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    The influence of shame on deceptive behavior: The role of self-control
    FAN Wei,REN Mengmeng,XIAO Junze,JIAN Zengdan,DU Xiaoming,FU Xiaolan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (9): 992-1006.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00992
    Abstract9991)   HTML180)    PDF (1000KB)(12310)      

    Shame, as a typical moral emotion, has an influence on individual behavior that is both complex and controversial. Previous studies have found that shame produces both an unpleasant experience and a moral emotion that encourages individuals to produce positive behaviors. In recent years, Hooge’s research has proceeded from the perspective of motivation. He believes that, no matter how shame makes individuals perform, their motivation is to restore and protect the damaged self. Therefore, based on Hooge's theory, this research will examine this typical immoral behavior as an example to discuss the impact of shame upon it and its ways.

    In this study, students from a university were randomly selected as participants, and the number of each experiment’s participants was arranged according to the experimental requirements. Questionnaires and behavioral experiments were used throughout the experiment, and the experimental procedures were completed in accordance with the regulations of each experiment. The requirements for each experiment were different and the procedures for conducting the experiment were different. The statistical methods of the study were also based on the requirements of each experiment.

    Experiment 1 examines whether shame has an effect on deceptive behavior. Its results show that the number and tendency of deception in the shamed group were significantly lower than in the control group. To more fully explore the impact of shame on deceptive behavior in different contexts, Experiment 2 improved upon the deficiencies of Experiment 1 and divided shame situations into two types: moral anomie and lack of ability. It was found that the number of deceptions in the moral anomie shamed group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and the number of deceptions in the lack of ability shamed group was significantly higher than that in the control group. To examine the specific methods and mechanisms of shame in affecting deception, we propose that shamed individuals increase their self-control resources and, thus, reduce the theory of fraud. Experiment 3a examined the impact of shame on self-control resources and found that the self-control resources of the shamed group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Experiment 3b explored the specific mechanisms of shame affecting deceptive behavior. It was found that self-control resources played a complete mediating role in the process of shame in affecting deception.

    In summary, these findings suggest that shame can deter deception under certain conditions. The condition is that shame is caused by moral disorder rather than lack of ability; the mechanism of shame in affecting behavior may be: Individuals who feel shame will restore and protect the damaged moral self by mobilizing more self-control resources to influence behavior.

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    Mediating roles of gratitude, social support and posttraumatic growth in the relation between empathy and prosocial behavior among adolescents after the Ya’an earthquake
    Wenchao WANG,Xinchun WU
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 307-316.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00307
    Abstract7752)   HTML79)    PDF (646KB)(9265)      

    Empathy refers to the traits, or tendencies, of a person to affectively experience emotions of concern at the suffering of others and to cognitively adopt another person’s perspective. Possession of empathy has been assumed to encourage prosocial behavior. The mechanisms by which empathy affects prosocial behavior for adolescent survivors of disaster, however, are unclear. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was considered a common positive change following trauma events and was identified as having a high prevalence rate in various trauma types. After experiencing natural disasters, individuals with high empathy are more vulnerable to their adverse environment and the traumatic situations of others. This results in more psychological pressure and fear, and these pressures and negative emotions force individuals to think about the meaning of trauma, thus promoting the generation of PTG. The emergence of PTG brings positive behavioral change among survivors after the disaster. Therefore, it was suggested that empathy may exert indirect effects on prosocial behavior through PTG.
    According to current theories, empathy has different emotional and cognitive components. When individuals empathize with others, these components are activated, which may lead to gratitude and, in turn, result in prosocial behavior. As a moral barometer, gratitude informs the beneficiary that a benefactor has bestowed a gift. The prosocial behavior of a benefactor toward a beneficiary is thought to produce gratitude within the beneficiary. This then stimulates the beneficiary’s prosocial behavior, further strengthening the benefactor’s own prosocial behavior.
    Furthermore, traumatized survivors with greater empathy may improve communication with others, increase the sense of intimacy, and perceive more support from others—meaning that empathy may lead individuals to have more social support. Social support refers to an individual’s perception of the support provided by others. That perception can be influenced by gratitude. Adolescents with low social support are more likely to interpret other people’s ambiguous actions as aggressive. Thus, stable social relationships seem to promote PTG and prosocial behavior. Taken together, it is possible that empathy can promote prosocial behavior through gratitude, social support, and PTG in post-disaster contexts. The utility of these predictions, however, was unclear.
    To examine the relation between empathy, gratitude, social support, PTG and prosocial behavior, this study used an interpersonal reactivity index scale, gratitude questionnaire, social support questionnaire, posttraumatic growth inventory and prosocial behavior questionnaire to assess 542 adolescents following Ya’an earthquake. The results indicated that after controlling the trauma exposure, empathy have a positive association with prosocial behavior through the following routes: three one-mediator paths of gratitude, social support and PTG, respectively; three two-mediator paths of gratitude via PTG, social support via PTG and gratitude via social support, and one three-mediator path from gratitude to PTG via social support. These findings suggested that following a natural disaster, adolescent survivors’ empathy may have an indirect and positive relation with prosocial behavior by gratitude, social support and PTG.

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    Adaptive time management: The effects of death awareness on time perception and intertemporal choice
    WANG Peng,WANG Xiaotian,GAO Juan,LI Xialan,XU Jing
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (12): 1341-1350.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01341
    Abstract6175)   HTML40)    PDF (599KB)(7360)      

    Death awareness refers to thinking about and the recognition of the inevitability of personal death. As a critical component of the human-unique ability of autonoetic consciousness, death awareness can be viewed as a cognitive adaptation for time management. We hypothesize that activating death awareness may affect intertemporal choice, in which people make tradeoffs between rewards across different time points. Such effects of death awareness on intertemporal choice may be mediated by time perception, a subjective assessment of the speed of time passage. In this research, we investigate the impact of death awareness on time perception and intertemporal choice, and the relationships among them.
    Study 1 examined the relationship between death awareness and time estimation. Eighty-three college students were randomly assigned to either a death awareness activation group where mortality was made salient to the participants or a control group where the participants imagined their toothache experience. After a word-search distraction task, the participants in both groups completed a time-passage (400ms, 800ms, 1200ms, 1600ms) estimation task. The results showed that the participants in the group of death awareness activation gave significantly shorter estimates than the participants in the control group.
    Study 2 (n = 123) extended the measure of time perception to a more extended period and also measured the delay discounting rate of the participants from their intertemporal choices between a smaller-and-sooner reward and a larger-and-later reward. The participants were randomly assigned to either a death awareness activation group or a toothache awareness activation group. The participants then indicated how long ten years was to them by marking on a line with the statement “10 years is very short” on the left end side of the line and the statement “10 years is very long” on the right end side. The participants in the death-awareness activation group marked the line closer to the left end (“life is short”) than those in the control group. As predicted, the participants in the death-awareness activation group had a lower delay discounting rate and were more future-oriented in making intertemporal choices. Moreover, bootstrapping analysis revealed a partial mediation effect of time-passage estimation between death awareness and delay discounting.
    In conclusion, death awareness serves adaptive functions in time management. Activating death awareness makes people feel that time passes more quickly and promotes future-oriented decisions.

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    Good and evil in Chinese culture: Personality structure and connotation
    JIAO Liying, YANG Ying, XU Yan, GAO Shuqing, ZHANG Heyun
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (10): 1128-1142.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01128
    Abstract5738)   HTML50)    PDF (1030KB)(6969)      

    The ideas of good and evil characteristics have a long history in Chinese language and culture, with these characteristics considered to be two aspects of the Chinese personality. Abundant descriptions of good and evil characteristics can be found in human nature. However, the specific structures of good and evil concepts have not yet been delineated clearly and detailed studies on these concepts are limited. A careful definition is important with regard to what comprises a good or evil personality and to understand the psychological structure of the two concepts.

    A lexical approach was applied to determine constitutes a good or evil personality in Chinese culture. In Study 1, a set of 3, 240 good and evil personality descriptors was selected from The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary and accompanied by daily life expressions. The list was condensed into 62 good and 65 evil items following evaluation and selection by 12 psychology graduates. In Study 2, we explored the dimensions of a good personality using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with Sample 1 (n = 313) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with Sample 2 (n = 518). Results revealed that good personality contained four dimensions: conscientiousness and integrity, altruism and dedication, benevolence and amicability, and tolerance and magnanimity. We refined the four-dimensions good personality lexical rating scale, which contained 27 items. In Study 3, we used the same method as in Study 2 to explore the structure of an evil personality (EFA: Sample 1, n = 367; CFA: Sample 2, n = 269). Results showed the evil personality contained four dimensions: atrociousness and mercilessness, mendacity and hypocrisy, calumniation and circumvention, and faithlessness and treacherousness. Thus, we employed a 28-item evil personality lexical rating scale. The internal consistency, reliability, and criterion-related validity of the two scales were verified.

    The study found four-factor structures of good and evil personalities using the lexical approach and psychometrics methods, which contributes to knowledge on personality. In China, Confucius regarded benevolence as the highest moral principle for a person. Therefore, good and evil traits are embedded naturally in the personality structure of Chinese people. Understanding the structure of good and evil is useful for researchers interested in Chinese culture and for studies in Chinese indigenous psychology.

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    The effect of bimodal divided attention on inhibition of return with audiovisual targets
    Xiaoyu TANG,Jiaying SUN,Xing PENG
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 257-268.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00257
    Abstract5192)   HTML15)    PDF (713KB)(5260)      

    Inhibition of return (IOR) has been greatly explored in the visual or auditory modality. Investigations on spatial IOR even have extended to the cross-modal link between visual and auditory information processing. The present study examined the generation and variation of IOR effects when targets from the visual and auditory modalities were presented simultaneously (audiovisual targets). In addition, it explored the effect of bimodal divided attention on IOR with audiovisual targets by directing the attention to different modality to form two conditions of attention.
    The present study consisted of 3 experiments. In these experiments, we mainly manipulated the target modalities (including visual, auditory, and audiovisual modalities) and cue validities (including cued, neutral, uncued). Thirty-seven college students in Liaoning province were recruited in Exp. 1. The visual (V) target was white horizontal square wave grating (4° × 4°; the spatial frequency was 1 cycle/degree), the auditory (A) target (duration of 100 ms) was a 1000 Hz sinusoidal tone presented by the speakers. The audiovisual (AV) target was composed by the simultaneous presentation of both the visual and the auditory stimuli. During the experiment the fixation stimulus was presented for 800~1000 ms in the center of the monitor. Following the fixation stimulus, uninformative exogenous visual spatial cues were presented between 400~600 ms prior to the onset of targets for 100 ms at the left or right location. Then, the probability of the target (A, V, or AV) appeared for 100 ms in the center was 0.6 (No-go trials), the probability of the target may occur on left or right location was 0.2 (Go trials). The participants were instructed to pay attention to both V and A modalities, then respond to the target stimulus in the left or right location by pressing the response button as quickly and accurately as possible. Thirty-two college students were recruited in Exp. 2. The auditory stimuli were unattended and presented peripherally. Thirty-nine college students were recruited in Exp. 3. The auditory stimuli were unattended and presented centrally, the others were identical to that in Exp. 2.
    Based on the results of accuracy (ACC), it can be seen that the overall ACC was very high in Exp. 1. The mean ACC of AV targets was significantly higher than to either V or A targets. According to the results of reaction times (RTs), the mean RT of AV targets were significantly faster than to either V or A targets as expected, indicating the appearance of the bimodal advancement effect. For V targets, the RTs in the cued condition were slower than those in the uncued condition, demonstrated a typical IOR effect. There weren’t IOR effect elicited by AV targets when paying attention to both V and A modalities (Exp. 1). From the results of the relative amount of multisensory response enhancement (rMRE), we found a larger rMRE in the cued condition than that in the uncued condition. In Exp. 2 and Exp. 3, we found the comparable IOR with V and AV targets when the simultaneous auditory stimuli were unattended and presented peripherally or centrally. In addition, we found the comparable rMRE with V and AV targets when the simultaneous auditory stimuli were unattended and presented peripherally or centrally.
    These results suggested that the IOR effect elicited by AV targets was reduced when paying attention to multiple modalities. However, when auditory stimuli were unattended, there was no difference between the visual and audiovisual IOR effects. Based on the aforementioned findings, it indicated that bimodal divided attention can influence IOR with audiovisual targets.

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    Optimization and asymmetry effects of reward and punishment on control attention: Evidence from eye movements
    ZHANG Kuo,ZHAO Ying,WANG Jingxin,
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (11): 1207-1219.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01207
    Abstract4816)   HTML14)    PDF (740KB)(5910)      

    A wealth of research shows that positive and negative reinforcement critically influence behavior. While it is well established that rewards and penalties can strongly influence mechanisms of executive control, it is unclear whether these two factors exert symmetric or qualitatively distinct behavioral effects. In the current research, we conducted two eye-movement experiments to investigate the influence of monetary reward or punishment on attentional control. We employed these cues in Pro/Anti-saccade tasks in Experiment 1 and Go/No-go tasks in Experiment 2. Crucially, we investigated how either a reward (also referred to as “gain”) or penalty (also referred to as “loss”) influenced inhibitory control in the following trial.

    In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to produce simple pro-saccades or more difficult anti-saccades, in conditions in which they received a reward for correct responses or a punishment for incorrect responses or either a reward or punishment. The results showed that, while the accuracy of the pro-saccades was facilitated by reward, the accuracy of the anti-saccades was facilitated by punishment. And the velocity of pro-saccades and anti-saccades were significantly improved by both reward and punishment. In Experiment 2, we further adopted the Go/No-go tasks to explore how reward and punishment affect attentional control via exogenous parafoveal visual cues. This showed essentially the same pattern of effects as Experiment 1. For the Go task, saccade latency significantly decreased when rewards were given relative to punishment or no motivation conditions. And for the No-go task, accuracy increased more in the punishment condition compared to the reward or no motivation conditions. An increase in saccade velocity was observed in the no motivation condition, similarly to in Experiment 1.

