions of help recipients. Helpers overestimate the negative consequences (underestimate the positive consequences) of their behaviors to help recipients. We also reveal the underlying mechanism of this misprediction that helps recipients pay more attention to helpers’ warmth and less attention to helpers’ competence compared to helpers’ predictions about help recipients. Understanding this misprediction helps alleviate the concerns of helpers when they are intended to offer help but actually do harm to others and helps promote subsequent helping behaviors.

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    Early life environmental unpredictability and overeating: Based on life history theory
    LUO Yijun, NIU Gengfeng, CHEN Hong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (10): 1224-1236.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01224
    Abstract4492)   HTML474)    PDF (550KB)(7353)      

    According to life history theory, organisms face necessary trade-offs in allocating limited energy and resources between somatic effort and reproductive effort. How an individual allocates resources to cope with survival and reproductive tasks reflects their life history strategies. In unpredictable environments, individuals tend to invest more in reproductive efforts and prioritize immediate payoffs because the future is uncertain, and the delayed benefits may not be available later. Food may be considered an immediate reward and overeating may more likely occur among people living in unpredictable environments. Our research investigated how early life environmental unpredictability affects overeating and the underlying mechanism between the association.
    Study 1 recruited 91 adolescent participants and utilized the Eating in the Absence of Hunger protocol (EAH). Participants were randomly assigned either to the “hunger” or “absence of hunger” groups. Both groups completed a food portion choice task. Participants were presented with photographs of 36 food types (18 high-calorie and 18 low-calorie), where participants chose their desired food portion on each picture from 0 (none) to 4 (four portions). Results indicated that the hunger state could moderate the effects of early life environmental unpredictability on overeating. Specifically, (a)in hunger state, environmental unpredictability was not associated with selected high-calorie/unhealthy food portion, while participants living in high environmental unpredictability selected more high-calorie/unhealthy food portion than those living in low environmental unpredictability, i.e., overeating; (b)in hunger state, participants living in high environmental unpredictability selected less low-calorie/healthy food portion than those living in low environmental unpredictability, while in the absence of hunger state, environmental unpredictability was not associated with selected low-calorie/healthy food portion. Hence, our results, on the one hand, supported the initial hypothesis that early life environmental unpredictability could promote overeating in the absence of hunger state. On the other hand, our findings demonstrated that individuals in the hunger state would be more impulsive, selecting less healthy food.
    Study 2 examined differences in overeating between participants with high and low perceived death threat states. The former group was comprised of 301 community residents from Wuhan City, the epicenter of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The latter group was comprised of 179 community residents from the 42 other cities in China. Participants completed questionnaires regarding early life environmental unpredictability, fast life history strategy (Mini-K), overeating, perceived death threat, and social support. Results indicated that early life environmental unpredictability may affect overeating through the mediating role of fast life history strategies. Moreover, perceived death threat and social support may moderate the path between fast life history strategies and overeating. Evidently, participants with both high and low death threats, fast life history strategies were positively associated with overeating; however, the effect was smaller for the latter grouping. For individuals with high social support, fast life history strategies were not associated with overeating; while for individuals with low social support, fast life history strategies were positively associated with overeating. Findings indicated that environmental unpredictability in early life was positively associated with overeating through fast life history strategies. Additionally, this effect intensifies when the current environment is life-threatening; while the effect would be buffered for individuals with high social support. Findings provided evidence for the prevention and intervention of healthy eating promotion in the context of COVID-19.

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    Eliminating threat or venting rage?The relationship between narcissism and aggression in violent offenders
    LIU Yuping, LI Shanshan, HE Yun, WANG Doudou, YANG Bo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 244-258.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00244
    Abstract4429)   HTML741)    PDF (771KB)(9465)      

    Narcissism is a component of “the dark triad” and it is closely related to maladaptive and even antisocial behaviors. Aggressive behavior is a typical anti-social behavior, and serious aggression constitutes violent crime. Narcissism is often divided into grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Aggression also has many subtypes, such as premeditated and impulsive aggression. Previous studies have shown that narcissists are aggressive, especially when facing provocation. On the one hand, narcissists feel threatened when they are challenged. To maintain their ego and eliminate threat, narcissists may show aggressive behavior, which is explained by the theory of threatened egotism. On the other hand, when challenged, narcissists also show strong negative emotions because of their inflated but fragile ego, leading to out-of-control behaviors and even triggering them to attack others, which is the so-called “narcissistic rage.” However, most studies are in the background of Western culture, and the participants are mainly college students. Most judicial field studies use questionnaires, and experimental studies to confirm the relation of narcissism and aggression are lacking. The mechanism how they operate is also unknown. Previous studies failed to make distinctions of the subtypes of narcissism and aggression, especially the subtype of vulnerable narcissism. To overcome the disadvantages of previous studies, this study explored the relationship between narcissism and aggression with a questionnaire in experiment 1 and analyzed the manipulating function of provocation with a competitive response time in experiment 2.