    In sum, the overall results suggest that both reward and punishment can facilitate the oculomotor control, although the findings reveal a striking asymmetry in the effects of the reward and punishment on behavior. Specifically, positive reinforcement appears to improve approach behaviors, while punishment influences inhibitory behavior. These findings suggest that the two forms of reinforcement are distinct in their influence on behavior.

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    The mechanism of retro-cue effect in visual working memory: Cognitive phase separation
    YE Chaoxiong,HU Zhonghua,LIANG Tengfei,ZHANG Jiafeng,XU Qianru,LIU Qiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (4): 399-413.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00399
    Abstract4730)   HTML19)    PDF (1381KB)(4795)      

    Retro-cue effect (RCE) refers to the phenomenon that individuals can use retro-cues to improve their visual working memory (VWM) performance of target items after the disappearance of memory targets. To explain the mechanism of RCE in VWM, five different hypotheses have been proposed by previous studies: the hypothesis of enhancing target representations, the hypothesis of forgetting non-target representations, the hypothesis of preventing memory degradation, the hypothesis of preventing interference from probe array and the hypothesis of cognitive phase separation. Although RCE has been repeatedly observed in previous studies, the mechanism of RCE remains unclear. In this study, we conducted three experiments to test these hypotheses.

    In Experiment 1, participants were asked to memorize four colors in a recall task. They needed to recall the color of the target item when the probe array presented. There are three experimental conditions, the normal cue condition, the short interval no-cue condition, and the long interval no-cue condition. In the normal cue condition, a memory array (four colored squares) presented for 200 ms. Then, the memory array disappeared for 450 ms and a retro-cue presented, followed by a 900 ms blank. Then the probe array presented. In the short interval no-cue condition and long interval no-cue condition, no retro-cue presented after the memory array, but the probe array would present after the memory array disappeared for 450 ms (short interval no-cue condition) or 1400 ms (long interval no-cue condition). The design and procedure of Experiment 2 were similar to those of Experiment 1, except we used a grey-wheel cue condition and a colored-wheel cue condition to replace the long interval no-cue condition. These two new conditions were similar to the normal cue condition, except the retro-cue would appear with a distractor of a gray wheel (grey-wheel cue condition) or with a distractor of a colored wheel (colored-wheel cue condition). The design and procedure of Experiment 3 were similar to those of Experiment 2, except a long-grey-wheel short-cue condition and a long-grey-wheel long-cue condition were used to replace the normal cue condition and colored cue condition. In the long-grey-wheel short-cue condition, the retro-cue presented for 100 ms, but the grey wheel presented for 1000 ms. In the long-grey-wheel long-cue condition, the retro-cue and grey wheel presented for 1000 ms.

    The results of Experiment 1 showed that there was no significant difference in memory performance between the short interval no-cue condition and long interval no-cue condition, while the performance of the normal cue condition was better than that of short and long interval no-cue conditions. The results of Experiment 2 showed that participants obtained the RCE under the normal cue, the grey-wheel cue, and the colored-wheel cue conditions. However, the degrees of RCE obtained by these three conditions were different (normal cue > grey-wheel cue > colored-wheel cue). The results of Experiment 3 showed that participants obtained the RCE under the grey-wheel cue condition, the long-grey-wheel short-cue condition, and long-grey-wheel long-cue condition. The degree of RCE obtained by these three conditions was the same.

    The results of the present study supported the hypothesis of cognitive phase separation, which suggested that the retro-cue can separate the internal attention reallocation process and decision-making process, avoiding cognitive interference from the probe display. In addition, when the retro-cue was accompanied by the distractors, the type of distractors (rather than the presentation time) affected the degree of RCE. This study provides further evidence for the hypothesis of cognitive phase separation, which is crucial to solve the debate on the mechanism of RCE and to understand the relationship between attention and VWM.

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    Classroom bullying norms and bullying behavior:The mediating role of fear induced by group identity and peer pressure
    ZENG Xinran,WANG Yue,DING Junhao,ZHOU Hui
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (8): 935-944.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00935
    Abstract4693)   HTML118)    PDF (654KB)(6278)      

    Evidence from past years has documented that group factors, such as group norms, are related to bullying in schools. Studies have revealed that groups’ bullying norms positively predicted individuals’ bullying behaviors. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. Studies have documented that peer pressure mediates the relationship between bullying norms among friends and cyber bullying. Moreover, when conflict is inevitable, fear leads to aggressive behavior. Therefore, the current research included two studies to clarify the relationship between classroom bullying norms and bullying behavior.

    In the first study, a scenario-based experiment was conducted. A total of 89 male and 97 female primary school students in grades 4 through 6 were invited to participate in the study. Participants were randomly divided into the bullying norm priming group and the control group. After priming, participants in both groups completed the questionnaires addressing fear induced by group identity, peer pressure, and bullying behavior. Students from 23 classes were invited to participate in Study 2. A total of 459 males and 422 females (62 were lacking gender data) from grades 4, 5, 6, and 8 completed the questionnaires on classroom bullying norms, peer pressure, and bullying behavior. HLM version 7.0 was used for the hierarchical linear model.

    The results of Study 1 showed that (1) participants in the bullying-norm priming group showed higher levels of bullying behavior, peer pressure, and fear induced by group identity than those in the control group; (2) fear induced by group identity and peer pressure was positively associated with bullying behavior; (3) after controlling for the effect of gender, peer pressure marginally but significantly mediated the relationship between classroom bullying norms and bullying behavior at the 95% confidence level (β = 0.064, p = 0.063). The result of Study 2 demonstrated that the mediating effect of peer pressure was significant at both the individual and the classroom level, even after controlling for the effect of gender. Specifically, (1) the indirect effect of peer pressure accounted for 22.24% of the total effect at the individual level and (2) the indirect effect of peer pressure accounted for 28.35% of the total effect at the classroom level.

    The results of both studies highlighted the mediating role of peer pressure in classroom bullying norms and bullying behavior. The current study is the first to identify this mediating mechanism. The findings of the present study suggest that classroom norms and peer pressure deserve more attention in further prevention and intervention addressing school bullying.

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    Outstanding others vs. mediocre me: The effect of social comparison on uniqueness-seeking behavior
    GONG Xiushuang,ZHANG Honghong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (5): 645-658.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00645
    Abstract4577)   HTML10)    PDF (707KB)(5733)      

    Uniqueness-seeking behavior can be driven by various factors. Despite the common phenomenon that better-off individuals seem to seek more uniqueness and express individuality more frequently, no researcher has investigated whether and how social comparison influences uniqueness-seeking behavior. According to the better-than-average effect, people tend to perceive themselves better off than the average on many important dimensions and are inclined to see themselves as unique when there are no social comparisons. Building on the compensatory consumption model, we aim to investigate the impact of social comparison on uniqueness-seeking behavior, and further examine why this effect occurs as well as when it will be attenuated or intensified.
    In social comparisons, comparing upwardly (vs. downwardly) may threaten individuals’ pervasively held better-than-average self-evaluation bias, which motivates them to adjust their self-evaluations downwardly to the average. Prior research suggests that the average is mostly seen as ordinary, mediocre and unexceptional. Therefore, we infer that people comparing upwardly may experience a decreased sense of uniqueness, which drives them to seek unique options in subsequent unrelated contexts. This effect holds for many dimensions, such as economic status. In that case, perceived economic mobility acts as an important moderator. We predict that when perceived economic mobility is high, threats induced by upward comparisons will be mitigated, as are individuals’ psychological and behavioral responses. However, when perceived economic mobility is low, the responses will be intensified.
    Across five experiments, we demonstrate that upward comparisons increase consumer preference for less popular scenic spots (Study 1). The psychological mechanism underlying this effect is that upward comparisons lower perceived uniqueness, leading individuals to choose minority-endorsed products to compensate for the negative self-discrepancy (studies 2a and 2c). The fundamental driving force of the main effect is that upward comparisons increase consumers’ uniqueness-seeking tendency (Study 2b). Furthermore, when comparing upwardly on economic status, consumers still show stronger preference for niche book clubs, and the effect of social comparison on perceived uniqueness and uniqueness seeking will be mitigated when perceived economic mobility is high but is strengthened when perceived economic mobility is low (Study 3).
    The present research provides evidence that upward comparisons can lead to uniqueness-seeking behavior by examining the mediating role of perceived uniqueness, supporting our basic premise that individuals perceive themselves as unique when making no comparisons. In doing this, we make theoretical contributions to research on both uniqueness seeking and the strategies for coping with upward comparisons. This also sheds light on marketing strategies that enterprises can employ to increase sales of unpopular or customized products as well as coping strategies that consumers can use to alleviate threats of upward comparisons on different dimensions.

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    The influence of parent-child relationship and “good resource” on unmarried males’ unrestricted sociosexual attitudes
    WANG Yan,HOU Bowen,LIU Wenjin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (2): 207-215.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00207
    Abstract4363)   HTML25)    PDF (663KB)(4613)      

    As a Chinese popular saying goes, “Money turns a good man into a bad man”. Is this saying reflecting the truth or not? This research would discuss this phenomenon from the evolutionary perspective.

    “Good Resource” has been regarded as one of the most important aspects that males self-evaluate in the mating process. However, little has been known regarding whether and why male mating strategy would vary under different levels of resource availability. According to Life History Theory, the development of humans’ sexual strategy is based on childhood experiences, which would be influenced by current environmental conditions as well. According to previous research, two studies explored how resource-acquiring cues and childhood experiences (including childhood economic condition and parent-child relationship) would influence unmarried males’ unrestricted sociosexual attitudes.

    Study 1 adopted the imaginary method, recruited 62 college students (M = 19.53 years, SD = 2.78) in a psychology class at Fudan University. Participants were randomly divided into two groups and filled their demographic information including childhood economic background and parent-child relationships, followed by the task of writing an article. The article was based on the imagination of living either a wealthy life or an underprivileged life. Participants completed the questionnaire adapted from the SOI-STMO (Sociosexual Orientation Inventory - Short-term Mating Orientation Scale; Jackson & Kirkpatrick, 2007) after writing the article. The results showed that parent-child relationship during early childhood was a moderator in the association between the quality of resource and their sexual attitudes. However, the moderating effect of childhood economic background was not found to be statistically significant.

    Study 2 utilized Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures questionnaire (ECR-RS) to explore the moderating effect of attachment styles on the association between the quality of resource and participants’ sexual attitudes. Participants were randomly divided into two groups and filled out their demographic information including childhood economic background and the ECR-RS. Participants were presented with three pictures that showed either “good” or “bad” resource, wrote an article regarding the experience, and completed the questionnaire adapted from the Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale (Hendrick, Hendrick, & Reich, 2006). Participants’ photos of their own face were integrated in those pictures to increase a sense of authenticity. According to the results, avoidantly-attached behaviors in the early childhood had the most significant moderating effect on the relationship between resource-acquiring capability and participants’ sexual attitudes. To be specific, highly avoidant participants were more likely to have more open sexual attitudes if they had “good resource.” Those on the lower end of avoidance tended to show a significant lower level of unrestricted sexual attitudes under the situation of “good resource” (vs “bad resource”).

    Given these two studies, the previous statement of “Money turns a good man into a bad man” seemed to be true only for those who showed an avoidant attachment style to their parents at the young age. The current study aimed to enrich the Life History Theory literature and provide useful implication and direction for future studies.

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    The role of masking stimulation in target recognition processing: Evidence from fNIRS
    YANG Haibo,LIU Hejun,ZHANG Peng,LI Liang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (11): 1187-1197.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01187
    Abstract4286)   HTML12)    PDF (8556KB)(5235)      

    When our visual system processes target signals, it usually receives large amounts of irrelevant information from the target, leading to a reduction in the visibility of the target. A wealth of research has shown that visual search for target letters against a masking background is largely determined by the masker type. Informational maskers, such as either randomly positioned and oriented letters or randomly distributed letter fragments, induce stronger masking effects on recognition of target letters than the energetic maskers do, such as the random-phase masker (same spectral amplitude composition as the letter masker but with the phase spectrum randomized) or the random-pixel masker (the locations of the letter maskers’ pixel amplitudes being randomized). However, the mechanisms under informational masking and those under energetic masking are still unknown.

    The current study examined both cortical activities and behavioral performances in the visual search task, which is determined by whether one of four letters presented at four symmetrically-located positions differs from the others under three masking conditions (random pixels, letter fragments, and random letters). Both the oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO) responses in the primary visual cortex (V1) and secondary visual cortex (V2) with a functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) were recorded. Twenty (4 males, 16 females) healthy adults (mean age: 22.5 ± 1.67 years) participated in the experiment. Each masking condition contained 5 blocks, and each block contained 8 trails. There was a resting phase of 20 seconds between the two blocks. Spatial registration methods were applied to localize the cortical regions underneath each channel and to define two regions of interest (ROIs), which are the primary visual cortex (V1) and secondary visual cortex (V2).

    The behavioral results showed that the performance of recognizing target letters improved when the masker type shifted from random letters to letter fragments and to random pixels, suggesting that the letter masker interfered the most with performance than the letter fragment and random-pixel maskers. The random-pixel masker caused the least masking effect. The fNIRS results showed that both letter masker and letter-fragment masker produced an increase in cortical oxygen level. Many regions of interest (ROIs), particularly the visual cortex (including V1 and V2), were more activated under the letter or the letter-fragment masking condition compared to the random-pixel masking condition. Moreover, the differences in cortical activation between the masking conditions further suggested that the V1 and V2 are the critical brain regions involved in visual letter search and informational masking of letter recognition.

    To summarize, this study used fNIRS to explore the cortex activation patterns of different types of masking on target recognition. The results showed that information masking had much more interference on visual search and caused greater processing loads in primary and secondary visual cortex, compared with energy masking under the same conditions. Furthermore, the differences between letter fragments masking and letters masking are reflected in the activation mode of V1 and V2 regions.

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    Do more contacts bring stronger contact intention? It depends on valence and efficacy
    HUANG Fei,WANG Changcheng,SHI Kuankuan,HALIKE Ababaikere,LI Linpeng
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (11): 1256-1268.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01256
    Abstract4259)   HTML9)    PDF (796KB)(4906)      

    Since they are critical components of today’s societies, interethnic relations can exert a great effect on the stability and harmony of a given social system. For multi-ethnic countries like China, achieving harmonious relations among different ethnic groups is an important but difficult task. Intergroup contact has been confirmed as one of the most effective prejudice reduction strategies across different target groups, situations, and cultural contexts, especially when the four optimal conditions, equal status, cooperation, common goals, and institutional support, are present. However, past contact research is biased because its predominant focus is on positive contact; insufficient attention has been paid to the examination of negative contact, especially in China. Moreover, much of the prior research has focused on intergroup contact from the perspective of majority groups. To address these limitations, this article tested the effects of positive and negative contact from the points of view of both majority and minority groups, and intergroup efficacy was examined as a mediator in positive and negative contact effects.

    Two studies were conducted within two interethnic backgrounds on six samples in total. They were 448 Han (Mage = 20.3, SD = 1.66) and 375 Uyghur (Mage = 21.7, SD = 1.75) from several inland cities, and 791 Han (Mage = 20.1, SD = 1.23) and 901 Uyghur (Mage = 20.8, SD = 1.19) from Xinjiang Province of Study 1, 957 Han (Mage = 15.7, SD = 1.80) and 565 Hui (Mage = 15.9, SD = 1.91) from Ningxia Province of Study 2. All participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring their positive and negative interethnic contact experiences, interethnic self-efficacy, and intention of interethnic contact. All the measures in the present study showed good reliability and validity for each sample. Data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics, dependent t-test, correlation coefficients comparison, and path analysis to test the hypotheses related to the valence of contact and the role of efficacy.

    he results indicated that: (1) the quantity of positive interethnic contact was significantly much more than negative interethnic contact in all six samples. The weighted average effect size measured by Cohen’s d was 1.75. (2) The correlations between positive interethnic contact and intention of interethnic contact in all six samples were positively significant with medium sizes; the correlations between negative interethnic contact and intention of interethnic contact in all six samples were negatively significant with small sizes, with weighted average rs 0.57 and -0.24 respectively. (3) Valence asymmetry effect showed positive interethnic contact’s effects on enhancing intention of interethnic contact were greater than negative interethnic contact’s effects on weakening intention of interethnic contact. The weighted average r difference was 0.38. (4) Positive and negative interethnic contact exerted significant indirect effects on intention of interethnic contact via interethnic self-efficacy with weighted average indirect effects of 0.13 and -0.08 respectively; positive and negative interethnic contact could also affect intention of interethnic contact directly. (5) Positive and negative interethnic contacts’ effects on intention of interethnic contact were stronger among Han compared with Uyghur in Xinjiang, and positive contact’s effect was significantly lower among Han than Hui in Ningxia. No significant differences were found between majority and minority samples in inland samples on both effects, and no significant difference was found in Ningxia samples on negative contact’s effect. In general, the moderation effect of the majority-minority status was not supported.

    Research into the effects of positive and negative interethnic contact and the mediating role of interethnic self-efficacy demonstrates both theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically, conducting research taking into positive and negative interethnic contact simultaneously could not only serve as a response to the call for strengthening negative contact research, but more importantly, it enriches intergroup contact theory through acquiring evidence from Chinese ethnic background and contributes to a comprehensive understanding of intergroup contact. Practically, the findings presented above suggest that to achieve harmonious interethnic relations, effective measures can be taken to promote positive interethnic contacts and prevent negative interethnic contacts through increased interethnic self-efficacy or directly enhancing the contact intention.

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    The pursuit of fame at the expense of profit: The influence of power motive and social presence on prosocial behavior
    WANG Jianfeng, DAI Bing
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (1): 55-65.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00055
    Abstract4050)   HTML11)    PDF (557KB)(5581)      

    Power motive often aims at status and superiority and has been associated with antisocial decision-making, dehumanization of others, infidelity, and aggressive behaviors. In light of such findings, it is not surprising that the power motive has acquired a bad reputation. However, there is also a benevolent, prosocial side to power that has not received equal attention. From the beginning, researchers have emphasized the dual nature of power motive: people realize their power motive in either an antisocial or a prosocial direction. Although the stereotypical picture associated with power implicates a kind of offensively aggressive and imperious behavior, such behavior is unlikely to result in sustainable strategic condition beneficial to attaining and maintaining dominance, and cannot typically characterize individuals mainly driven by power motive. Instead of self-serving or egotistical actions, behavioral strategies in a socially preferable manner would advantage power motivated individuals to achieve the ultimate goal. On the contrary, egocentric behavioral strategies can impress other individuals with antisocial characters, such as imprudence and arbitrariness. 
    Research has shown that social presence (e.g., a subtle cue of being watched) has a significant influence on individuals’ behavior in social dilemmas. Specifically, it has been observed that individuals’ tendency to engage in prosocial behavior increases when acting under conditions of a social presence. With respect to social presence, reputation has been discussed as a critical factor determining individuals’ tendency to contribute to a public good and to behave prosocially. The relevant argument holds that individuals are willing to invest private resources under conditions where they can expect to build a positive reputation that may be beneficial in (future) social interactions involving indirect reciprocity. For example, research has demonstrated the status benefits of selfless behavior. Individuals pursue status by enhancing the apparent value they provide to their group and compete for status not by bullying and intimidating others, but by behaving in ways that suggest high levels of competence, generosity, and commitment to the group. This seemingly selfless behavior leads to them being perceived as more generous in their groups and, in turn, leads to a higher status and a good reputation. Therefore, individuals who sought reputation and status attained them by acting strategically prosocially.
    The present work builds on previous research on social presence and reputation and addresses the question of whether the effect of power motive on prosocial behavior is dependent on social presence. In essence, the current work put the assumption to the test that, under conditions where a subtle cue of being watched (study 1) or public situation (study 2) render reputational concerns salient, individuals are more likely to act in fairness (study 1) or cooperation (study 2) if they have a higher level of power motive. In contrast, under anonymous conditions, individuals’ power motive should not be related to fair and cooperative behaviors. The results confirmed our hypothesis that under conditions where a subtle cue of being watched or in a public situation, high power motive individuals, relative to low power motive participants, allocated more money to interactive partners in the ultimatum game and provided higher provision levels of public goods in the public good game. On the contrary, under anonymous conditions, no significant relationship was found between individuals’ power motive and fair and cooperative behaviors.
    The results suggest that people with high power motive also exhibit prosocial behaviors in consideration of strategies of reputation and status. The present work demonstrates that power motive can play a critical role in social dilemma situations. Moreover, the findings emphasize that one must take the specificity of a situation into account (particularly, whether social presence as a situational factor influences individuals’ decisions) in order to explain individuals’ behavior in dilemma situations.

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    The attention bias effect of infant face: The mechanism of cuteness and familiarity
    LEI Yi, XIA Qi, MO Zhifeng, LI Hong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (7): 811-822.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00811
    Abstract4046)   HTML0)    PDF (1473KB)(4622)      

    Previous studies found attention bias towards an infant’s face among parents and non-parents. Ethologist Konrad Lorenz proposed the concept of “baby schema,” indicating that the rapid reaction towards an infant’s information is an innate releasing mechanism. The follow-up research found that the attention bias effect was affected by individual differences, such as gender, characteristics, hormones, etc. However, little is known about an infant’s facial features and the impact of those features on the attention bias.
    This study investigates the influence of cuteness and familiarity on the attention bias effect towards an infant’s face. A 2 (cuteness:high cuteness, low cuteness) × 2 (familiarity: high familiarity, low familiarity) within subject design was used in this study. Before the formal experiment, according to 31 participants’ rating of cuteness after pictures of infants’ face with high and low cuteness were shown. The familiarity of faces was manipulated by infant face learning. There were 35 participants in our formal experiment and each participant completed 3 parts: infant facial images learning and recognition task, dot probe task, and rating task. This study used eye-movement tracking and subjective ratings to investigate the influence of cuteness and familiarity of infant’s faces on the preference/ attention bias effect towards an infant’s face by comparing the attention bias indexes under four conditions in the dot probe task.
    The dot-probe task indicated that compared to adult’s faces, participants reacted quicker when the target was presented at the same location with an infant’s face. The reaction time bias under the high-cuteness infant face condition was stronger than the low-cuteness infant face condition. The eye-movement tracking results showed that participants preferred looking at the high-cuteness infant faces, indicating first fixation duration bias and the total gaze duration bias. However, there was no significant difference in the direction of eye movement and first fixation latency bias. These results implied an attention maintenance pattern for high- cuteness infant faces. Furthermore, this pattern only existed under the low-familiarity condition. The attention bias effect between high and low-cuteness infant faces was not significantly different under the high-familiarity condition. For the rating of cuteness, infant faces with high-familiarity were rated as cuter than the low-familiarity infant faces, regardless of their cuteness.
    In conclusion, our experiment identified that the cuteness of infants’ face influences the effect of attention bias towards an infant’s face under the low-familiarity condition. Regarding the preferences, there may be a dissociative situation between subjective rating and gazing behavior.

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    The influence of dopaminergic genetic variants and maternal parenting on adolescent depressive symptoms: A multilocus genetic study
    CAO Yanmiao, ZHANG Wenxin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (10): 1102-1115.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01102
    Abstract4032)   HTML15)    PDF (805KB)(4930)      

    For decades, there is increasing evidence for the importance of single-gene by environment interactions (G × E) in understanding the etiology of depression. However, several concerns have been raised about the ignoring the polygenic traits of depression when conducting G × E research using single loci. Within this context, the multilocus genetic profile score (MGPS) have recently emerged as an approach of capturing polygenic nature across multiple genes. In line with the monoamine deficiency hypothesis, recent research has begun to show that the combined effects of multiple dopaminergic genetic variants are stronger than the influence of any single gene examined in isolation. Additionally, genes related to the functioning of the dopaminergic system, which coordinates individual’s response to stress. However, existing G × E research has largely focused on adverse family environments (i.e., maltreatment, maternal unresponsiveness) and to a lesser extent on positive environment, such as positive parenting. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the interaction between dopaminergic genetic variants and maternal parenting on adolescent depressive symptoms, by adopting the approach of multilocus genetic profile score.

    Participants were 1052 mother-offspring (adolescents mean age 12.31 ± 0.37 years old at the first time point, 50.2% females) dyads recruited from the community. Youth completed assessments twice with an interval of one year. Saliva samples, self-reported depressive symptoms and mother-reported parenting were collected. All measures showed good reliability. Genotyping in three dopaminergic genes were performed for each participant in real time with MassARRAY RT software version and analyzed using the MassARRAY Typer software version 3.4 (Sequenom). To examine whether multilocus genetic profile score moderates the effects of parenting on adolescent depressive symptoms and whether this potential moderating effect act in a diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility manner, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. We also tested above questions by recoding into categorical variables and re-conducted analyses.

    The results found that multilocus genetic profile score was a significant risk factor of depression, with higher dopamine genetic risk scores (indicating lower dopaminergic neurotransmission) predicting higher levels of depression. After controlling for gender and prior depressive symptoms, the G × E effect with positive and negative parenting were also significant, suggesting that G × E interaction significantly predicted change in depression level between Time 1 and Time 2. Specifically, adolescents with higher MGPS exhibited higher risk for depression when encountered with lower levels of positive parenting and higher levels of negative parenting, compared to their counterparts with lower MGPS. The results support the diathesis-stress model and highlight the complex ways that genes and environment interact to influence development.

    These finding underscores complex polygenic underpinnings of depression and lends support for the mulitlocus genetic profile scores-environment interactions implicated in the etiology of depressive symptoms.

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    Scene effects on facial expression detection: The moderating effects of trait anxiety
    LI Wanyue,HAN Shangfeng,LIU Shen,YANG Yaping,ZHANG Lin,XU Qiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (8): 869-878.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00869
    Abstract4024)   HTML58)    PDF (1238KB)(4971)      

    Facial expressions are fundamental emotional stimuli. They convey important information in social interaction. Most previous studies focused on the processing of isolated facial expressions. However, in everyday life, faces always appear within complex scenes. The emotional meaning of the scenes plays an important role in judging facial expressions. Additionally, facial expressions change constantly from appearance to disappearance. Visual scenes may have different effects on the processing of faces with different emotional intensities. Individual personality traits, such as trait anxiety, also affect the processing of facial expressions. For example, individuals with high trait anxiety have processing bias on negative emotional faces. The present study explored whether previously presented visual scenes affected the identification of emotions in morphed facial expressions, and whether the influences of visual scenes on the identification of facial expressions showed differences between individuals with high and low trait anxiety.

    Using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), we placed 29 participants who scored in the top 27% in the high trait anxiety group (9 men and 20 women; mean age 19.76 ± 1.3 years) and 28 participants who scored in the bottom 27% in the low trait anxiety group (11 males and 17 females, mean age 19.71 ± 1.2 years). The images of faces (4 models, half male and half female) used in this study were selected from the NimStim Set of Facial Expressions. The face stimuli showed typical happy, neutral, and fearful expressions. Facial expressions were morphed to create a series of gradually varied images of facial expressions. Specifically, fearful face (100%) versus neutral face (0%) and happy face (100%) versus neutral face (0%) were morphed in 20% increments. In addition, 40 surrounding scene images were used, with 20 positive scenes and 20 negative scenes. In the face-emotion detection task, participants were asked to determine whether the emotion from the faces presented after the scenes were fearful, happy, or neutral.