    In study 1, we administered the Narcissism Personality Inventory-13, Hypersensitivity Narcissistic Scale, The Trait Anger Scale, Entitlement Scale, and Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scales in 498 violence offenders to establish a structural equation model. Then, the significance of effects was examined using Bootstrap to explore the relationship between narcissism and aggression and its mechanisms. In study 2, we recruited 90 violent offenders for scenario-based experiment. Participants were randomly divided into a provocation group (n = 46) and a no-provocation group (n = 44). Participants in both groups completed the questionnaire for narcissism. Then, they finished the first stage to manipulate provocation. Participants were told to compete with another participant (a fake participant) in racing the speed of reactions. In the provocation group, participants lost the game and received negative feedback from their rivals; in the no-provocation group, participants won the game and received positive feedback from their rivals. Then, they completed the questionnaire for manipulation testing and measured negative affect and perceived threat for the mediating variables. Finally, they finished the second stage in which they could send their rivals’ noises, which can be considered as the aggressive indicator.

    Experiment 1 showed that narcissism can predict aggression and that the trait anger and entitlement play multiple mediating roles. Significant effects were found in the mediating paths of grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→trait anger→premeditated aggression, grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→trait anger→impulsive aggression, and grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→entitlement→premeditated aggression. However, the effect of the mediating path grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→entitlement→impulsive aggression was not significant. Compared with grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism was a stronger indicator of premeditated and impulsive aggression. Experiment 2 showed that under provocation, grandiose narcissism and aggression exhibited significant correlation. Meanwhile, perceived threat and negative affect served a mediating function. Grandiose narcissism cannot predict aggression behaviors if not provoked, but the mediating role of perceived threat was still significant. For vulnerable narcissism, the influence on aggression and the mediating role of perceived threat and negative affect were all significant whether provoked or not.

    The following conclusions can be obtained from the two experiments: (1) The association between narcissism and aggression was still effective in violent offenders in Chinese culture; (2) “Threatened egotism” and “Narcissistic rage” could explain the relationship between narcissism and aggression. In specific, “threatened egotism” could predict premeditated aggression rather than impulsive aggression, and “narcissistic rage” could predict both subtypes of aggression; and (3) Vulnerable narcissism was non-adaptive, exerting a larger effect size on aggression and a wider applicability compared with grandiose narcissism. Researchers should pay attention to the effects of vulnerable narcissism on maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression, and distinguish the subtypes of narcissism and aggression. Furthermore, the above results could be used in the prevention of crime and the management and correction of criminals by judicial practice departments.

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    Reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment among single-parent children in China: A longitudinal study
    XIONG Meng, LIU Ruojin, YE Yiduo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 67-80.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00067
    Abstract4147)   HTML512)    PDF (567KB)(8537)      

    Increasing divorce rates in China have led to greater numbers of children growing up in single-parent homes. Previous studies have indicated that such single-parent children reported greater senses of relative deprivation and more psychological adjustment problems than their counterparts in undivided families. However, few studies have yet examined associations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment and their directions. We thus explored characteristics of relative deprivation, psychological adjustment, and associations among them over 1.5 years beginning March, 2017. A sample of 273 single-parent children (50.5% boys) was recruited from two primary schools and two junior middle schools in Hubei, China. Attrition was relatively minor, namely, 93.4% of participants completed all surveys during three assessment waves.
    Participants provided self-report data on individual and group cognitive and individual and group affective relative deprivation, and depression, loneliness, social anxiety, and self-esteem, as well as demographic variables (i.e., gender, academic period, and family economic status). All the measures had good reliability and validity. Results indicated that relative deprivation of single-parent children was not obvious, and psychological adjustment was generally good. Boys reported higher levels of depression and loneliness than girls. Moreover, single-parent children with poor family economic status reported higher levels of relative deprivation, depression, and loneliness, as well as lower levels of self-esteem than their counterparts.
    To explore the possible reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment, as well as to separate between-person effects from within-person effects, we analyzed data by using the random intercepts cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM). Results showed that there were reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment at the within-person level when controlling for between-person effects and key demographic variables. Specifically, initial relative deprivation significantly negatively predicted psychological adjustment at Time 2, which in turn negatively predicted relative deprivation at Time 3. Moreover, relative deprivation at Time 2 also negatively predicted psychological adjustment at Time 3. These reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment did not differ by gender and academic period (i.e., primary or secondary school). However, the association between psychological adjustment and relative deprivation was stronger for single-parent children with poor family economic status than for those with good family economic status.
    These observations expand the understanding of the complex relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment among single-parent children in China. Additionally, they have important implications for intervention and improvement of mental health for vulnerable groups, especially single-parent children. For instance, programs that aim to improve the mental health of single-parent children and to reduce the levels of relative deprivation among this vulnerable group may be helpful in breaking the detrimental cycle between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment.

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