    For the repeated measure ANOVA of the accuracy for facial expression detection, the results showed scene effects on the identification of emotions in facial expressions. The scene effects were varied between the different intensity of face emotion: for the emotionally vague faces, the detection of happy and fearful expression showed significant scene effects; for the faces with moderate emotional intensity, only the detection of the fearful faces showed significant scene effects; for the intense emotions on faces, there was a significant effect on happy and neutral faces but not on fearful faces. Trait anxiety as an individual factor was found to play a moderating role in the identification of facial expressions. For the high trait anxiety group, there were no significant differences in the accuracy of emotional detection between congruent and incongruent conditions. This means that the high trait anxiety group did not show significant scene effects. The low trait anxiety group showed a significant difference in the accuracy of identification of emotions in facial expressions between congruent and incongruent conditions, i.e., significant scene effects.In summary, the present study demonstrated that, for facial expressions with low emotional intensity, the identification of happy and fearful faces was more likely to be affected by visual scenes than the identification of neutral faces. Visual scenes were more likely to affect the identification of moderately fearful faces than moderately happy faces. Trait anxiety played a moderating role in the influence of visual scenes on emotional detection of facial expressions. Specifically, individuals with high trait anxiety were less affected by surrounding visual scenes and paid more attention to facial expressions.

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    Effects of embodied simulation on understanding Chinese body action verbs
    WANG Bin,LI Zhirui,WU Limei,ZHANG Jijia
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (12): 1291-1305.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01291
    Abstract3957)   HTML2)    PDF (858KB)(3902)      

    Recent approaches on embodied cognition and theories of semantic and conceptual “grounding” have emphasized the role of perceptual and motor skills in language comprehension and action understanding. Evidence on the role of sensorimotor information in language processing has been obtained from behavioral and neuroimaging studies. These findings have been taken as a support for the claim that language is understood through sensorimotor simulations of actions and events being described. The theory on Perceptual Symbol Systems holds that the sensorimotor system participates in the language comprehension process, which is an empirical simulation of a situation through a series of complex language cues. Chinese characters may show different characteristics from English words because semantic radicals are linked with the meaning of these characters. These semantic radicals may affect the embodied effect of Chinese characters.
    In the study, authors used single-character body action verbs in Chinese as experimental materials. Body action verbs are words that use body parts to perform mechanical movements. The directional semantic feature of body action verbs reflects the direction of physical space and can be perceived. Experiment 1 investigated the influence of semantic direction on the spatial judgment of an arrow direction in the motion channel under whole word priming. The repeated measurement design of 2 (Chinese character embodied direction: up/down) × 2 (arrow direction: up/down) was adopted. Thirty-five participants volunteered in this study. Experiment 2 investigated the influence of semantic orientation on the spatial judgment of letter orientation in visual channels under whole word initiation. The repeated measurement design of 2 (Chinese character direction: up/down) × 2 (letter position: up/down) design was used. Thirty-eight participants took part in this experiment. Experiment 3 investigated the embodied simulation of the semantic radical and whole character under the radical priming paradigm. Chinese body action verbs formed by semantic radicals “扌” and “?” were used as experimental materials. A within-subject design of 2 (priming type: semantic radical’s priming/control priming) × 3 (character type: consistent/inconsistent) × 3 (SOA: 43 ms/72 ms/243 ms) was used. Before the behavioral experiment, the participants were asked to hold their hands up for one minute to reinforce the bodybuilding experience of having their hands above and their feet below. Character type shows the direction and orientation between the character and its semantic radical. Consistent character type means that the character and its semantic radical have a similar direction and orientation. For example, the semantic radical “?” means “foot, ” which is below the body. Thus, “蹲” is a consistent character, whereas “跳” is an inconsistent character.
    Results suggest the following: (1) When Chinese characters are in a downward semantic direction, the downward arrow is judged faster than the upward arrow. When characters are in an upward semantic direction, the direction of the arrow has a null effect. (2) Chinese characters with upward semantic movement can be used to recognize upper letters more quickly and characters with downward semantic movement can be used to recognize lower letters more quickly. (3) In the middle and late stages of Chinese character processing, the response of consistent and inconsistent Chinese characters is significantly different, indicating that the semantic radical is activated from the middle stage of the Chinese character processing until the late stage.
    The present findings demonstrate the following: (1) An action-character compatibility effect is present in Chinese body movement verbs in the movement and visual channels. Understanding Chinese body movement verbs is a cross-channel embodied simulation process. (2) The semantic radical activation of the phonogram starts from the middle stage to the late stage of Chinese body action verb processing. A semantic understanding of Chinese body action verbs has an embodied simulation at the whole character and component (semantic radical) levels.

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    Exploring ideas of embodied psychology in Chinese Mythology
    Jiajia SU,Haosheng YE
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 386-398.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00386
    Abstract3942)   HTML17)    PDF (772KB)(4452)      

    Which branch of science does psychology fall under? Does China practice psychology? How should China establish its own scientific discipline of psychology? These three questions urgently need to be resolved since the birth of psychology. With the current development of Western psychology, the rise of ‘embodied cognition’ has allowed us to foresee the greatest possibility of Chinese-Western psychological dialogue and the establishment of China’s own discipline of psychology. The ‘embodied cognition’ of Western psychology is closely related to the ‘body-knowing’ ideas existed in Chinese culture with the concept of ‘nature-human integration’ as the core, whereas Chinese culture has its own body elements that are different from the Western culture. The source of culture is indeed a myth. This study attempts to explore the ‘embodied wisdom’ of Chinese traditional culture from the visual threshold of Chinese myths. The objective is to make a sound basis for the comprehensive scientific orientation of psychology, contributing to the integration of psychology and establishment of China’s own scientific discipline of psychology.
    On the basis of a purely embodied psychological position, this study is summarised in three parts. Firstly, from the ontological dimension, the phenomenological interpretation method is used to describe how a mythical body is generated, and the myth of world, things and human origin are used as the example to reveal the ontological characteristic of China’s ‘body’ (monism). Secondly, from the spatial dimension, theory of conceptual metaphor is used to analyse how the mythological body phenomenology field is extended, and the perspectives of things and human beings are one, nature and human beings are one and Gods and human beings are one demonstrate the spatial characteristic of China’s ‘body’ (theory of Qi). Finally, from the time dimension, social construction theory is used to deconstruct that how the mythical body is changed in the time field and from the three levels of social, cultural and history to express the time characteristic of China’s ‘body’ (theory of Yi).
    Since the ancient times, Chinese culture and Western culture have been two different points, obviously. It is impossible naturally for Chinese people to produce ‘epistemology’ in the Western sense of ‘observing knowledge’, because the soil foundation of Chinese culture is ‘ontology’ (experiencing knowledge). China’s ‘monism’ emphasises that the body contains the soul, and the soul embodies the body, which means that the body and soul are perceived as one. From the perspective of Chinese creation myth, China’s ‘body’ can be viewed as the ‘Tao’, the body possesses the ‘power’ and the body also owns ‘will’. China’s Qi theory emphasises that the Qi is full of the three worlds, namely heaven, earth and human beings, hence, from the perspective of Chinese mythology, human beings are integrated with everything, human beings and nature share the same destiny and human beings and gods are connected. China’s Yi theory emphasises that change itself is constant, which due to the meaning of relations always outweighs the meaning of elements in Chinese philosophy. Thus, cultural imagery, social thinking and historical sense existed in China’s creation myth are also the result of the human body’s real-time construction. Inferred from ancient Chinese mythology, the Chinese people know that this world is based on the changing cosmic schema of the ‘body-human beings-things-gods’, which means that the ontological, spatial and temporal dimensions are all dissolved at the starting point of the body. Therefore, China’s ‘embodied psychology’ ideas pay attention to ‘nature-human integration’ in the sense of ontology. So, there is only one body clearly embodied in the world of Chinese traditional culture. Thus, we will no longer be able to judge Chinese psychological ideas under the standards of Western psychology.
    In summary: (1) psychology should be a unified study that combines natural and humanities science, in which the potential representative is embodied cognition; (2) the integration path of psychology must draw on the wisdom of embodied ideas of psychology that have existed in ancient Chinese culture, especially in the root of the Chinese mythology; (3) China must combine the creative transformation of Chinese and Western embodied psychology to establish the discipline of Chinese scientific psychology.

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    The underlying mechanism of emotions on co-representation in joint actions
    Xiaolei SONG,Xiaoqian JIA,Yuan ZHAO,Jingjing GUO
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 269-282.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00269
    Abstract3882)   HTML17)    PDF (768KB)(4280)      

    Joint action is a common phenomenon that involves two or more people cooperating together to achieve a common goal in our daily life. The action representation of co-actors play an important role in joint actions. Self-other integration, as a type of cognitive process, is the foundation of the joint action. Moreover, emotion can influence not only cognitive processes but also social interactions (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). Therefore, it is worthy to investigate whether different types of emotion play an important role in joint action.
    Three experiments were conducted in the present study to explore the influences of different dimensional of emotions on joint actions. A total of 48 participants were recruited in Experiment 1a to investigate the change of co-representation ability in joint action under conditions of high level of arousal with high/low level of valence. Joint Simon task was used to measure the ability of co-representation, and PANAS and Affect Grid were used to measure the level of emotional valence and arousal. In Experiment 1b, 48 participants were recruited to further explore the effect of low arousal with different valences on joint actions. In Experiment 2, another 48 participants were recruited to explore the effect of the dimension of motivation on joint actions under the condition of high arousal and high valence.
    The results of Experiment 1a showed that high arousal improved Joint Simon effect (JSE) significantly regardless of the valence, which indicated that high arousal played an important role in joint actions. Experiment 1b revealed that high valence played a compensating role under the condition of low arousal. The results of combined analyses of experiment 1a and 1b showed that high arousal could be a key factor in enhancing the ability of co-representation. Experiment 2 found that, only under the condition of low motivation, high arousal with high valence could significantly improve JSE.
    In conclusion, these results indicate that (1) high level of emotional arousal is the key factor in improving the ability of co-representation in joint actions regardless of the level of emotional valence; (2) high level of emotional valence played an compensating role under the condition of low level of arousal to maintain the level of co-representation; (3) the high arousal is not the determined factor in the enhancement of the co-representation and moderated by motivation intensity as well; and (4) When completing joint action, emotions adjusts the referential coding of co-actor through regulating range of attention so that influences the ability of co-representation, which further confirming the referential coding account.

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    Warmth or competence? The influence of advertising appeal and self-construal on consumer-brand identification and purchase intention
    Zhenzhong ZHU,Fu LIU,Chen Haipeng (Allan)
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 357-370.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00357
    Abstract3826)   HTML22)    PDF (796KB)(4410)      

    This paper examines the influence of self-construal on the effectiveness of warm/competent advertising appeals on consumer-brand identification and purchase intention, its underlying mechanism and boundary conditions. Specifically, we propose that a warm (competent) advertising appeal should enhance consumer-brand identification and purchase intention among interdependent (independent) consumers through increased pleasure. In addition, this interaction effect between advertising appeal and self-construal should be mitigated when firm type (modern vs. traditional) is made salient. This is because for modern firms all consumers should prefer a competent advertising appeal, whereas for traditional firms all consumers should prefer a warm advertising appeal, regardless of their self-construal. Three experiments provide empirical support for these predictions, and rule out several rival explanations (including fluency, arousal and involvement).
    Study 1 uses a 2 (advertising appeal: warmth/competence) × 2 (self-construal: independent/dependent) between-subject design. A fictitious shampoo brand “Pantam” is selected as the focal stimulus, and the experimental materials are in the form of a print advertisement. In order to minimize the confounds of experimental results by advertising design, both warm and competent ads adopt the same layout and text length. We recruit 116 participants, manipulate the advertising appeal by designing different patterns, backgrounds and ad copies, and measure participants’ self-construal using an existing scale. We confirm the proposed interaction between advertising appeal and self-construal on brand identification. While the results of Study 1 are supportive of our prediction by using a utilitarian product, in a follow-up study we replicate these results using a hedonic product (i.e., chocolate), demonstrating the robustness of our results for different product types.
    Study 2 uses a similar between-subject design, using a toothpaste with a fictitious “MysPlant” brand name as the focal stimulus. In order to eliminate the possible confounds in Study 1, a new advertising copy is created. We recruit 149 participants, and manipulate advertising appeal and self-construal. Consistent with our prediction, we confirm the interaction between self-construal and advertising appeal on brand identification and purchase intention. We additionally support the proposed mechanism underlying the interaction effect that is due to an enhanced sense of pleasure, and rule out fluency, arousal, and involvement as possible rival explanations in this and a follow-up study.
    Study 3 uses a 2 (advertisement appeal: warmth/competence) × 2 (self-construal: independent/dependent) × 2 (firm type: traditional/modern) between-subject design to further test the moderating effect of firm type. Advertising appeal and self-construal are manipulated in similar fashions as in Study 2. The focal stimuli are also similar to those in Study 2. To minimize confounds, we manipulate firm type and verify our manipulation in a pretest. We recruit 278 participants for this study. The results provide support to the moderating effect of firm type and re-confirm the mediation effect of enhanced sense of pleasure. Specifically, we find that for a modern firm all consumers prefer a competent advertising appeal, regardless of their self-construal. In contrast, for a traditional firm whereas interdependent consumers prefer a warm advertising appeal, independent consumers’ preference for a competent advertising appeal is mitigated and they are indifferent between warm and competent advertising appeals. In addition, these effects are mediated by the sense of pleasure.
    Combined, the results from the three experiments (and the replications of Studies 1 and 2) provide strong empirical evidence for the interaction effect between self-construal and advertising appeal on consumer-brand- identification and purchase intention, the moderating effect of the salience of firm type on this interaction effect, and the underlying mechanism due to a sense of pleasure.

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    Language processing in normal aging: Contributions of information-universal and information-specific factors
    WU Hanlin, YU Zhou, WANG Xuejiao, ZHANG Qingfang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (5): 541-561.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00541
    Abstract3726)   HTML11)    PDF (822KB)(3517)      

    Language is a complex lifelong faculty supported by the general cognitive system as well as the dynamic interactions between comprehension and production processes within the language system. Studies reported that while normal aging impairs important aspects of language production, most core processes of comprehension are robust. However, accumulating evidence suggests a decline in comprehension when comparing older adults with young ones. Thus it is plausible to assume that there might be a general degradation in older adults’ language capacity. The information-universal theories assume that the aging of language is contributed by the declines in general cognitive abilities including processing speed, working memory and inhibitory function, while the information-specific theories highlight the unique changes of linguistic representations and their connections in the brain, which may result in decreased interplay between comprehension and production.
    The current study investigated the relationships among language comprehension capacity, production capacity, and general cognitive abilities, and explored the factors that influence the aging of language processing. We employed two groups of participants (103 young adults and 114 older adults), and measured their general cognitive abilities and language capacities with different tasks. General cognitive abilities were assessed in three dimensions: processing speed by color judgment and numerical judgment tasks, working memory by digit span forward and backward tasks, and inhibitory function by STROOP color-word judgment task. Language comprehension and production capacities were measured at word, sentence and discourse processing levels, respectively.
    We first compared the performance between the two age groups, and then conducted hierarchical regression analyses to examine the contributions of information-universal and information-specific factors to language performance. Results showed lower scores in older adults than their young counterparts on all measures. The first hierarchical regression analyses revealed that there were differences between the older and the young groups, which presented not only in the contributions of general cognitive abilities to language capacities but also in the contributions of comprehension and production capacities to each other. For word processing, young adults’ performance was predicted by both general cognitive abilities and the other language capacities, while the former did not predict older adults’ performance; for sentence processing, young adults’ performance was predicted by general cognitive abilities (only in comprehension) and the other language capacities, while neither of them explained older adults’ performance; for discourse processing, young adults’ comprehension scores were predicted by their production capacity, while older adults’ scores of comprehension and production were predicted by their general cognitive abilities and comprehension capacity respectively. Results of the second hierarchical regression analyses indicated that both general cognitive abilities and the other language capacities contributed to the group differences in language performance, and the contributions of the former were larger than those of the latter.
    In sum, older adults show an overall age-related decline in general cognitive abilities, language comprehension and production capacities. We suggest that the aging of language processing is subject to both the information- universal factor as well as the information-specific factor, with the former reflected as the general degradation in cognitive abilities and the latter related to specific changes in the architecture of language system.

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    The influence of weather and air pollution on honest behavior: A field experiment about lost wallets on campus
    ZHAO Yujie, GAO Yang, ZHOU Xinyue
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (7): 909-920.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00909
    Abstract3681)   HTML0)    PDF (502KB)(3612)      

    Honest behavior is a fundamental aspect of economic and social life. Although many countries have been committed to promoting civil honesty, there are still many dishonest behaviors that act as barriers to the development of society, such as broken promises, unenforced contracts and corrupt governments. In recent years, much research has been performed on the factors influencing people’s honest behaviors, such as social norms and emotions; however, these factors do not exist every time. The purpose of the current research was to explore how weather and air pollution influence honest behavior. We hypothesized that sunny weather would increase people’s honest behavior. In contrast, we hypothesized that air pollution would promote dishonest behavior.
    Two studies were conducted to test the hypotheses. In Study 1, we used second-hand experimental data published online. Cohn, Marécha, Tannenbaum and Zünd conducted field experiments to test the relationship between civil honesty and money worldwide, and the research was published in Science in 2019. They measured whether recipients contacted owners to return wallets. Weather and air pollution data, however, were not analyzed in their research. Considering the availability and different standards of many countries’ air pollution data, we used Chinese and American experimental data (N = 1400) and corresponding weather and air quality indexes to test the hypotheses. In Study 2, we used a quasi experiment to test the influence of weather and air pollution on honest behavior. We randomly left campus cards and money in classrooms before class and recorded the weather and air pollution conditions at three Chinese universities (N = 407). In addition, we used whether recipients took the campus card or money as an indicator of honest behavior. Moreover, different kinds of classes were included in this study since previous research indicated that different classes might affect students’ honest behavior.
    The results of Study 1 indicated that participants were more likely to contact the owner to return the wallet during sunny weather than during cloudy weather. In addition, air pollution also affected the participants’ honest behavior. The results indicated that the more serious the air pollution was, the less likely it was that people would voluntarily return the wallets. Study 2 further replicated this result and suggested that participants were more likely to take the campus card or money under cloudy weather and air pollution conditions. There was no significant difference among the classes in terms of honest behavior in this study. In conclusion, sunny weather promotes honest behavior, but air pollution reduces honest behavior.

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    Trust is valued in proportion to its rarity? Investigating how and when feeling trusted leads to counterproductive work behavior
    Chen CHEN,Xin ZHANG,Liping SUN,Xin QIN,Huiru DENG
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 329-344.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00329
    Abstract3594)   HTML36)    PDF (870KB)(4150)      

    Trust is a crucial part of interpersonal relationships within work environments. Previous research has revealed that feeling trusted, or “the perception that another party is willing to accept vulnerability to one’s actions,” by one’s supervisor benefits both subordinates and organizations in various ways such as enhancing organization-based self-esteem and improving individual and organizational performance. While extant research has provided insightful knowledge to help us understand the beneficial effects of feeling trusted, we know little about its potential drawbacks. We suggest that scholars may have overstated the benefits of feeling trusted and overlooked its potential costs. Thus, several important questions are arisen: When dose feeling trusted induce employees subsequent counterproductive work behavior (CWB), and Why? Drawing upon self-evaluation theory and trust literature, we propose that feeling trusted by their supervisors may promote employees’ psychological entitlement, which leads to subsequent CWB. Furthermore, we consider the perceived rarity of trust as a boundary condition and suggest that when employees perceive the rarity of trust is high, feeling trusted is more likely to make them feel psychologically entitled, thus leading to CWB.
    To test our theoretical model, we conducted three studies, including two experiments (i.e., Study 1 and 2) and one multi-wave, multi-source field study (i.e., Study 3) among diverse samples. In Study 1, we invited 115 full-time employees through the alumni networks of several large universities in China to participate our experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: the feeling trusted condition (n = 58) versus the control condition (n = 57). Feeling trusted was manipulated by the critical incident technique. Each participant was required to recall and describe a recent interaction with their supervisor. Next, participants completed an ostensibly unrelated task (filler task) and reported psychological entitlement, manipulation check, and demographics. In Study 2, we recruited 145 full-time working adults as participants from the United States using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Participants first reported the perceived rarity of trust in their organizations. Then, they were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions (the feeling trusted condition [n = 73] versus the control condition [n = 72]) and were subjected to the same manipulation and questionnaire as those defined in Study 1. In Study 3, we employed a multi-wave, multi-source design to test our full model in a field setting using a Chinese employee sample. At Time 1, the employees reported feeling trusted, perceived rarity of trust, psychological entitlement, and demographics. Approximately one week later (Time 2), their supervisors were invited to rate subordinates’ CWB. The final sample included 187 employees from 60 workgroups.
    The results of the studies revealed that feeling trusted positively influenced subordinates’ psychological entitlement, which in turn enhanced their subsequent CWB. Subordinates perceived rarity of trust moderated the effect of feeling trusted on psychological entitlement. Furthermore, subordinates perceived rarity of trust moderated the indirect effect of feeling trusted on CWB. That is, the positive indirect effect of feeling trusted on CWB via subordinates’ psychological entitlement was significant and positive when perceived rarity of trust was high and did not exist when perceived rarity of trust was low.
    This research makes several important contributions. First, we challenge the consensus regarding the universally positive effects of trust by suggesting that feeling trusted may have the potential to induce subordinates CWB. In doing so, this research provides a more dialectical perspective in understanding the effects of feeling trusted. Second, not only do we examine the potentially negative effects of feeling trusted, but we also examine when and why this effect unfolds. By exploring the dynamics of feeling trusted, we answer Bare et al.’s call for more research on feeling trusted. Finally, this research contributes to CWB literature by identifying an important but neglected antecedent of CWB in the workplace. We suggested that beyond leaders’ negative behaviors (e.g., abuse and injustice), their positive behaviors (i.e., expressed trust) may lead to subordinates’ CWB.

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    Preview processing of between words and within words in Chinese reading: No word highlighting effect
    GUAN Yiyun, SONG Xini, ZHENG Yuwei, ZHANG Yingliang, CUI Lei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (9): 969-981.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00969
    Abstract3503)   HTML18)    PDF (923KB)(3230)      

    In the present study, readers’ eye movements were recorded to investigate the influence of word highlighting information on the preview processing of between-words and within-words.

    Most studies on preview effects have found that the size of the preview effects is 30~50 ms. Hy?n? et al. (2004) examined parafoveal processing of the end lexeme of a long Finnish compound while the beginning lexeme of the compound was fixated. And the results found 80ms preview effect which was more pronounced than previous literatures. The larger preview benefit may have been due to the fact that the preview word is part of one larger linguistic unit (within-words); however, in previous experiments, the preview word and the current fixated word belong to different words (between-words). Consequently, researchers speculated that within-words might induce larger preview effect than that of between-words. Some researchers used compound words (within-words) and phrases (between-words) to further explore this issue and they found that there were no differences between within-words and between-words in preview effects. The results cannot exclude the possible explanation that larger preview effect for within-words is caused by the higher syntactic expectations of nouns comes from adjectives in phrases inducing larger preview effect and then counterbalances the possible differences between the two kinds of words. The present study adopted the boundary paradigm to probe the preview processing differences between within-words and between-words. In the present study, the first character of a two-character compounds (between-words) and the second character of a two-character compounds (within-words) was manipulated to be presented normally or replaced by a pseudo-character for previews. Moreover, word highlighting sentence and non-word highlighting sentence were introduced to examine whether the word boundary information could exert different influences on the preview processing of between-words and within-words. Marking word boundary by word highlighting has its unique advantages. Most of all, compared with word spaces, word highlighting can not only keep the same sentence length meanwhile providing the word boundary information but also control the same word lateral masking on different conditions.

    Firstly, the results indicated that the preview effect for between-word was smaller than that of within-word. The results were consistent with the results of Hy?n? et al. (2004), which showed that the morphological information of target word could impact on preview processing. Secondly, we found that there were no differences among normal condition, highlighting condition and non-word highlighting condition. Even so, we did not found the significant influences of word boundary demarcation for preview processing, the possible benefit effect of word boundary still could not be ruled out thoroughly. As Bai et al. (2008) pointed out that readers are familiar with the text without any word boundary signals in normal reading; consequently, the null effect between normal and word boundary text may show a priming effect on word boundary condition, which is the one readers are not familiar with. Thirdly, the results showed that word boundary information had similar effects on within-words and between-words.

    Results of the present study indicated that word morphological information could affect its preview processing; however, word boundary information do not necessarily facilitate preview processing for both between-words and within-words. The possible explanation may be that word segmentation and word recognition occur simultaneously. These results are consistent with the model of word segmentation and word recognition.

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    Effects of aging on the Mandarin lexical tone perception: Evidence from ERPs
    XIAO Rong,LIANG Dandan,LI Shanpeng
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00001
    Abstract3485)   HTML1)    PDF (6863KB)(4293)      

    The accurate perception of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese is an important foundation for successfully understanding spoken Chinese. Previous behavioral studies have shown that the ability to perceive lexical tones in Mandarin declines in elderly individuals. In addition to other research areas related to language and aging, the central issue in phonetic perception during aging concerns whether perceptual changes related to aging are area-specific or area-general. The area-general language hypothesis of aging assumes that changes in language perception related to aging are caused by a decline in both general sensory perception function and high-order cognitive function. In contrast, the area-specific language hypothesis of aging assumes that changes in aging-related language perception are caused by specific deficits in language processing. Previous studies mostly detected the state of attention and focused on how area-general factors affect the processing of segmental phonemes in elderly individuals. The present study examined neurophysiological responses, particularly that of MMN, to explore whether the aging of lexical tone perception is language-specific for Mandarin.
    The current study recruited 22 healthy elderly participants (age range: 55.6~79.6 years) and 18 young participants (age range: 22.7~29.0 years). In a passive oddball task, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine Mandarin lexical tone perception. Three syllables from a lexical tone continuum were chosen as stimuli to form an across-category stimulus pair and a within-category stimulus pair for the ERP oddball task. A non-speech stimulus pair was generated on the basis of the within-category stimulus pair. During the experiment, participants were instructed to ignore the presented sounds while watching a self-selected movie.
    ERP data showed that in the across-category condition, compared with the young group, the elderly group had a smaller MMN, and there was no between-group difference in the within-category condition. In the young group, a non-speech tone elicited a larger MMN amplitude than a speech tone that shared the same pitch contour, while the elderly group did not show a speech enhancement effect. In addition, compared with that of the young group, the amplitude of the MMN elicited by the non-speech contrast in the elderly group was significantly smaller. The results indicated that the general decline in central auditory processing function was not related to the pre-attention processing of lexical tone. In addition, when the level at which the auditory input stimulus could be sensed was controlled according to peripheral hearing abilities, the decline in peripheral auditory function was not related to the preservation of or decline in lexical tone perception in the current study.
    In the current study, there is no evidence that the age-related decline in area-general factors affects tone perception in the pre-attention condition. On this basis, this study further speculated that the ability of elderly Mandarin-speaking individuals to perceive lexical tone in pre-attention conditions was preserved and only declined for specific languages, and the above-mentioned decline in the processing of knowledge of Mandarin tone category and the wider preservation of the processing of speech tones are language-specific. The present study provides evidence for the area-specific language hypothesis of aging.

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    The effect of cognitive vagueness and motivation on conscious and unconscious self-deception
    ZHONG Luojin, RU Taotao, FAN Meng, MO Lei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (12): 1330-1340.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01330
    Abstract3474)   HTML9)    PDF (606KB)(4588)      

    Academia has a long discussion of self-deception. Self-deception provides fertile ground for research in biology, philosophy, and psychology. Philosophers theoretically discuss the possibility and conditions of the existence of self-deception. Biologists study the applicability of the self-deception from the evolutionary perspective. Psychologists want to provide empirical evidence for the existence of self-deception. Nevertheless, the presentation of self-deception remains controversial. Therefore, an empirical study of self-deception with direct evidence is required to tackle the existence of self-deception. A large number of studies have investigated the existence of self-deception. The results showed that motivation, external or internal, and cognitive vagueness are the triggers of the existence of self-deception. However, it remains unknown whether self-deceived people believe in their own deception interacts with the effect of cognitive vagueness and motivation on self-deception.
    In this paper, we investigate whether self-deceived people believe in their own deception influences the self-deception and moderates the effect of cognitive vagueness and motivation on self-deception. We further propose two forms of self-deception: unconscious and conscious self-deception, where those unconscious self-deceived people believe in their own deception while those conscious self-deceived people do not. As cognitive vagueness and motivation have different effects on the two forms of self-deception, we further investigate whether the two forms of self-deception share the same processing mechanisms.
    Following the research paradigm of Chance et al. (2011), we investigated the above hypotheses in three experiments. In Experiment 1, we improved the research paradigm used by Chance et al. (2011), and we showed that self-deception could be categorized as conscious self-deception and unconscious self-deception. Experiment 2 showed that cognitive vagueness positively and negatively associated with unconscious and conscious self-deception respectively. Experiment 3 illustrated that motivation increased the conscious self-deception, but had no impact on unconscious self-deception. The diverse effects of motivation and cognitive vagueness on the unconscious and conscious self-deception suggest that two forms of self-deception are driven by different processing mechanisms.

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    Aging effect of picture naming in Chinese: The influence of the non-selective inhibition ability
    YANG Qun, ZHANG Qingfang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (10): 1079-1090.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01079
    Abstract3417)   HTML16)    PDF (601KB)(3392)      

    Older speakers frequently report more linguistic dysfluencies, verbose and even anomia in speech production than young speakers. The transmission deficit hypothesis assumes that normal aging reduces the activation transmission between the meaning and the word form of target words, which results in more failures. By contrast, the inhibition hypothesis assumes that the inhibitive ability about irrelevant information in older adults is decreased in comparison with young adults, thus more word retrieval failures in the old than in young adults. On the other hand, semantic interference effect and distractor word frequency effect have been observed in picture-word interference (PWI) task. Researchers interpreted the two effects via the competitive (i.e., lexical selection competition during lemma retrieval) and the non-competitive hypotheses (i.e., response exclusion hypothesis). The present study aims to investigate the influence of non-selective inhibition ability in picture naming by examining distractor frequency effect in young and older native Chinese speakers.

    In the PWI task, participants were instructed to name pictures as quickly and accurately while ignoring distractor words. In experiment 1, we manipulated age (young vs. older), the frequency of distractor words (High vs. Low), and the onset interval between distractors and target pictures (-100 ms, 0 ms, and 100 ms). In experiment 2, we manipulated age, the frequency of distractor words, and the frequency of target names (High, Medium, and Low). The non-selective inhibition ability was measured by stop-signal task in both groups. Distractors and pictures were presented simultaneously.

    Results indicated a target name frequency effect in both young and older groups. Importantly, we found distractor word frequency effects in young adults, but non in older adults. The distractor frequency effect in older adults was absent due to weaker phonological activation of distractor words, and thus support the transmission deficit hypothesis. The correlations between the ability of non-selection inhibition and distractor frequency effect were not significant in both groups, indicating this kind of ability did not affect the magnitude of distractor frequency effect. However, the ability of non-selection inhibition positively correlated with mean naming latencies only in older adults, indicating that the decrease of non-selective inhibition ability influences naming latencies in older adults, while the absence in the young due to the small variations of naming latencies, which need to be investigated further by covering a wide age range (18~80 years).

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    Visual representation of items with semantic information in sensory memory
    HU Jingjing,XU Haokui,CAO Liren
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (9): 982-991.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00982
    Abstract3396)   HTML17)    PDF (873KB)(3585)      

    Visual representation is one of the most important topics in sensory memory. Traditionally, visual representation with respect to sensory memory was regarded as an ‘icon’, the processing of which would cease after a subsequent stimulus (backward masking). Recently, an increasing number of researches have suggested a more flexible representation of visual sensory memory in which the features of the visual stimulus could be expressed in an abstract form. As previous researchers paid considerable attention to only the schematic features of a visual stimulus, the abstract information contained in a stimulus has rarely been explored. In this study, we have focused on the semantic information of the visual representation of the sensory memory. In a part-report task, the Arabic digits were employed as the target, and the Chinese digits as the semantic-similar mask, which were semantically related to Arabic digits; the noise patterns were employed as the non-semantic mask. If under the Chinese mask condition, the participants’ performance of reporting target digits decreased, it would reveal a conflict between the representations of the target and the mask, thereby suggesting that the visual representation of the sensory memory contains semantic information of the stimulus.

    In Experiment 1, the target stimuli were arrays of 3×4 Arabic digits generated by selecting at random from a set containing digits zero to nine. A mask stimuli could either be (a) a single binary visual noise with an element size equal to the stroke width of the target digits, or (b) a 3×4 array of random standard Chinese-digits in capital form whose spatial arrangement is identical to that of the target and its size is big enough to overlap the corresponding target digits. Both the targets and masks were presented within 23.5 ms (2 frames in 85 Hz) and the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between the offset of the target and the onset of the mask was 105.9 ms (9 frames in 85 Hz). There were three conditions for reporting: part-report with 0 ms cue-delay, part-report with 447 ms cue-delay, and whole-report with no cue-delay. A correct response was recorded only when the participants reported the correct digits at the locations they occurred in the target array. The results showed a significant difference between the noise and standard Chinese-digit mask under all of the three reporting conditions; there was a significant part-report advantage for the noise mask, but not for the Chinese characters. This indicated that semantic information can influence information processing in the sensory memory. Considering that noise and Chinese characters are different at a schematic level, we inverted the Chinese digits in Experiment 2 to destroy their semantic information but reserve their schematic feature.

    Therefore, Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1, except the Chinese digits were inverted. The results showed that the difference between the noise and inverted Chinese-digit masks still existed, while both showed significant part-report advantages. We conducted an analysis across-experiment afterwards. There was a significant difference between the standard and inverted Chinese-digit masks, while there was no significant difference between the noise masks across the two experiments. Results above revealed that masks with different semantic information but the same schematic information can influence the target processing differently. Considering that the standard and inverted Chinese digits are different in semantic strength, we employed commonly used Chinese characters in Experiment 3 to ensure that the two masks under comparison have different meanings but a similar semantic strength.

    In Experiment 3, we employed Chinese digits and commonly used Chinese characters as masks. These two masks had similar word frequencies and number of strokes. However, the Chinese-digit mask still showed a significant stronger masking effect, which revealed the effect of semantic similarity. This implied that the visual representation in sensory memory could contain semantic information.

    In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the feature represented in sensory memory is not only schematic but also semantic. The functions of such a feature-based representation and its interaction with the icon have also been discussed.

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    Association between negative life events and early adolescents’ depression: The moderating effects of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met polymorphism and parenting behavior
    WANG Meiping,ZHENG Xiaojie,XIA Guizhi,LIU Didi,CHEN Pian,ZHANG Wenxin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (8): 903-913.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00903
    Abstract3261)   HTML96)    PDF (600KB)(3838)      

    Early adolescence is a critical period for examining the development of depression in that there is a sharp increase in the prevalence. Existing studies suggested that depression was significantly associated with negative life events. However, it is well-known that not all adolescents who experienced negative life events would become depressed. Findings from molecular genetics indicated that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met polymorphism might be an important candidate gene of depression. Some researches have also investigated the moderating effect of COMT gene Val158Met polymorphism on the association between negative life events and depression. However, the findings still remain inconsistent. According to developmental system theory, family factors, such as parental rearing behavior, may also play an important role on adolescent depression. However, whether and how COMT gene Val158Met polymorphism with parenting behavior moderate the association between negative life events and early adolescent depression remain unclear. Moreover, extant evidence has demonstrated that there is a significant gender difference in the interaction between gene and environment on depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the moderating role of COMT gene Val158Met polymorphism and parenting behavior on the association between negative life events and early adolescent depression, and its possible gender differences.

    In this study, 637 adolescents (Mage = 13.50 years, male = 344) of two middle schools in Jinan were selected as subjects. Adolescent depressive symptoms, negative life events and parenting behavior were accessed using self-rated children’s depression inventory (CDI), adolescent life events scale and parental rearing behavior questionnaire. All measures showed good reliability. DNA was extracted from saliva. Genotype at Val158Met polymorphism was performed for each participant with MassARRAY RT software version and analyzed using the MassARRAY Typer software version 3.4 (Sequenom). A series of hierarchical regressions, internal replication analyses and meta-analyses were conducted to examine the effects of negative life events, Val158Met polymorphism and parenting behavior on adolescent depression.

    The results showed that negative life events significantly positively predicted early adolescent depression. Moreover, negative life events, COMT gene Val158Met polymorphism and positive paternal behavior had a significant three-way interaction on adolescent depression, which only existed in male adolescents. Specifically, for male adolescents with Val/Val genotype, positive paternal behavior played a significant moderating effect on the association between negative life events and depression. When the level of positive paternal behavior was lower, negative life events could positively predict male adolescent depression, whereas its effect was not significant when the level of positive paternal behavior was higher. Additionally, the above mentioned interaction was not observed among male adolescents with Met allele. The findings also indicated that both positive and negative maternal behaviors had marginally significant interactions with COMT gene Val158Met polymorphism and negative life events, and were also manifested only in male adolescents. In the further simple effect analysis of the three-way interactions, male adolescents with Val/Val genotype were still more sensitive to the environment.

    Overall, our results suggested that the effects of negative life events on early adolescent depression were moderated by COMT gene Val158Met polymorphism and parenting behavior, and there were gender differences in the moderating effect. More importantly, this study emphasizes the effects of genes and multiple environments on depression, which lends a reference for future studies on the interaction between genes and multiple environments. Besides, the findings provide important implications for the theoretical construction and intervention of adolescent depression.

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    The magic of one person: The effect of the number of endorsers on brand attitude
    Yaxuan RAN,Jiani LIU,Yishi ZHANG,Haiying WEI
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 371-385.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00371
    Abstract3121)   HTML14)    PDF (1724KB)(4178)      

    The use of celebrity endorsements in advertising is quietly pervasive. One brand can be endorsed by either one celebrity or multiple celebrities. Notably, it is more and more common nowadays that a single brand harnesses multiple celebrity endorsers in its advertisement to potentially attract more consumers. Literature on consumer psychology has mainly studied the context of a single celebrity endorsing a single brand, suggesting that source characteristics, such as familiarity, expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness of the endorser, can affect consumer response and attitudes. A growing of recent studies have investigated the context of a single celebrity endorsing multiple brands, while surprisingly very few studies have examined whether one brand should be endorsed by either one person or multiple people. In the current research, we extend the extent literature by examining how consumer respond to celebrity advertising endorsed by either one person or multiple people.
    Consumers can build their relationship with a brand through the celebrity endorsers. In this vein, the number of endorsers (one celebrity versus multiple celebrities) can influence consumer attitudes via their feelings of connecting with the brand. Based on the image transference perspective, the celebrity’s traits could be transferred to the brand’s perceived traits. Thus, when a brand is endorsed by one person (multiple people), this brand is perceived to hold one identity (multiple identities). According to person-positivity bias, we postulate that one endorser (versus multiple endorsers) can enhance consumers’ connected feelings with the brand, then in turn increase consumers’ positive brand attitude. And this effect is only constraint for status-signaling products. Although the main hypothesis seems straightforward, there are constraints on its applicability. If the associations between the number of endorsers and self-brand connection are attenuated, the effect of the number of endorsers on brand attitude should be suppressed. That is, when multiple endorsers look like a whole (e.g., a team), the main effect would be reversed, such that multiple endorsers with wholeness characteristics elicit higher brand attitude than one endorser.
    One pilot study and four studies were conducted to examine our hypotheses. Pilot study (n = 53) examined that the basic hypothesis of trait transference, such that the brand endorsed by one person (multiple people) would be perceived to hold one identity (multiple identities). Experiment 1 (n = 199) investigated the main effect and the mediating role of self-brand connection. Experiment 2 (n = 245) used a moderation-of-process approach to further validate the mediation of self-brand connection. Experiment 3 (n = 158) examined that the effect is constraint when the product is characterized as status-signaling, while targeting and eliminating possible alternative explanations. Experiment 4 (n = 92) identified the moderating effect of when multiple endorsers look like a whole and provide replication of the main effect. To document a robust effect, we varied the context of advertising and the endorsers across four studies.
    Our investigation suggests that consumer facing a brand endorsed by one celebrity have greater brand attitude than those facing a brand endorsed by multiple celebrities. Specifically, compared to multiple endorsers, one endorser can enhance consumers’ feeling of connecting with the brand, which in turn increase brand attitudes. For non-status-signaling products, the relative difference between one endorser and multiple endorsers would be attenuated. At the same time, there are qualifications on these effects. When multiple endorsers are a whole, the superior of one endorser would be reversed. These findings offer novel insights on endorsing, number of people, and self-brand connection, while suggesting that companies must carefully consider the number of celebrities in the wake of considering the appropriate endorsement.

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    Qualitative research on the endogenous power mechanism for poverty elimination
    FU Anguo,ZHANG Zaisheng,ZHENG Jianhong,YUE Tong,LIN Zhaohong,WU Na,HUANG Xiting
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (1): 66-80.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00066
    Abstract2971)   HTML40)    PDF (1138KB)(3174)      

    Poverty remains one of the most pressing and vexing issues facing the world today. Although progress has been made in alleviating poverty in China, more efforts are needed to manage the intractable generations that have been affected by poverty. Endogenous power is the core psychological resource for low-income individuals to move out of poverty. However, there is a lack of a research framework for the endogenous power of poverty elimination in the Chinese context, which may result in a scarcity of relevant empirical research and the neglect of psychological factors in the formulation of poverty alleviation policies. This study deploys qualitative research methods to explore the psychological structure and key influencing factors of endogenous power of generations of low-income individuals with a goal of providing proposals on psychologically targeted poverty alleviation.
    The researchers utilized an intensity sampling method to obtain study participants, and grounded theory, based on in-depth interviews, was adopted as research methodology. Participants comprised individuals who had successfully (seven people) or unsuccessfully (ten people) pulled themselves out of poverty as well as poverty alleviation cadres (four cadres) from a deeply impoverished village on Hainan Island. This study attempts to construct an integral endogenous power depletion model for intergenerational poverty from the perspectives of endogenous power for poverty elimination and the integration of endogenous and exogenous driving forces. The study followed the standard procedure of grounded theory, and we analyzed the data with Nvivo 11.0. Based on grounded theory, preliminary analysis, generic analysis, and theoretical construction of the collected data were conducted. Inspections of the participants and non-participants were used to verify the research results’ validity.
    The findings of the study fall into three categories. First, the “Three-factor Onion Model” with negative values, negative self-concept, and the behavioral tendencies of passive anti-poverty as the core factors was found to be the endogenous driving force of generations of low-income individuals. Second, perceived control loss as a psychosocial driving force is an important cause of the lack of endogenous power among those poverty-stricken people for generations, and the combination of a lack of market rationality and campaign-style poverty alleviation are external causes of perceived control loss. Third, under the influence of the construction of inner capacities, parenting capabilities become an important internal driving force, as they take an intermediate role during the promotion of endogenous powers to their offspring and help cultivate positive psychological resources for the family.
    This paper attempts to place the internal psychological factors and external key factors that lead to generational poverty into a holistic research framework. Although some enlightening views have been obtained, the results are constrained by the complexity of the theme and the limitations of the data, and only a general exploration could be made. In the future, quantitative research methods may be adopted to verify the accuracy of the Internal Motivation Depletion Model for intergenerational poverty.

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    An “operational definition” and a “falsifiability criterion” are not sufficient to lay the foundation for scientific psychology
    SHU Yueyu,SHI Yingbo,YUAN Yan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (9): 1068-1078.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01068
    Abstract2952)   HTML31)    PDF (697KB)(3071)      

    In the mainstream narrative of the discipline, a “controlled experiment” and a “quantitative research” are considered to be the basic characteristics of psychology. For a long time, the methodology of positivism has provided the subject of psychology with a spiritual connotation. Specifically, the “operational definition” based on positivism and the “falsifiability criterion” based on falsificationism, have become the “golden rules” of psychology’s scientificity. For decades, the field of philosophy of science has acquired a renewed understanding of positivism and falsificationism. However, while mainstream psychology ignores these advancements, it still regards these two outdated philosophies as its metaphysical foundation. More importantly, while indulging in outdated methodological assumptions, mainstream psychology is unable to provide a systematic demonstration for the ontological preset of disciplines. This lack of ontology and the over-reliance on outdated methodological presuppositions focus on popular mainstream psychology textbooks, such as How to Think Straight about Psychology by Keith E. Stanovich, who is a Canadian psychologist.

    Based on the representative position of Keith E. Stanovich’s work in mainstream psychology, and in the foundation of refining and summarizing specific features of heavy reliance on the methodology of mainstream experimental psychology, by using the process of logical analysis and philosophical speculation, this paper suggests that mainstream psychology has always defined itself through a methodology shared with other natural sciences, which is the root cause of the psychological disintegration crisis.!!!This study contends that the methodological basis of psychology itself has several problems. First of all, not all scientific concepts can be defined operationally. Thus, an operational definition by itself does not provide a solid philosophical foundation for empirical science. Furthermore, universal existence propositions and statistical law cannot be verified and falsified by experience. Therefore, the falsifiability criterion is not sufficient to guarantee the scientificity of psychology. In the end, common natural science methods are not sufficient to reflect the unique value of psychology. For this reason, the methodology of mature natural science is not enough to lay the foundation for psychology, which is an independent discipline.

    This research proposes that the logical starting point of psychology as an independent discipline lies in its unique values, which provide an ontological commitment not only to the subject, but also to the underlying psychology, making its own special requests for the selection method of the subject. Only discipline motivation, and ontological commitment can provide a philosophical basis for psychology as an independent subject. In psychology, it is possible to solve a split subject crisis only on the premise of breaking away from the method center and rethinking the logical basis of psychology—which is an independent subject—thereby leading the discipline from a “pre-paradigm science” to a “normal science.”

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    Effects of episodic foresight on intertemporal decision-making
    WANG Panpan,HE Jiamei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (1): 38-54.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00038
    Abstract2935)   HTML29)    PDF (839KB)(3798)      

    The flexibility of individual decision-making behavior is at least partly the result of people’s ability to travel mentally in time and entertain potential future scenarios. It has been proved that episodic foresight has great effect on intertemporal decision-making. However, the reasons for such effect are controversial. The self-relevant information and emotional characteristics of an imagined event could change the perceived waiting time, which is an important factor affecting the preference of intertemporal decision-making ( Zauberman, Kim, Malkoc, & Bettman, 2009). We propose the hypothesis that the perceived waiting time may mediate the effect of episodic foresight on intertemporal decision-making.
    Based on the delay discounting task paradigm, we designed two experiments to explore the mediating role of perceived waiting time between episodic foresight and intertemporal decision-making, which from the perspective of the self-relevant information of the imagined event and the emotional characteristics of the imagined event that occurs in the future time intervals successively. We tested our hypothesis in two laboratory experiments with approximately 93 participants each. Between-subjects study design with pretest and post-test was employed. In the experiments, participants were randomly assigned to different groups and they were asked to complete the subjective perception of the waiting-time task in the pretest and post-test and the episodic-foresight task in the post-test. Participants were also asked to imagine that the given event on the screen occurs on the 15th day from today as much detail as possible, including the time, place, and characters of the event, and write down the contents of the first imagined event. Participants were also required to imagine the event that appear on screen before making a choice every time. Moreover, the current emotional state and the current level of urgent need for money of the participants were recorded and analyzed in the pretest and post-test.
    Results of two experiments showed that the perceived waiting time mediated the effect of episodic foresight on intertemporal decision-making. Imagining self-relevant future events and future events with positive or neutral emotional valence revealed that participants perceived delayed waiting time as short and were more inclined to choose delayed rewards. However, imagining future events with negative emotional valence showed that participants perceived delayed waiting time as long and were more inclined to choose immediate rewards. The current emotional state, the current level of urgent need for money, and other additional environmental variables had no effect on the experimental results.
    In conclusion, this study reveals the psychological mechanism that episodic foresight mediates participants’ intertemporal decision-making through the perceived waiting time, and two experiments demonstrate its robustness. Our research provides a new perspective for explaining why episodic foresight affects intertemporal decision-making and, for the first time, focuses on the process of delayed waiting time in delayed rewards, which has considerable theoretical value.

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    Comparing the attentional boost effect between classified learning and mixed learning
    MENG Yingfang,YE Xiumin,MA Huijiao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (2): 139-148.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00139
    Abstract2919)   HTML19)    PDF (603KB)(3627)      

    Stimuli presented with interference of the nature of targets detection are later recognized more accurately than that of distracted rejection, an unusual effect labeled the attentional boost effect (ABE). Spataro, Mulligan, Gabrielli and Rossi-Arnaud (2017) proposed the item-specific account, arguing that target detection mainly facilitates the processing of item-specific information rather than relational information. The item-specific account seems to have a larger scope of application. However, Spataro et al. (2017) proposed this account mainly based on the different degrees to which test tasks depended on item-specific and relational information. As a result, we propose a question: if target detection mainly promotes the item-specific information of the background stimulus, when the background stimulus mainly depends on the processing of relational information, will the promoting effect of target detection be reduced or even disappear? The discussion of this issue could provide more direct evidence for the item-specific account of the ABE. In the present study, mixed learning and classified learning methods were used to process the item-specific information and relational information of background stimuli. In general, pictures and words contain different perceptual information; the memory of picture preferentially utilizes image representations, while the memory of word preferentially utilizes semantic representations. Additionally, do the processing differences seen between words and pictures change the effects of classified and mixed learning on the ABE? To answer these questions, the current study performed two experiments to test whether the ABE is affected by the different types of processing needed for words and pictures used as background information.

    The experiment was a 2 (presentation mode: classified learning, mixed learning) × 3 (stimulus type: target, distraction, baseline) mixed design. The presentation mode is the between-subjects variable, and the stimulus type is the within-subjects variable. In experiment 1, in classified learning, category words and words unrelated to the category were presented in sequential groups, and the words in each group were presented randomly. To enhance the effect of classification, a 3000 ms "blink" cue and a 1000 ms "continue" cue were inserted between every two groups of words. In mixed learning, category words and words unrelated to the category were presented randomly through a mixed display, and there were no extra intervals between groups. Sixty students participated in experiment 1, and 78 students participated in experiment 2. Participants were told to read each word aloud while simultaneously monitoring a small indicator above the word. Participants were then instructed to press the space bar as quickly as possible when they saw that the indicator was a “+” (a target) and to withhold a response when they saw that the indicator was a “-” (a distractor) or when they did not see an indicator at all (no indicator). In experiment 2, pictures (brief strokes) were used as background stimuli, and the other task and procedure were similar to those in experiment 1.

    The main results were as follows. In Experiment 1, the ABE is robust only in mixed learning; that is, the recognition rate of target-paired words is obviously better than that of distractor-paired words (p = 0.004) and even reaches the level of full attention (baseline words) (p = 0.95). The recognition rate of distractor-paired words is obviously lower than that of baseline words (p = 0.044), showing a typical distraction inhibitory effect. Moreover, there was no significant difference between target-paired words (p = 0.636) and baseline words (p = 0.697) in the two presentation modes, but the recognition rate of distractor-paired words during classified learning was significantly higher than that of mixed learning (p = 0.008). In experiment 2, the ABE was found in both classified and mixed learning modes, but the ABE during classified learning (10%) was lower than that during mixed learning (16%). The recognition rate of target-paired pictures was even better than that of baseline pictures, showing an absolute attention boosting effect. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the recognition rate for the two kinds of target-paired pictures (p = 0.614). However, the recognition rates of distractor-paired pictures (p = 0.043) and baseline pictures (p = 0.036) show differences in the presentation mode. During classified learning, the recognition rates of distractor-paired pictures and baseline pictures are slightly higher than those during mixed learning.

    The results suggest that compared with the mixed learning condition, the ABE in the classified learning condition is reduced. Compared with pictures, the ABE for words is more vulnerable to classified learning, which can even makes the ABE disappear. This effect may occur because participants tend to encode relational information in classified learning, which may reduce the inhibitory effect of distraction rejection, thus reducing the difference between target-pair stimuli and distractor-pair stimuli. Therefore, the current study provides more direct evidence for the item-specific account of the ABE.

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    The underlying mechanism of object-based Correspondence effect
    SONG Xiaolei, WANG Dan, ZHANG Xinxin, JIA Xiaoqian
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (6): 669-681.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00669
    Abstract2891)   HTML2)    PDF (910KB)(3433)      

    The object-based Correspondence effect (also called object-based Simon effect), is a special spatial Correspondence effect, which refers to the phenomenon that responses are faster and more accurate when a handle of the graspable object and the response position or the responding hand are consistent than inconsistent. Tucker and Ellis (1998) first found the object-based Correspondence effect, and attributed the effect to the functional affordance of handles. In other words, when participants watch the graspable object, they automatically activate the tendency to grasp the handle of the object with their corresponding hands. Therefore, when the responding hand which is automatically activated by the handle is consistent that required by the task, responses are faster. In addition to the functional affordance, many researchers have also used the spatial position coding account to explain this effect. The account held the view that the generation of the object-based Correspondence effect was related to the position of the asymmetric handle of the stimuli, which automatically activated the response of the ipsilateral position, leading to the object-based Correspondence effect (Cho & Proctor, 2010). It's uncertain that the generation of object-based Correspondence effect is due to affordance coding or spatial coding hypothesis.

    In the present study, three experiments were conducted to investigate the generation mechanism of the object-based Correspondence effect. The stimulus materials were the silhouettes and photographs of the frying pans. In Experiment 1 the frying pan was located at the center of the screen, participants were asked to judge the stimulus to be upright or inverted, and responded with the responding hand. The aim of it was to examine whether the silhouettes and photographs of the frying pan would exist the object-based Correspondence effect without significant spatial position. In Experiment 2, the base of the frying pan was placed at the center of the screen, which made the left and right position of the handle more significant, and continue to examine whether the object-based Correspondence effect would appear when there existed the significant spatial coding. In Experiment 3, a crossed-hand response paradigm was adopted to separate response position from responding hand coding, in other words, participants pressed the right key with the left hand and the left key with the right hand, and to further explore the generation mechanism of the object-based Correspondence effect.

    The results suggested that there existed the object-based Correspondence effect in Experiment 1 when spatial location of the stimulus was not significant for silhouette stimuli, but not photograph stimuli. In Experiment 2 when the spatial position of the stimuli was more significant, silhouette and photograph stimuli both showed the Correspondence effect and the effect size was similar. The RT combined analysis of Experiment 1 and 2 suggested that the Correspondence effect size of Experimental 2 was larger than Experiment 1 for silhouette stimuli, and similar for photograph stimuli. In Experiment 3 when the hands were crossed there was Correspondence effect between the handle and the response position for both silhouette and photograph stimuli, but not the Correspondence effect between the handle and the responding hand. The combined analysis with the Experiment 2 suggested that the effect size of Experiment 3 was smaller than Experiment 2 for both silhouette and photograph stimuli.

    Based on these results, it is concluded that the spatial coding hypothesis plays an important role in the generation of the object-based Correspondence effect during a two key-pressing selection task, the affordance coding or other explanations are much smaller than that.

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    Brain network analysis of cognitive reappraisal and expressive inhibition strategies: Evidence from EEG and ERP
    SUN Yan,BO Siyu,LV Jiaojiao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (1): 12-25.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00012
    Abstract2876)   HTML15)    PDF (2059KB)(3609)      

    The ability to regulate emotions is related to psychological, social, and physical health. The two major emotion regulation strategies are cognitive reappraisal (CR) and expressive suppression (ES). Research suggests that CR produces affective, cognitive, and social consequences that are more beneficial to the individual, whereas ES has been consistently linked to more detrimental consequences. Although an increasing number of studies have begun to focus on the neural mechanisms of different types of emotion regulation, there has not yet been systematic research on the spontaneous brain activity associated with CR and ES. Resting activity has been shown to predict performance outcomes, highlight the functional relevance of the brain’s intrinsic fluctuations in response outputs. However, to date, there have been no studies to explore the relationship between the cognitive process of emotion regulation and the brain's resting EEG activity.
    The current study explored the neural mechanisms of spontaneous brain activity during two emotion regulation strategies. Electroencephalography (EEG) enables direct measurement of neuronal activity, allowing characterization of the intrinsic neural cognitive network. Thirty-six college students (17 males and 19 females, aged 17~28 years old) participated in this study. For the first part of the study, EEG data was collected from participants with closed eyes; EEG collection occurred for a duration of 6 minutes. Neurological studies of resting state EEG have identified the predominant role of theta waves in determining cognitive control effort and behavioral performance. In the current study, source localization and graph theory analysis revealed that node efficiency was significantly correlated with the two major emotion regulation strategies, and there were functional connections between brain regions in the theta band.
    Then, in order to improve the reliability of the resting result obtained above, a within subjects experiment was carried out. This experiment required subjects to watch emotional pictures under four emotion regulation conditions (watching neutral, watching negative, reappraisal negative, suppressing negative). The Late-positive potential (LPP) amplitude was obtained when viewing the emotional pictures under the four conditions. LPP is an effective physiological indicator of the emotion regulation effect. It allowed us to explore the emotion regulation effect under different emotion regulation strategies, and the intrinsic functional connections and node efficiency of the brain.
    The results showed that the habitual use of CR was significantly correlated with several brain regions. Specifically, the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortex. Moreover, the brain regions significantly correlated with the LPP amplitude under CR were the parietal cortex, prefrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and occipital cortex. The brain regions that were significantly correlated with habitual use of ES included the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, insula, and parahippocampal gyrus. Finally, the brain regions that were significantly associated with LPP amplitude under ES included the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal cortex, and occipital cortex. Thus, these findings reveal that many brain regions are involved in these two mood regulation strategies, including the prefrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, parietal cortex, and occipital cortex. In addition, the brain regions related to the different emotion regulation strategies differed slightly; specifically, CR was significantly associated with the anterior cingulate cortex while ES was related to temporal lobe and insula activation.
    In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that use of CR for emotion regulation is associated with activation of multiple brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parietal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus and occipital cortex. On the other hand, the use of ES for emotional regulation was associated with activation of various brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, occipital cortex, temporal cortex and insula. Node efficiency or functional connectivity of these brain regions appears to be a suitable indicator for assessing the effects of the ES and CR emotion regulation strategies.

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    Friendship quality and adolescents’ intuitive eating: A serial mediation model and the gender difference
    CHEN Ximei,LUO Yijun,CHEN Hong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (4): 485-496.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00485
    Abstract2841)   HTML49)    PDF (785KB)(4024)      

    The majority of research on eating behaviors has been limited to an almost exclusive focus on pathology and is centered on the female group. Recently, one form of adaptive eating that has gained recognition is “intuitive eating”, which is defined as eating according to internal physiological cues of hunger and satiety rather than external or emotional signals. That is, individuals who eat intuitively are not preoccupied by food and dieting. They often choose food that helps their bodies function well and is pleasing to their palate. They do not ignore hunger cues or classify food into acceptable or unacceptable categories. Therefore, intuitive eating was found to be linked with greater unconditional self-regard and body satisfaction, as well as lower levels of both depression and disordered eating. Adolescence, in particular, acts as a critical period in the development of eating attitudes and behaviors. Adolescents devote a great deal of attention to physical appearance, and are inclined to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors to reduce an unsatisfactory body image; this has a negative impact on their physical and mental health. Due to these circumstances, it is essential to identify the key factors influencing adolescents’ healthy eating behaviors. Using the perspectives of attachment theory and the acceptance model of intuitive eating, this study aimed to investigate the effect of friendship quality on intuitive eating among Chinese adolescents, and the potential mediating role of self-compassion and positive body image on this association, as well as explore a possible gender difference. This research not only provides suggestions for parents and educators to increase adolescents’ intuitive eating, but it also identifies significant factors that influence intuitive eating in order to foster relevant practical prevention strategies and interventions.

    Participants were 2438 students (M = 13.14 years, SD = 1.08) recruited from three middle schools (Grades 7 to 9) in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. There were 1162 girls (47.7%) and 1276 boys (52.3%). They completed a set of self-report measures on friendship quality, self-compassion, positive body image, and intuitive eating. All the measures have acceptable reliability and validity.

    The results indicated that after controlling for age, gender, and body mass index, friendship quality was positively associated with intuitive eating. Self-compassion and positive body image mediated this association, which contained three significant mediating pathways: the separate mediating effects of (a) self-compassion and (b) positive body image, and the serial mediating effect of (c) self-compassion and positive body image. In addition, significant differences in mediating effects per gender were only found in the relationship between friendship quality and the dimensions of intuitive eating (“unconditional permission to eat” and “eating for physical rather than emotional reasons”).

    Our findings highlight the relevance of friendship quality, self-compassion, and positive body image in the understanding of adolescents’ intuitive eating. This study suggests that parents should create a warm and friendly family atmosphere which will contribute to adolescents’ peer relationships and friendships. Educators should direct students to be compassionate toward their own shortcomings and failures to improve levels of body appreciation and body satisfaction. These factors will play important roles in promoting intuitive eating. Moreover, future interventions for intuitive eating should be designed to increase adolescents’ self-compassion and positive body image through effective intervention approaches and measures.

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    The behavioral patterns of stereotype activation among four different warmth-competence social groups based on Stereotype Content Model
    YANG Yaping, XU Qiang, ZHU Tingting, ZHENG Xutao, DONG Xiaoye, CHEN Qingwei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (10): 1143-1156.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01143
    Abstract2745)   HTML12)    PDF (940KB)(3390)      

    Stereotypes are vital for social interaction by facilitating social decision making as well as conserving limited time and cognitive resources. Previous studies on stereotype activation mainly focus specific social groups, such as gender, race, etc. However, exactly how stereotypes are activated among various social groups remains unknown.

    To fill this gap, we classified social groups into four clusters according to stereotype content model in the present study, measuring for perceptions of warmth and competence. These clusters form a four-way axis, that is, high warmth-high competence (HW-HC), high warmth-low competence (HW-LC), low warmth-high competence (LW-HC) and low warmth-low competence (LW-LC). Two experiments were conducted to investigate the behavioral patterns of stereotype activation among these four clusters. We predicted that the stereotype activation pattern would be similar among these four clusters.

    In the first experiment, we employed a sequential priming paradigm to explore stereotype activation explicitly. The prime stimuli were 24 social groups equally attributed to these four clusters and the target stimuli were stereotype trait words of these 24 social groups. All of the prime stimuli and target stimuli were obtained from pilot study. The participants were instructed to judge whether the target word was consistent with the stereotypes of the prime social group. Fifty undergraduates (35 female, 19~25 years old, M = 20.68, SD = 2.08) were recruited for this experiment.

    In the second experiment, to validate the findings of Experiment 1, we utilized a lexical decision task to further investigate the stereotype activation patterns among the four clusters implicitly, using the same stimuli from Experiment 1. Pseudowords were also added, corresponding to the target words of Experiment 1. Participants were asked to identify whether the target word as a real word or pseudoword. Forty eight undergraduates (32 female, 19~25 years old, M = 20.64, SD = 1.93) participated in Experiment 2.

    Four (Social groups: HW-HC, HW-LC, LW-HC, LW-LC) × 2 (Consistency: consistent vs. inconsistent) repeated measure ANOVA were examined for response time and accuracy in both experiments. The results of Experiment 1 revealed classical stereotype activation patterns for HW-HC, HW-LC, LW-HC social groups while showing a reverse pattern for LW-LC social groups. Specifically, the participants responded more quickly and more accurately on consistent condition than on inconsistent condition for the former three clusters. However, when the prime stimuli were LW-LC social groups, the reverse was true; faster and more accurate response was shown for inconsistent condition rather than consistent condition. In Experiment 2, only real word trails were analyzed. The results of Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1. Therefore, classical stereotype activation patterns for HW-HC, HW-LC, LW-HC social groups and the reverse pattern of stereotype activation for LW-LC were relatively robust, both explicitly and implicitly, demonstrating the great differences among the stereotype activation patterns among these four clusters.

    The results of these two experiments partially support our hypothesis, while revealing an unforeseen reverse pattern of stereotype activation for LW-LC social groups. We hypothesize that this may be due to disgust elicited by LW-LC social groups. The present study expanded the research framework of stereotype activation and provided new behavioral evidence for the specificity of LW-LC. The mechanism underlying the reverse pattern of stereotype activation for LW-LC should be examined in the future.

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    The cumulative effects and relationship model of developmental assets used to reduce adolescent externalizing behaviors
    CHANG Shumin,ZHANG Liya,WANG Lingxiao
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2019, 51 (11): 1244-1255.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01244
    Abstract2676)   HTML12)    PDF (851KB)(3370)      

    Adolescent externalizing behaviors as a general and persistent form of maladaptiveness have received widespread attention. In the past, research in the field of developmental psychology has focused more on the impact of risk factors on adolescent externalizing behaviors. Although these studies had an important role in reducing these behaviors, focusing on positive factors not only can reduce adolescent externalizing behaviors, but can also replace externalizing behaviors by promoting the development of positive behaviors. In recent years, studies have begun to examine the impact of positive factors on adolescent externalizing behaviors, and have identified multiple positive factors in the prevention of these behaviors. Few studies, however, have explored the accumulative impact of positive factors on adolescent externalizing behaviors. Concerning this topic, the developmental assets model provided us with an ideal research tool. Based on this model, the present study used a longitudinal study design to examine the cumulative effects of multiple developmental assets on adolescent externalizing behaviors. In addition, this investigation also examined the relationship model between cumulative developmental assets and externalizing behaviors, as well as the possible moderating roles of gender in this model.

    A sample of 1, 219 adolescents were recruited from three middle schools in Shandong, China. Quantitative surveys were administered to participants in December, 2015 (T1) and December, 2016 (T2). Adolescents only participated in the first survey, completing a self-administered questionnaire involving demographic variables and developmental assets. The head teachers participated in both surveys and completed an assessment of the externalizing behaviors of the students in their class. A series of analyses were conducted using SPSS 22.0 software, including descriptive statistics and correlation analysis, logistic regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis.

    The results of the study were as follows: (1) the developmental assets had a cumulative effect on the reduction of adolescents’ current and subsequent externalizing behaviors. In the cumulative effects relationship model, there was a differentiation between current and subsequent externalizing behaviors, which was characterized by the nonlinear pattern of the quadratic function between cumulative developmental assets and current externalizing behaviors, and a linear pattern between cumulative developmental assets and subsequent externalizing behaviors. (2) The moderating effect of gender was only significant in the nonlinear relationship of the quadratic function between the cumulative developmental assets and current externalizing behaviors.

    In short, the present study is the first to demonstrate the cumulative effects of developmental assets on adolescent externalizing behaviors, as well as the relationship model of the cumulative effects and the moderating effect of gender underlying the relationship model. This study provides a basis for targeted asset construction and the prevention of adolescent externalizing behaviors.

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    The temporal process of visual word recognition of Chinese compound: Behavioral and ERP evidences based on homographic morphemes
    WU Jianshe,CHANG Jiabao,QIU Yinchen,Joseph DIEN
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (2): 113-127.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00113
    Abstract2672)   HTML3)    PDF (1973KB)(2814)      

    It is notoriously difficult to dissociate the processes of orthography, phonology, and semantics in visual word recognition. Using homographic morphemes in Chinese homographs, the present study attempts to further examine the time course of orthographic, phonological and semantic activation in a masked priming paradigm.

    Two-character compounds of Chinese were divided into such four conditions: Heterophonic-homography (“+O-P-S”, e.g., “作坊” / zuo1 fang / workshop), Homophonic-homography (“+O+P-S”, e.g., “作息” / zuo4 xi1 / work-and-rest), Identity (“+O+P+S”, e.g., “作诗” zuo4 shi1 / poetry-composing) and the control (“-O-P-S”, e.g., “账本” / zhang4 ben3 / account-book). Each of them served as a prime with both forward and backward masks and an SOA of 47ms, and was followed by the same target compound (e.g., “作画 / zuo4 hua4 / painting”) with its initial character being the same as those of the first three conditions. Two experiments were conducted, adopting a lexical decision task for Experiment 1 (behavioral) and a semantic categorization task for Experiment 2 (ERP) respectively.

    It was found that (1) the Heterophonic-homography, Homophonic-homography, and Identity conditions all induced morphological priming effects relative to the control condition; (2) in P200 (120~220 ms) and Late N400 (430~540 ms), the amplitude and waveform of Homophonic-homography was much more similar to that of the control condition, but was significantly different from those of the Heterophonic-homography and Identity conditions; (3) in Early-N400 (280~400 ms), the amplitude and waveform of Homophonic-homography was closer to that of the Identity condition, but was significantly different from that of Heterophonic-homography.

    The result indicates that the early stage of visual word recognition might be related to morpho-orthographic processing based on lexeme, in which orthographic similarity and phonological information may play an important role; however, the late stage of visual word recognition might be concerned with morpho-semantic processing based on lemma, which may involve meaning selection and lemma competition. The above findings tend to support Parallel Distributed Processing Model as advocated by McClelland and his associates.

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